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JAN 2 7 I35S • 



STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

DEPARTMENT OF WATER RESOURCES 

DIVISION OF RESOURCES PLANNING 






- 



Bulletin No. 3 






LIFORNIA 





R PLAN 



4>A 




UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA 

JUL 19 1957 V 



LIBRARY 



GOODWIN J. KNIGHT 

Governor 



May, 1957 
LTRRAKY 



HARVEY O. BANKS 

Director of Water Resources 



UNIVERSI l y CALIFORNIA 
DAVIS 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

University of California, Davis Libraries 



http://archive.org/details/californiawaterp03cali 



STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

DEPARTMENT OF WATER RESOURCES 

DIVISION OF RESOURCES PLANNING 



Bulletin No. 3 



The 



CALIFORNIA 



WATER PLAN 




GOODWIN J. KNIGHT /£ *■■ ,^> c\ HARVEY O. BANKS 

Governor lo-b -" J^ijk ml Director of Water Resources 



May, 1957 



This publication is dedicated to the memory of the late 
State Engineer of California, A. D. Edmonston. 

Mr. Edmonston, with an interest transcending the re- 
quirements of his office, developed and vigorously pro- 
pounded the fundamental concepts of state-wide compre- 
hensive development of California's water resources. 

Mr. Edmonston had acquired an interest in the State's 
water resources by 1924 when he entered State service. 
He was instrumental in the formulation of the State 
Water flan of 1930, which led to the authorization and 
subsequent construction of the Central Valley Project. 

As a direct result of Mr. Edmonston' s dedication and 
resolution, the first unit of The California Water Plan 
and the first truly State-wide water development in Cali- 
fornia — the Feather River Project — has been brought to 
fruition by legislative authorization and initiation of con- 
struction. 




A. D. EDMONSTON 
1886-1957 



FOREWORD 



California is presently faced with problems of a 
highly critical nature — the need for further control, 
protection, conservation, and distribution of her most 
vital resource — water. While these problems are not 
new, having been existent ever since the advent of 
the first white settlers, never before have they reached 
such widespread and serious proportions. Their criti- 
cal nature stems not only from the nnprecented re- 
cent growth of population, industry, and agriculture 
in a semiarid state, but also from the consequences 
of a long period during which the construction of 
water conservation works has not kept pace with the 
increased need for additional water. Unless corrective 
action is taken — and taken immediately — the conse- 
quenees may be disastrous. 

What are the principal water problems facing the 
people of California ? The most recently and tragically 
demonstrated problem — the floods of December, 1955 
— is still vivid in the memory of all. Taking the lives 
of 64 persons, destroying and damaging homes, farms, 
businesses, and utilities to the tangible toll of $200,- 
000,000, with great additional intangible losses to the 
general economy, the streams of northern and central 
( 'alifornia went on a rampage unparalled in recent 
history. 

Xot .so spectacular, but nonetheless significant, and 
(•(instantly evident, is the problem of water deficiency 
in many areas of the State. A critical need for supple- 
mental water supply now exists in many areas, includ- 
ing: Alameda, Santa Clara, and San Benito Comities; 
the east, west, and south portions of the San Joaquin 
Valley; Antelope Valley; Santa Maria Valley and 
Ventura County. The ground water basins in these 
areas are being pumped to the point of dangerous 
overdraft which threatens their welfare. There have 
been, for many years, severe overdrafts on the ground 
water basins in the South Coastal Area in Los An- 
geles, Orange, San Bernardino, and Riverside Coun- 
ties. An acute need for additional water exists in San 
Diego County, which will be temporarily alleviated by 
the construction of an additional aqueduct to convey 
presently surplus Colorado River water, as now au- 
thorized by The Metropolitan Water District of 
Southern California and the San Diego County Water 
Authority. The supply which can be made available 
to the South Coastal Area under rights to Colorado 
River waters, while not now fully utilized, will be 
fully committed and used by about 1970. By 1975, 
or possibly much earlier, all of southern California 
will need more water. Moreover, many of the moun- 
tainous areas, such as the Upper Feather River Basin 
and portions of the North Coastal Area, need water 



development works, not only for municipal and irriga- 
tion water but also to maintain stream How for preser- 
vation of fish and wildlife, and to enhance the recrea- 
tional potential, an important economic asset. 

The urgency of California's water problems can 
best be illustrated by citing the example of the recenl 
rapid growth of the State. In 1940, just before the 
beginning of World War II, California had a popu- 
lation of about 6,900,000. By 1950 this population 
had increased to about 10,600,000, and by 1955 it had 
increased an additional 23 per cent to more than 
13,000,000. In 1957 the population reached 14,000,000. 
Coincidentally, the use of water per capita has in- 
creased significantly and will continue to grow. In 
1950 the estimated seasonal shortage of developed 
water in California was about. 2,700,000 acre-feet, 
largely representing an overdraft on ground water 
storage. By 1955, water requirements had increased 
an additional 3,000,000 acre-feet per season. Allow- 
ing for the yield from new construction during the 
intervening period and for increase in the delivery of 
constructed works to their full potential wherever pos- 
sible, the deficit aggregated nearly 4,000,000 acre-feet 
per year. Although the bulk of this supplemental 
water is needed for irrigation purposes, substantial 
quantities are required for urban and domestic uses. 

Based upon reasonable forecasts of growth of the 
State during the next decade, it is indicated that the 
net shortage of developed water supply could amount 
to more than 10,000,000 acre-feet per season by 1965, 
taking into account increasing importations and de- 
liveries from presently developed water sources. 

The need for solution of the present and future 
water problems of California is clear. It is also dear 
from a study of the past history of water develop- 
ment in the State that the future growth of California 
will now depend upon a coordinated state-wide pro- 
gram for water development, The authorized Feather 
River Project, the first truly state-wide project, will 
be the first major step in this direction. However, 
even if the project were constructed and in operation 
today and serving all areas of water deficiency, it 
would barely overcome the deficiencies of the present. 
In other words, the large water supply to be gained 
from the Feather River Project is fully needed today. 
Furthermore, unless we assume that the population 
remains at present levels, one or more additional proj- 
ects of comparable size should be rapidly planned Eor 
construction in the near future. This fact should be 
cause for concern, for there is no reason to believe 
that our phenomenal recenl rate of growth will slow 
down now or in the near future. The responsibility of 



immediate initiation of a state-wide water develop- 
ment pfanning and construction program is particu- 
larly acute because of the often-demonstrated time 
lag between the planning stage and the financing and 
construction stage of any large-scale project. 

The State Legislature in 1947 authorized compre- 
hensive state-wide investigations and studies, which 
have culminated, after 10 years of intensive effort, in 
' ' The California Water Plan, ' ' a master plan to guide 
and coordinate the planning and construction by all 
agencies of works required for the control, protection, 
conservation, and distribution of California's water 
resources for the benefit of all areas of the State and 
for all beneficial purposes. 

What does "The California Water Plan" purport 
to do? 

1. It evaluates the water supply available to Cali- 
fornia and describes the places and characteristics 
of its occurrence. 

2. It estimates the water requirements, both 
present and future, for all purposes for each area 
of the State, as best as can be foreseen now. 

3. It points out (a) the watersheds where pres- 
ent estimates indicate surplus waters exist over and 
above the future needs for local development, and 
gives an estimate of such surplus, and (b) the areas 
of deficiency and the estimated deficiency for each 
such area. 

4. It outlines existing and prospective water 
problems in each area of the State. 

5. It describes the beneficial uses to which the 
remaining unappropriated waters of the State 
should be put for maximum benefit to the people 
of all areas of the State. 

6. It suggests the manner in which the waters of 
the State should be distributed for the benefit and 
use of all areas. 

7. It proposes objectives toward which future 
development of the water resources of the State 
should be directed in all areas of the State, and 



suggests broad patterns for guidance toward these 
objectives. 

8. It defines these objectives in terms of poten- 
tial physcial accomplishments, which may be used 
to measure the merits of projects proposed for con- 
struction by any agency. 

9. Finally, it demonstrates that the waters avail- 
able to the State of California, including the State 's 
rights in and to the waters of the Colorado River, 
are not only adequate for full future development 
of the land and other resources of the State, but 
also that physical accomplishment of these ob- 
jectives is possible. 

The California Water Plan must be implemented 
by a state-wide program for the construction of 
projects needed to control and supply water wherever 
and whenever the need arises and as projects are 
found feasible. Physical works for the control, pro- 
tection, development, and use of water do not pertain 
solely to the so-called "areas of deficiency." There 
are few areas which do not now or will not require 
physical works for the development of water re- 
sources. The job is a big one, and will require the 
combined efforts of the Federal Government, the 
State Government, and local agencies, as well as pri- 
vate entities and individuals, with the State logically 
taking a leading role in administration and coordina- 
tion as well as financing and construction. 

The Feather River Project, the initial unit of The 
California Water Plan, must be started immediately, 
and other projects must follow in the near future. 
The California Water Plan, a coordinated master 
plan, should be accepted as the general framework or 
pattern for future water development in the State. 
Finally, and this cannot be emphasized too strongly, 
solution of the water problems of California lies in 
the construction of physical works — not alone in laws 
and reservations of water, however necessary these 
may be as steps in the process. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Page 
V 



FOREWORD 

LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL, DEPARTMENT OF WATER RESOURCES X I 1 1 

LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL, STATE WATER BOARD X I V 

REPORT OF BOARD OF ENGINEERING CONSULTANTS ___ XV 

ACKNOWLEDGMENT X V I 

ORGANIZATION, DEPARTMENT OF WATER RESOURCES, DIVISION OF RESOURCES 

PLANNING XVII 

ORGANIZATION, DEPARTMENT OF WATER RESOURCES, STATE WATER BOARD _. _ XXII 

ORGANIZATION, CONSULTANTS XXIII 

ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGES XXIV 

SYNOPSIS i XXV 



CHAPTER I. Introduction 1 

Basis and Authority for State-wide Water 

Development Planning 2 

The State-wide AVater Resources Investigation 3 

Previous State-wide Planning 3 

Concurrent Related Investigations 4 

The California Water Development Program 4 

Feather River Project 4 

Salinity Control Barrier Investigation 5 

Inventory of Water Resources 5 

Other Proposals for Development of the State's 

Water Resources 5 

Scope of Planning Phase of State-wide Water 

Resources Investigation 5 

Concepts of Planning 6 

Planning Considerations 7 

Public Hearings on Preliminary Edition of Bulle- 
tin No. 3 8 

Organization of Bulletin 8 

CHAPTER II. WATER PROBLEMS OF 

CALIFORNIA 11 

Water Resources 11 

Precipitation 11 

Runoff 11 

Ground Water 13 

Water Requirements 13 

California's Water Problems 14 

Problem of Water Deficiency 15 

Problem of Floods 16 

Problem of Water Quality 18 

Problem of Production of Hydroelectric 

Energy 20 

Problems of Recreation, Fish, and Wildlife— 21 

Problem of Drainage 21 

Problem of Full Use of Available Storage 

Capacity 21 



Page 

CHAPTER III. WATER DEVELOPMENT 

PLANNING 23 

History of Water Resource Development 23 

Comprehensive Coordinated Planning at State- 
wide Level 29 

Planning for Development of California's 

Water 30 



Capture and Control of Water _ 
Conveyance to Areas of Need __ 
Reregulation in Areas of Use _ 
Development and Use of Water 

Development of Water 

1. Flood Control 



30 

30 

30 

30 

31 

31 

2. Recreation, Fish, and Wildlife 31 

3. Power Generation 33 

Use of Water 33 

1. Protection and Maintenance of Water 
Quality 33 

2. Maintenance of Drainage 34 

3. Subsidence 35 

CHAPTER IV. THE CALIFORNIA 

WATER PLAN _ 37 

Development to Meet Local Requirements 38 

North Coastal Area 38 

Klamath-Trinity Group 39 

Eel-Mad Group 42 

Russian River Group 44 

Pacific Basins Group 47 

Summary of North Coastal Area 49 

San Francisco Bay Area 52 

North Bay Group 54 

Southeast Bay Group _. 57 

Peninsula Group 61 

Summary of San Francisco Bay Area 62 

Central Coastal Area 62 

Santa Cruz-Pajaro Group 64 

San Benito Group 67 



TABLE OF CONTENTS-Continued 



Monterey-Carmel Group 

Salinas River Group 

Carrizo Plain 

San Luis Obispo Group 

Santa Maria Valley , 

Cuyama Valley 

Santa Barbara Group 

Summary of Central Coastal Area 

South Coastal Area 

Ventura Group 

Los Angeles-Santa Ana Group 

San Diego Group 

Summary of South Coastal Area 

Central Valley Area — Sacramento River 

Basin 

Goose Lake Unit 

Pit River Unit 

Mt. Shasta Stream Group 

Redding Stream Group 

West Side Stream Group 

Antelope-Butte Stream Group __ 

Feather River Unit 

Yuba-Bear River Unit 

American River Unit 

1. Basic Plan 

2. Modified Plan 

Sacramento Valley Floor 

Summary of Sacramento River Basin 

Central Valley Area — San Joaquin-Tulare 

Lake Basin 

San Joaquin-Sierra Group 

Tulare-Sierra Group 

West Side Group 

North Valley Group 

South Valley Group 

Summary of San Joaquin-Tulare Lake 
Basin 

Lahontan Area 

Lassen Group 

Alpine Group 

Mono-Owens Group 

Mojave Group 

Summary of Lahontan Area 

Colorado Desert Area 

Whitewater Group 

San Felipe Group 

Desert Valley Group 

Colorado River Group 

Summary of Colorado Desert Area 

California Aqueduct System 

Klamath-Trinity Division 

Klamath River Development 

Trinity River Development 

Clear Creek Development 

Summary of Klamath-Trinity Division 

Eel River Division 

Eel River Development 

Putah Creek Development 

Russian River Diversion 

Summary of Eel River Division __ ._ ___ 



69 
71 
71 

73 
74 

75 
76 
76 
81 
83 
87 
89 

91 

94 

96 

97 

99 

100 

104 

105 

109 

112 

113 

115 

116 

118 

119 
127 
133 
136 
136 
140 

143 
145 
149 
152 
155 
155 
157 
157 
161 
163 
163 
164 
164 
166 
166 
167 
167 
168 
172 
172 
173 
173 
174 



Page 

Sacramento Division 177 

Main West Side Conduit Route 178 

Other Features of Sacramento Division 180 

Summary of Sacramento Division 181 

Delta Division 185 

Trans-Delta System 186 

1. Biemond Plan 186 

2. Antioch Crossing 187 

3. Delta Pumping Plants 187 

Kirker Pass Aqueduct 189 

South Bay Aqueduct 189 

Summary of Delta Division 191 

San Joaquin Division 191 

Main Aqueduct Route 192 

-Central Coastal Aqueduct 194 

Carrizo-Cuyama Aqueduct 195 

Summary of San Joaquin Division 196 

Southern California Division 197 

Buena Vista-Cedar Springs Aqueduct 198 

San Fernando- Ventura Aqueduct 199 

Devil Canyon Power Development '. 200 

Chino-San Gabriel Aqueduct 200 

Second San Diego Aqueduct 200 

Barona Aqueduct 202 

San Diego High-Line Aqueduct 203 

Summary of Southern California Division ._ 203 
Utilization of Ground Water Storage 206 

Use of Ground Water Storage __ .___ 207 

Conjunctive Operation in the Central Valley 209 

Summary of The California Water Plan 211 

CHAPTER V IMPLEMENTATION OF THE 

CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 215 

Prerequisites to Implementation of The Califor- 
nia Water Plan 215 

Legal Considerations 215 

Water Rights 215 

1. Appropriative Rights 216 

2. Acquisition of Existing Rights 216 

3. Exchange of Water 216 

4. Rights of Areas of Origin and Areas of 
Deficiency 217 

Power of Eminent Domain__ . 218 

Planned Utilization of Ground Water Basins 219 

Relationships With Other Agencies 221 

1. Integration With Projects of Other Agen- 

cies 221 

2. The Federal Power Act __ 221 

Water Development for Fish and Wildlife 

and for Recreational Use 221 

Statutory Restrictions Upon Projects 222 

1. Klamath River 222 

2. American River 222 

Summary 222 

Some Economic Considerations ___ 223 

Some Considerations in Implementation of 

The California Water Plan 223 

1. Why Implement the Plan . ._ 223 

2. Control and Construction _ 223 



TABLE OF CONTENTS-Continued 



Page 

3. Determination of Need and Priority of 
Construction 224 

4. How Projects of the Plan Could Be Fi- 
nanced 225 

Cooperation 227 

Other Factors Affecting- Accomplishments of The 

California Water Plan 228 

Watershed Management 228 

Future Development of Electric Power 230 

Inherent Advantages of Hvdroelectric Power 

Plants 231 

Hydroelectric Power Plants for Peaking 

Operation 231 

Hydro-Steam Ratio and Prospects for Hydro- 
electric Peaking 232 

Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Power Plants 232 
Cost of Fossil Fuels and the Hydro-Steam 

Ratio 232 

Market for Hydroelectric Power Output 233 



Page 

Value of Hydroelectric Power Output 233 

Availability and Cost of Off-Peak Steam- 
Electric Energy for Pumping 233 

tmpact of Atomic-Electric Power 233 

Summary 234 

Needed Basic Investigation and Research 234 

Alternative of Lower Dams in North Coastal 

Area 235 

Alternative Future Development of Eigh 

Desert Areas 235 

CHAPTER VI. SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, 

AND RECOMMENDATIONS 239 

Summary 239 

Problems 239 

Concepts of The California Water Plan 240 

The California Water Plan - 242 

Implementation of The California Water Plan 243 

Conclusions 244 

Recommendations 245 



TABLES 



Page 

Estimated Mean Seasonal Full Natural Runoff of Hy- 
drographic Areas 12 

Present and Probable Ultimate Water Service Areas _ 14 

Estimated Present and Probable Uultimate Mean Sea- 
sonal Water Requirements 14 

Distribution of Water Resources and Requirements 15 

Mineral Standards for Drinking Water . 33 

Qualitative Classification of Irrigation Waters _ . _ _ 33 

Tentative Classification for Effective Salinity of Irri- 
gation Water _ 34 

Water Quality Limits for Water for Export at Points 
of Diversion at Southern Boundary of Sacramento- 
San Joaquin Delta 34 

Summary of Works to Meet Water Requirements in 
North Coastal Area 

Summary of Works to Meet Water Requirements in 
San Francisco Hay Area 

Summary of Works to Meet Water Requirements in 
Central Coastal Area _ . 

Summary of Works to Meet Water Requirements in 
South Coastal Area ._ . 

Summary of Works to Meet Water Requirements in 
Sacramento River Basin 

Summary of Works to Meet Water Requirements in 
San Joaquin-Tulare Lake Basin _ _ 14(i 

Summary of Works to Meet Water Requirements in 
Lahontan Area 158 

Land Use and Water Requirements. Colorado Desert 
Area . L62 

Summary of Klamath-Trinity Division, California 
Aqueduct System 170 

Summary of Capital Costs. Klamath-Trinity Division, 
California Aqueduct System 172 



Division, California Aqueduct 



-,() 



<;:•, 



120 



Page 
176 
177 
183 
185 
190 



Table 
No. 

19 Summary of Eel R 

System 

20 Summary of Capital Costs, Eel River Division. Califor- 

nia Aqueduct System . 

21 Summary of Sacramento Division, California Aqueduct 

System 

22 Summary of Capital Costs, Sacramento Division, Cali- 

fornia Aqueduct System 

23 Summary of Delta Division, California Aqueduct Sys- 

tem 

24 Summary of Capital Costs, Delta Division, California 

Aqueduct System 191 

25 Summary of San Joaquin Division, California Aque- 

duct System 196 

26 Summary of Capital Costs. San Joaquin Division. Cali- 

fornia Aqueduct System 197 

27 Summary of Southern California Division, California 

Aqueduct System 204 

28 Summary of Capital Costs. Southern California Divi- 

sion, California Aqueduct System 206 

29 Summary of Results of Conjunctive Operation of Sur- 

face Reservoirs and Ground Water Basin of the 
Central Valley ruder Conditions of Ultimate Water 
Requirements During the Critical Operation Period 
1926-27 Through 1935-36 

30 Summary of Features. Accomplishments, and Costs of 

Physical Works Under The California Water Plan _ 
Ml Summary of Ultimate Development and Transfer of 

Water Under The California Water Plan 

32 Reduction in Estimated Capital Cost of The California 
Water Plan. Assuming Projected Agricultural De- 
mand of High-Elevation Desert Lands Fails to 
Develop 



211 
212 
214 



PLATES 



Plate 
No. 

1 

3 

4 



Present Water Problems 

Geographical Distribution of Precipitation and Runoff 
Major Hydrographic Areas and Planning Groups 
Present and Ultimate Areas of Intensive Water Service 
Plans for Water Development Under The California 
Water Plan 



The California Aqueduct System 
Conjunctively Operated Storage in the Cen 
Ultimate Development and Transfer of W.- 
California Water Plan 



TABLE OF CONTENTS-Continued 



PHOTOGRAPHS 



Page 
A. D. Edmonstou, 1886-1957 III 

Klamath River ; San Joaquin Valley 10 

Break on Feather River Near Yuba City, December, 1955__ 17 

Recreation, Fish, and Wildlife 22 

Pardee Dam ; Contra Costa Canal 25 

Shasta Dam ; Delta-Mendota Canal 27 

Sacramento Weir on Sacramento River; Electra Power 

Plant on Mokelumne River 32 

North Coastal Area — Redwood Grove 40 

North Coastal Area Economic Activities — Recreation and 

Dairying 46 

San Francisco Bay Area 53 

San Francisco Bay Area — Napa Valley Grape Harvest 56 

Calaveras Reservoir on Calaveras Creek Provides Water 

for San Francisco Metropolitan Area 59 

Central Coastal Area — Point Lobos 65 

Nacimiento Reservoir on Nacimiento River Provides Water 

for Agricultural Uses in the Salinas Valley 72 

South Coastal Area — Los Angeles River 80 

South Coastal Area — Garvey Terminal Reservoir and F. E. 
Weymouth Softening and Filtration Plant in the Los 

Angeles Metropolitan Area 85 

South Coastal Area — Morris Dam on San Gabriel River, 
and Sepulveda Flood Control Reservoir on Los Angeles 

River 90 

Sacramento River Basin — Bear River Canal in the Sierra 

Nevada, Constructed in 1850 95 

Sacramento Valley — Agriculture and Navigation 101 

Genesee Valley in Feather River Basin ; Sacramento Valley 

— Foothill Hay Production 107 



Page 
Sacramento River Basin — Spaulding Dam on South Fork 
of Yuba River, and Fish Ladder at Daguerre Point 

Diversion Dam on Yuba River 111 

San Joaquin River Basin — Diversion Flume From Mokel- 
umne River 125 

San Joaquin River Basin — Headwaters and Delta 132 

San Joaquin River Basin — Cotton and Irrigated Pasture 137 

Exchequer Dam on Merced River ; Diversion Dam and 

Irrigation Canal Headgates on Kings River 144 

Lahontan Area — Donner Summit ; Arid Lands in Mono 
County 151 

Colorado Desert Area — Power From the Colorado River 160 

Colorado Desert Area — Colorado River Aqueduct Intake 
From Lake Havasu and Date Culture Near Indio 165 

Klamath-Trinity Division — Head of Tower House Tunnel 
of the Trinity Diversion Project 1 

Shasta Dam, Sacramento River ; Putah Diversion Dam, 
Putah Creek 179 

Sacramento Division — -Folsom and Nimbus Dams on the 
American River 182 

Delta Division — Delta Cross-Channel Headworks on the 
Sacramento River, and the Tracy Pumping Plant on Old 
River 188 

San Joaquin Division — The Delta-Mendota Canal and the 
Irrigated San Joaquin Valley 1 

Southern California Division — Morris Reservoir Near Pas- 
adena 201 

Hansen Spreading Grounds Near Burbank 209 

Sierra Nevada Snowfield 229 

Control, Distribution, and Utilization of Water 241 



Phofographs printed herein are shown, on the pages noted, through 
the courtesy of the following: 

PHOTOGRAPHS BY: Ansel Adams, 56, 65, b 72, 125, t 132, b 137, t 151; Bakersfield Chamber of Com 
merce, t 137; Bureau of Reclamation, U. S. Department of the Interior, tl 22, br 22, b 25, b 27, b 132, 169, 
tb 179, b 182, tb 188; Corps of Engineers, U. S. Army, b 90, t 144, t 182; Department of Fish and Game, 
State of California, bl 22, bill; Department of Water Resources, State of California, b 10, t 25, t 107 
b 144, 193; Division of Highways, State Department of Public Works, Frontispiece, t 10, 17, t 27, 40, 53, 
b 59, 80, t 101, b 151, 229; Eastman's Studio, Susanville, t 46; El Dorado County Chamber of Commerce 
tr 22, b 107; Eureka Chamber of Commerce, b 46; Los Angeles County Flood Control and Water Conserva 
tion District, 209; Monterey County Flood Control and Water Conservation District, t 72; Pacific Gas and 
Electric Company, b 32, 95, till; Pasadena Water Department, t 90, 201; Sacramento Bee, t 32; San Fran 
cisco Water Department, t 59; San Jose Chamber of Commerce, b 241; The Metropolitan Water District o 
Southern California, tb 85, 160, tb 165, c 241; The River Lines, Inc., b 101; Tuolumne County Chamber o 
Commerce, t 241. 

ABBREVIATIONS: t, top; e, center; b, bottom; r, right; I, left. 



APPENDIXES 

At the present time the Department of Water Resources plans to publish 
appendixes on those considerations basic to the formulation of The California 
Water Plan and on certain other factors affecting- the Plan. There follows a 
listing of these proposed appendixes, together with a general statement of their 
scope. 

A. Detailed engineering report on The California Water Plan, describing local 

and interbasin transfer projects on an individual basis. 

B. Basic assumptions, criteria, and procedures employed in formulating The 

California Water Plan. 

C. General geology of California, geologic conditions affecting the location and 

design of engineering works, and ground water geology. 

D. Utilization of ground water storage capacity, with particular reference to 

conjunctive operation of surface and underground reservoirs. 

E. Factors involved in maintenance of water quality. 

F. Effects of The California Water Plan on fish, wildlife, and recreation. 

G. Flood problems and existing project works ; flood control accomplishments 

of The California Water Plan. 

H. Economic and financial aspects of The California Water Plan. 

I. Water rights and attendant legal considerations and implications with re- 
spect to The California Water Plan. 

J. Potentialities of other means of increasing water supplies, such as sea-water 
conversion, waste-water reclamation, artificial increase of precipitation, 
and watershed management. 

K. Relationship of future power sources and energy requirements to The Cali- 
fornia Water Plan. 



LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL 




* RV D,L?TO B R ANKS ^S^=^ ADDRESS REPLY TO 

P. o. Box 1079 Sacramento 5 

1120N STREET G I LBERT 2 -47! I 



STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

Irparittttttt of Wnttr SrBnuraa 

SACRAMENTO 

May 6, 1957 
Honorable Goodwin J. Knight, Governor, and 
Members of the Legislature of the 
State of California 

Gentlemen : 

I have the honor to transmit herewith Bulletin No. 3 of the Department of 
Water Resources, entitled "The California Water Plan," as authorized by 
Chapter 1541, Statutes of 1947. 

Bulletin No. 3 presents a master plan to guide and coordinate the activities 
of all agencies in the planning, construction, and operation of works required 
for the control, development, protection, conservation, distribution, and utiliza- 
tion of California's water resources for the benefit of all areas of the State and 
for all beneficial purposes. 

It is believed that The California Water Plan provides the basis for achieving 
the most effective and comprehensive development of California's water re- 
sources. It is concluded that California does have enough water, including the 
State's present rights in and to the waters of the Colorado River, to satisfy the 
ultimate water needs if the available resources are wisely controlled, conserved, 
and distributed. The full solution of California's water problems thus becomes 
essentially a financial and engineering problem. 

Bulletin No. 3 contains recommendations that The California Water Plan be 
accepted by the Legislature as the general and coordinated master plan for the 
progressive and comprehensive future development of the water resources of 
California by all agencies; that adequate funds be provided by the Legislature 
for a continuing, more detailed study under the California Water Development 
Program ; that positive assurances be provided, to the maximum practicable 
extent, by constitutional amendment and legislative enactments, that water 
required to meet all future beneficial uses in all areas of the State will be avail- 
able in adequate quantity and quality when and where needed; that a long-range 
water development fund and enabling policies to assure the financing and con- 
struction of needed water development works in California be established: thai 
the financing and construction of the authorized Feather River Project be 
expedited; and that other presently needed water development works he under- 
taken immediately. 

Verv trulv vours, 



^L^o <^sg— 



II; 
l)i 
XIII 



LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL 



address all communications harvey o. 

to the Chairman director 

P. O. BOX 1079 
SACRAMENTO 5 



A. FREW, V[ 




JOHN P. BUNKER. GUSTINB 
EVERETT L. GRUBB. ELSIN^ 

W P. RICH. MARYSVILLE I 

STATE OF CALIFORNIA PHIL D SW,NG ' SAN DlEGO 

KENNETH Q. VOLK. Los ANC 



DEPARTMENT OF WATER RESOURCES 
STATE WATER BOARD 



May 8, 1957 

Mr. Harvey 0. Banks, Director 

Department of Water Resources 

401 Public Works Building 

Sacramento, California 

Dear Mr. Banks : 

The State-wide Water Resources Investigation, which culminated in The 
California Water Plan, was conducted under the direction of the State Water 
Resources Board, predecessor to the State Water Board, from its inception as 
provided in Chapter 1541, Statutes of 1947, until creation of the Department 
of Water Resources on July 5, 1956. 

Although the name and responsibilities of the Board have been changed, mem- 
bership on the two Boards has been continuous. Consequently, the members of 
the State Water Board, as a Board and individually, have the greatest interest 
in Bulletin No. 3, which presents The California Water Plan. 

This bulletin, which joins the years of work of the engineers, the efforts of 
the Board members and countless others, the findings of the public hearings, 
and the advice and counsel of the Board of Engineering Consultants, has been 
reviewed by and has the approval of the State Water Board. 

Very truly yours, 

Clair A. Hill 
Chairman 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF ENGINEERING 
CONSULTANTS 



May 8, 1957 



Mr. Harvey 0. Banks, Director, 
Department of Water Resources, 
P. 0. Box 1079, 

Sacramento 5, California 

Subject: Bulletin No. 3— The California Water Plan 

Dear Mr. Banks : 

This Board of Consultants was first retained on January 6, 1956 by the State Water Resources Board to 
review Bulletin No. 3, The California Water Plan. Upon establishment of the Department of Water Resources 
in July 1956, you reappointed the same members and assigned the same duties. Five meetings of this Board were 
held prior to July 1956 and six meetings thereafter. 

This Board of Consultants endorses the principle of long-range planning for full development and use of the 
water resources of California, where such plans are subject to continuing review. However, The California Water 
Plan, as presented in Bulletin No. 3, includes projects of doubtful economic justification and works of unproven 
physical feasibility. 

This Bulletin properly calls attention to the fact that the irrigation of desert areas involving net pumping 
lifts of several thousand feet is not now and may never be within the limits of economic justification and finan- 
cial feasibility. This Board believes that further study should be given to the extent and cost of the works that 
would be needed to supply water for the irrigation of such desert areas and that more positive estimates should 
be made of the cost of an Aqueduct System designed to serve all other areas and purposes throughout the State. 

This Board of Consultants endorses your recommendations: (a) that more detailed investigation and study be 
made of component features of The California Water Plan to determine their need, engineering feasibility, 
economic justification, financial feasibility, and recommended priority of construction; and (b) that there be 
continuing review, modification, and improvement of The California Water Plan in the light of changing condi- 
tions, advances in technology, additional data, and future experience. Such studies should include determination 
at then current price levels of: the capital and annual costs per acre-foot of water for its development and 
delivery within each hydrographic unit for use within the same area ; and the capital and annual costs per acre- 
foot of water for its development in areas of surplus and its transportation and delivery to each area of shortage. 

This Board of Consultants is confident that there is enough water in northern California, surplus to all poten- 
tial local needs, to satisfy all requirements for additional water in the San Francisco Bay Region, in the San 
Joaquin Valley, in the Central Coastal area, and south of the Tehachapi Mountains. It believes that continuing 
development of these water resources as needed is essential to the future welfare of this State. 

Accordingly, this Board recommends that the Legislature receive The California Water Plan as an evolving, 
continuing, coordinated proposal for the progressive and comprehensive future development of the water 
resources of California, and that this plan be commended to all agencies concerned with the development of these 
resources. This Board further recommends that no specific project be authorized for construction prior to detailed 
investigation of its engineering feasibility, economic justification, and financial feasibility. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Board op Consultants 

Walter I* Iluber 



_^£^£/fMz^4 



Samuel B. Morris 



A. H. Ayers 



^ ^**r*-^- 



Raymond A. Hill Ralph A. Tudor 

xv 



ACKNOWLEDGMENT 

Valuable assistance and data used in the investigation were contributed by 
agencies of the Federal Government and of the State of California, by cities, 
counties, public districts, and by private companies and individuals. This co- 
operation is gratefully acknowledged. 

Special mention is made of the helpful cooperation of the following : 

Bureau of Reclamation, United States Department of the Interior 

Corps of Engineers, U. S. Army 

Federal Power Commission 

Fish and Wildlife Service, United States Department of the Interior 

Forest Service, United States Department of Agriculture 

Geological Survey, United States Department of the Interior 

Soil Conservation Service, United States Department of Agriculture 

California Department of Fish and Game 

California Department of Public Works, Division of Highways 

California Public Utilities Commission 

University of California at Berkeley and at Davis 

East Bay Municipal Utility District 

Hetch Hetchy Water Supply, Power and Utilities Engineering Bureau, City 

of San Francisco 
The Metropolitan Water District of Southern California 
Department of Water and Power, City of Los Angeles 
San Diego County Water Authority 
City of San Diego 
Pacific Gas and Electric Company 
Southern California Edison Company 



ORGANIZATION 

STATE DEPARTMENT OF WATER RESOURCES 
DIVISION OF RESOURCES PLANNING 

HARVEY O. BANKS Director of Water Resources 

M. J. SHELTON Deputy Director of Water Resources 

WILLIAM L. BERRY Chief, Division of Resources Planning 

This bulletin was prepared under the supervision of 

JOHN M. HALEY 
Assistant Division Engineer 

by 

PRINCIPAL ASSISTANTS 

ALBERT J. DOLCINI Supervising Hydraulic Engineer OSWALD SPEIR Supervising Hydraulic Engineer 



NAEDILL P. THIEBAUD Principal Hydraulic Engineer MEYER KRAMSKY Supervising Hydraulic Engineer 

WiLLIAM L. HORN Supervising Hydraulic Engineer HAROLD B. KNIGHT Assistant Hydraulic Engineer 

Responsibility for planning activities and preparing pertinent 
sections of this bulletin was delegated to 

NORTH COASTAL AREA 

EDWARD D. STETSON 
Associate Hydraulic Engineer 

Assisted by 

HELEN J. PETERS Associate Hydraulic Engineer J. PRESTON CEDARHOLM Assistant Hydraulic Engineer 

RICHARD E. SLYFIELD ....... Associate Hydraulic Engineer STEPHEN H. CHAN ..... .. Assistant Hydraulic Engineer 

JACK G. WULFF .... Associate Hydraulic Engineer DONALD A. RALPH Assistant Hydraulic Engineer 

SAN FRANCISCO BAY AREA, RUSSIAN RIVER BASIN, AND MONTEREY COUNTY 

ALBERT J. DOLCINI 
Supervising Hydraulic Engineer 

Assisted by 

JICHARD W. MEFFLEY.. .Senior Hydraulic Engineer PHILLIP E. BENJAMIN, JR...... Assistant Hydraulic Engineer 

JEAN H. JAQUITH Associate Hydraulic Engineer HAROLD B. KNIGHT. ... Assistant Hydraulic Engineer 

ROBERT J. ROONEY Associate Hydraulic Engineer J. BURTON YORK . Assistant Civil Engineer 



SACRAMENTO VALLEY AREA 

MYER SAMUEL 
Supervising Hydraulic Engineer 

Assisted by 

STUART T. PYLE Senior Hydraulic Engineer CORTLAND C. LANNING Assistant Hydraulic Engine 

JACOB ANGEL Associate Hydraulic Engineer HERBERT M. MATSINGER, JR Assistant Hydraulic Engine 

G. DONALD MEIXNER, JR Associate Hydraulic Engineer GORDON N. BOYER Assistant Civil Engine 

SAM L. STRINGFIELD, JR Associate Hydraulic Engineer LOUIS R. MITCHELL Assistant Civil Engine 

JERRY D. VAYDER Associate Hydraulic Engineer JAMES E. ALVERSON Junior Civil Engine 

PHILIP H. SHEDD, JR Junior Civil Engineer 

SAN JOAQUIN VALLEY AREA 

ROBIN R. REYNOLDS 
Supervising Hydraulic Engineer 

Assisted by 

FRED E. BLANKENBURG. .Senior Hydraulic Engineer RICHARD G. FIELDS ...Assistant Hydraulic Engine*' 

ERWIN DAMES Associate Hydraulic Engineer JAMES C. SCHELER Assistant Hydraulic Engine*! 

HARRY E. ANDRUS Photogrammetrist II THOMAS P. WOOTTON Assistant Hydraulic Engine* 

AUGUST J. BILL Assistant Hydraulic Engineer WILLIAM H. BLACKMER Junior Civil Engine* 

ROBERT J. WAHL Junior Civil Engineer 

LAHONTAN AND COLORADO DESERT AREAS 

ROBERT O. THOMAS 
Supervising Hydraulic Engineer 

Assisted by 

THOMAS C. MACKEY Associate Hydraulic Engineer DONALD W. FISHER Junior Civil Enginee 

ROBERT R. STUART Assistant Hydraulic Engineer JOHN E. FLACK Junior Civil Engineer 

CALVIN H. MAGNUSON ......Junior Civil Engineer 

GROUND WATER STUDIES IN SACRAMENTO AND SAN JOAQUIN VALLEYS 
JOHN R. EATON Associate Civil Engineer ELDON E. RINEHART Associate Hydrographet 

Assisted by 

JOHN E. ANDERSON Assistant Hydraulic Engineer JAMES D. GOODRIDGE Assistant Civil Engineer 

FREEMAN H. BEACH Assistant Hydraulic Engineer WILLIAM G. BLAKE Engineering Aid II 

HAROLD T. VEDERA Assistant Hydraulic Engineer WILLIAM H. MILLER Engineering Aid II 



Sections of this bulletin dealing with work in the South Coastal Area, and in 

San Luis Obispo and Santa Barbara Counties, were prepared in the 

Southern California Branch Office under the direction of 

MAX BOOKMAN 
District Engineer 

and 

ROBERT M. EDMONSTON 
Principal Hydraulic Engineer 



by 

LUCIAN J. MEYERS THOMAS M. STETSON 

Supervising Hydraulic Engineer anc ' Senior Hydraulic Engineer 

Assisted by 

ROBERT H. BORN Associate Hydraulic Engineer ARNOLD F. NICOLAUS Associate Hydraulic Engineer 

HAROLD M. CROOKER Associate Hydraulic Engineer DAVID O. POWELL Associate Hydraulic Engineer 

; PAUL E. HOOD Associate Hydraulic Engineer HUGO J. HANSON Associate Civil Engineer 

: JOHN O. McCLURG Associate Hydraulic Engineer RICHARD E. ANGELOS Assistant Hydraulic Engineer 

THOMAS A. SANSON Assistant Hydraulic Engineer 

Geologic studies in southern California 
were performed by 

LAURENCE B. JAMES Supervising Engineering Geologist ROBERT G. THOMAS Senior Engineering Geologist 

GLENN A. BROWN Associate Engineering Geologist 

Water quality studies in southern California 
were performed by 

DAVID B. WILLETS Supervising Hydraulic Engineer ROBERT F. CLAWSON Associate Hydraulic Engineer 

Staff activities, including criteria, procedures, surveys, 
mapping, and statistical services 

MEDILL P. THIEBAUD 
Principal Hydraulic Engineer 

Assisted by 

DONALD P. THAYER Principal Engineer, Design and SAMUEL A. WILLIAMS Junior Civil Engineer 

Construction of Dams CARL G. B. PETERSON Engineering Aid II 

RICHARD W. JOHNSON Senior Electrical Engineer CHARLES D. SKINKLE ..Engineering Aid II 

E. PHILIP WARREN Associate Statistician WILLIAM W. GEDDES Junior Engineering Aid 

GEORGE D. WINKELBLACK.... Photogrammetrist I WILLIAM B. CHASTAIN Engineering Aid I 



The following personnel have given special assistance to various 
studies related to the investigation 

WALTER A. BROWN Principal Engineer, Design and JOHN W. KEYSOR Senior Engineer, Design and 

Construction of Dams Construction of Dams 

WILLIAM R. GIANELLI Principal Hydraulic Engineer JACK J. COE Senior Hydraulic Engineer 

JOSEPH I. BURNS..... Supervising Hydraulic Engineer JOHN W. SHANNON Land and Water Use Specialist 

ROY N. HALEY ..Associate Soil Technologist 

Geologic studies were performed under the direction of 



ELMER C. MARLIAVE 
Supervising Engineering Geologist 

by 

ROBERT T. BEAN 
Supervising Engineering Geologist 






Assisted by 

DAVID M. HILL Senior Engineering Geologist WILFERD W. PEAK Senior Engineering Geologist 

PHILIP J. LORENS Senior Engineering Geologist WALLACE D. FUQUA Associate Engineering Geologist 

COLE R. McCLURE, JR Senior Engineering Geologist HAROLD D. WOODS Associate Engineering Geologist ' 

Water quality studies were performed under the direction of 

CARL B. MEYER 
Principal Hydraulic Engineer 

by 

CARLETON E. PLUMB 
Senior Hydraulic Engineer 

Assisted by 

CHARLES G. WOLFE Senior Hydraulic Engineer MATHIAS HILLING Assistant Civil Engineer 

WILLIAM DURBROW, JR Associate Hydraulic Engineer ROBERT F. MIDDLETON, JR. Assistant Civil Engineer 

GORDON A. RICKS Associate Hydraulic Engineer EARL MOLANDER, JR Assistant Civil Engineer 

JOHN E. STELLWAGEN Assistant Civil Engineer 

Power studies were made in consultation with, and reviewed by 
FREDERICK J. GROAT, Supervising Electric Utilities Engineer, and RICHARD W. JOHNSON, Senior Electrical Engineer 






Economic studies were performed by 

NORMAN D. STURM 
Supervising Economist 

Assisted by 

JAMES W. THURSBY 
Senior Economist 



Legal studies were performed by 



FORMER DIVISION OF WATER RESOURCES 



fENRY HOLSINGER Principal Attorney GAVIN M. CRAIG Senior Attorney 

(now Chairman, State Water Rights Board) (now Principal Attorney, State Water Rights Board) 
IRVING PFAFFENBERGER Senior Attorney 

DEPARTMENT OF WATER RESOURCES 

ORTER A. TOWNER Chief Counsel MARK C. NOSLER Senior Attorney 

RUSSELL KLETZI NG Associate Attorney 

Maps and plates for the report were prepared under the supervision of 

JOHN L. JAMES 
Supervisor of Drafting Services 

ADMINISTRATIVE 

"HEODORE R. MERRYWEATHER Administrative Officer LENORE N. CASE ..... Senior Stenographer-Clerk 

SABEL C. NESSLER Coordinator of Reports H. ARLENE STEVENS Senior Typist-Clerk 



ORGANIZATION 



DEPARTMENT OF WATER RESOURCES 
STATE WATER BOARD 

CLAIR A. HILL, Chairman, Redding 

A. FREW, Vice Chairman, King City 
JOHN P. BUNKER, Gustine W. P. RICH, Marysville 

EVERETT L. GRUBB, Elsinore PHIL D. SWING, San Diego 

KENNETH Q. VOLK, Los Angeles 



SAM R. LEEDOM 
Administrative Assistant 



CONSULTANTS 

BOARD OF ENGINEERING CONSULTANTS FOR REVIEW OF 
THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 

RAYMOND A. HILL, Chairman, Los Angeles 
A. H. AYERS, San Francisco SAMUEL B. MORRIS, Los Angeles 

WALTER L. HUBER, San Francisco RALPH A. TUDOR, San Francisco 



ENGINEERING CONSULTANTS FOR REVIEW OF THE CALIFORNIA 
WATER PLAN FOR THE AMERICAN RIVER BASIN 

JOHN S. COTTON, Kentfield 

and 

LLOYD LUCKS, Kentfield 



ENGINEERING CONSULTANT FOR 
REVIEW OF PROCEDURES 

FREDERICK L. HOTES, Associate Professor of Civil Engineering 
University of California 



ENGINEERING CONSULTANT FOR REVIEW 
OF GROUND WATER STUDIES 

FRANK B. CLENDENEN, Assistant Professor of Civil Engineering 
University of California 



SPECIAL CONSULTANT FOR ORGANIZATION OF BULLETIN 

MASON A. JOHNSTON, Instructor of Public Speaking, Sacramento Junior College 



Studies of fish and wildlife problems were conducted in cooperation with 
the California Department of Fish and Game 

SETH GORDON Director 

ROBERT M. PAUL Water Projects Coordinator 

RICHARD J. HALLOCK Senior Fisheries Biologist 

DAVID E. PELGEN Senior Fisheries Biologist 

LEONARD O. FISK Assistant Fisheries Biologist 



ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGES 



The State-wide Water Resources Investigation, re- 
sulting- in the formulation of The California Water 
Plan, was authorized by the State Legislature in 1947 
and initiated on September 5, 1947, under direction of 
the former State Water Resources Board. Royal Miller 
was Chairman of the Board at the inception of the 
investigation, being succeeded by C. A. Griffith who, 
in turn, was succeeded by Clair A. Hill. 

Changes in the membership of the Board were 
occasioned by the deaths of Messrs. L. S. Ready and 
B. A. Etcheverry; the retirements of Messrs. Royal 
Miller, H. F. Cozzens, C. A. Griffith, and R. ' V. 
Meikle; and the subsequent appointments of Messrs. 
Hill, W. P. Rich, A. Frew, and W. Penn Rowe. Upon 
the redesignation of the State Water Resources Board 
as the "State Water Board" on July 5, 1956, Messrs. 
John P. Bunker, Kenneth Q. Volk, and Everett L. 
Grubb were appointed as members, and W. Penn 
Rowe resigned to accept an appointment with the 
newly created State Water Rights Board. 

Phil D. Swing is the only member of the State 
Water Board who has had continuous service since 
creation of the State Water Resources Board in 1945. 

Edward Hyatt was State Engineer and Secretary 
of the State Water Resources Board at the inception 
of the State-wide Water Resources Investigation in 
1947. The significant broadening of state policy relat- 
ing to flood control and water conservation, encom- 
passed in the State Water Resources Act of 1945, 
largely reflected Mr. Hyatt 's enlightened and progres- 
sive thinking in these matters. 

As State Engineer from 1927 to 1950, Mr. Hyatt 
directed the surveys which culminated in formulation 
of the State Water Plan, predecessor to The Califor- 
nia Water Plan. Moreover, he was instrumental in 
initiation of the investigations which led to The Cali- 
fornia Water Plan, and determined many of the con- 
cepts upon which it is based. 

A. D. Edmonston succeeded Mr. Hyatt as State 
Engineer in 1950. He vigorously carried forward the 
work on The California Water Plan, and was directly 
responsible for the authorization of the Feather River 
Project as the initial unit of the Plan. He retired on 
November 1, 1955. 

Harvey 0. Banks succeeded Mr. Edmonston and 
remained State Engineer until July 5, 1956, when 
the office of State Engineer was abolished and the 
Department of Water Resources was created. 



The State-wide Water Resources Investigation wa® 
conducted successively under the general direction of] 
Assistant State Engineers A. D. Edmonston; P. II. 
Van Etten, until his retirement on June 15, 1951 ; 
Thomas B. Waddell, until his retirement on Novem-' 
ber 1, 1955 ; and William L. Berry, until July 5, 1956, 
when the Department of Water Resources was cre- 
ated. Since the latter date, the organization of the 
Department has been as shown on page xvn. 

During the final phase of the State-wide Water Re- 
sources Investigation, culminated by the preparations 
of this bulletin, a major change in the status of this* 
organization has taken place pursuant to Chapter 52, 
Statutes of 1956, effective on July 5, 1956. The statute; 
created the State Department of Water Resources, . 
which succeeded to and was vested with all of the! 1 
powers, duties, purposes, responsibilities, and jurisdic- 
tion in matters pertaining to water or dams formerly 
vested in the Department and Director of Public- 
Works, the Division of Water Resources of the De- 
partment of Public Works, the State Engineer, and 
the Water Project Authority. The Department of 
Water Resources also succeeded to and was vested I 
with the powers, duties, purposes, responsibilities, and I 
jurisdiction of the Department of Finance under Part 
2 of Division 6 of the Water Code. 

In addition, the former State Water Resources 
Board was redesignated the "State Water Board," 
and was placed within the Department of Water Re- 
sources to confer with, advise, and make recommen- 
dations to the Director with respect to any matters 
and subjects under his jurisdiction. 

Finally, the State Water Rights Board was created, . 
which board succeeded to and was vested with all 
of the powers, duties, purposes, responsibilities, and 
jurisdiction formerly vested in the Department and 
Director of Public Works, the Division of Water Re- 
sources of the Department of Public Works, and the 
State Engineer, regarding the adjudication of water 
rights, and the issue, denial, or revocation of permits 
or licenses to appropriate water. 

It should be pointed out at this time that the au- 
thority and responsibilities of the former State Water 
Resources Board, relative to the conduct of the Slate- 
wide Water Resources Investigation, special investiga- 
tions, and the preparation of this bulletin, are now- 
vested wholly in the Department of Water Resources. 



SYNOPSIS 



This is the final of a series of three bulletins setting 
forth the results of the State-wide Water Resources 
Investigation, which has been in progress for the past 
10 years under provisions of Chapter 1541, Statutes 
of 1947. This investigation entailed a three-fold pro- 
gram of study to evaluate the water resources of 
California, to determine present and probable ulti- 
mate water requirements, and to formulate plans for 
the orderly development of the State's water re- 
sources to meet its ultimate water requirements. 
Funds to meet the cost of the investigation were pro- 
vided by the cited statute and subsequent budgetary 
acts of the Legislature. 

The first phase of the State-wide Water Resources 
Investigation comprised an inventory of data on 
sources, quantities, and characteristics of water in 
California. The results are available in State Water 
Resources Board Bulletin No. 1, "Water Resources 
of California," published in 1951. This bulletin 
comprises a concise compilation of data on precipita- 
tion, runoff of streams, flood flows and frequencies, 
and quality of water throughout the State. 

The second phase dealt with present and ultimate 
requirements for water. The associated report, State 
Water Resources Board Bulletin No. 2, "Water Uti- 
| lization and Requirements of California," was pub- 
lished in 1955. This study comprised determinations 
of the present use of water throughout the State for 
all consumptive purposes, and forecasts of ultimate 
water requirements based in general on the capabil- 
ities of the land to support further balanced develop- 
ment. 

The final phase of the State-wide Water Resources 
Investigation is presented herein as "The California 
AVater Plan." Bulletin No. 3 describes a comprehen- 
sive master plan for the control, protection, conserva- 
tion, distribution, and utilization of the waters of 
California, to meet present and future needs for all 
beneficial uses and purposes in all areas of the State 
to the maximum feasible extent. The Plan is designed 
to include or supplement rather than to supersede 
existing water resource development works, and does 
not interfere with existing rights to the use of water. 

The objective in the formulation of The California 
Water Plan has been to provide a logical, engineering 
basis for future administration of the water resources 
of the State and for coordination of the efforts of all 
"lit i ties engaged in the construction and operation of 
water development projects, to the end that maximum 
benefit to all areas and peoples of the State may 
ultimatelv be achieved. 



The California Water Plan includes local works to 
meet local needs in all portions of the State. It also 
includes the California Aqueduct System, an unpre- 
cedented system of major works to redistribute excess 
waters from northern areas of surplus to areas of 
deficiency throughout the State. The Plan gives con- 
sideration to water conservation and reclamation ; to 
flood contro 1 and flood protection ; to the use of water 
for agricultural, domestic, municipal, and industrial 
purposes; to hydroelectric power development; to 
salinity control and protection of the quality of fresh 
waters; to navigation; to drainage; and to the inter- 
ests of fish, wildlife, and recreation. It contemplates 
the conjunctive operation of surface and ground wa- 
ter reservoirs, which operation will be essential to 
regulation of the large amounts of water ultimately 
to be involved. 

The very magnitude of the task involved in formu- 
lation of The California Water Plan was such that 
detailed surveys and studies, and economic and finan- 
cial analyses, could not be undertaken in this initial 
phase of investigation. At this stage of its develop- 
ment, therefore, the Plan must be regarded as no 
more than a broad and flexible pattern into which 
future definite projects may be integrated in an or- 
derly fashion. As additional data and experience are 
gained, as technology advances, and as future con- 
ditions change in manners that cannot be foreseen 
today, The California Water Plan will be substan- 
tially altered and improved. However, the basic con- 
cept of the Plan as a master plan to meet the ultimate 
requirements for water at some unspecified but dis- 
tant time in the future, when the land and other 
resources of California have essentially reached a 
state of complete development, will remain un- 
changed. 

Voluminous data and information have been com- 
piled and assembled in connection with preparation 
of The California Water Plan. It is realized that the 
need of the general public, on the one hand, is for 
a summary report with a minimum of technical de- 
tail but containing all of the information essential to 
an adequate understanding of the Plan. The need of 
engineering and other professional people, on the 
other hand, is for more detailed technical information 
which would be of minor interest to the general pub- 
lic. Therefore, publication has been set up to meet 
these separate needs — Bulletin No. 3 itself to meet 
the general need and the several appendixes to Bul- 
letin No. 3 to meet the engineering and other technical 
needs. 



Bulletin No. 3 consists of a summary report on The 
California Water Plan. It discusses available water 
resources, present and probable ultimate water re- 
quirements, and associated problems. It describes the 
development works that may be necessary to meet 
local requirements, and the interbasin transfer facil- 
ities which could convey water from nothern areas of 
surplus to major areas of deficiency in the central and 
southern parts of the State. It also discusses briefly 
the basic considerations in implementation of The 
California Water Plan and the possible accomplish- 
ments accruing therefrom. 

The several appendixes will present a more de- 
tailed engineering report on The California Water 
Plan, reports on geology and other technical subjects, 
as well as reports by other agencies concerned in 
specific phases of the investigations. All of these ap- 



pendixes are listed in the Table of Contents and are 
described in more detail in Chapter I. 

It should be mentioned at this time that although 
the publication of Bulletin No. 3 completes the State- 
wide Water Resources Investigation, it by no means 
signifies the termination of planning activities by the 
Department of Water Resources. Rather, it marks 
only the beginning of an intensive and continuing 
program of study of the needs for specific local and 
state-wide water development projects, analysis oq 
their economic justification and financial feasibility, 
and determination of the recommended priority of' 
their construction, using The California Water Plan 
as a general guide. This study program, known as 
the "California Water Development Program," willi 
enable the planning endeavor to keep pace with the 
needs of a rapidly growing State. 



CHAPTER I 

INTRODUCTION 



Today, the future agricultural, urban, and indus- 
trial growth of California hinges on a highly impor- 
tant decision, which is well within the power of the 
people to make. We can move forward with a thriving 
economy by pursuing a vigorous and progressive 
water development planning and construction pro- 
gram; or we can allow our economy to stagnate, per- 
haps even retrogress, by adopting a complacent atti- 
tude and leaving each district, community, agency, 
or other entity to secure its own water supply as 
best it can with small regard to the needs of others. 
The choice of these alternatives is clear. The need for 
coordinated planning on a state-wide basis has long 
been realized. Comprehensive plans have been formu- 
lated and reported upon in the past, and noteworthy 
accomplishments have been achieved by local enter- 
prise and private and public agencies. But despite 
the great water development projects constructed in 
the past, California's water problems continue to 
grow day by day. 

The construction of highways, schools, hospitals, 
and other public works has greatly accelerated since 
the end of World War II. However, to supply its 
necessary water, California is relying for the most 
part on works which were designed to meet the needs 
as anticipated 20 to 30 years ago. These facts are now 
becoming known and more generally understood by 
the people. It is apparent to most that the continued 
growth and prosperity of California is dependent 
upon prompt and substantial efforts by the respon- 
sible local governmental agencies, the State, and the 
Federal Government to ensure that the planning and 
construction of water development projects keeps pace 
with the growing needs for water. 

The population of California has continued to grow 
at a phenomenal rate, and irrigated agriculture and 
industrial activity have increased proportionately. 
This recent rapid expansion of the economy has oc- 
curred largely in areas of inherent water deficiency, 
thus intensifying the problem in those areas. While 
in most instances the increases in water requirements 
are physically being met, they are provided for by 
drawing on diminishing ground water reserves in 
order to meet the deficiency. Such perennial overdraft 
has been increasing rapidly in recent years and has 
resulted in accelerated lowering of ground water 
levels in many parts of the State. 

Effects of these overdrafts are presently manifested 
in the intrusion of sea water into the principal pump- 
ing aquifers of a number of coastal ground water 
basins, and the threat of such intrusion into others. 



Certain inland ground water basins have experienced 
degradation in quality of their fresh waters by mix- 
ture with underlying entrapped connate brines (i.e., 
salt water entrapped when the formation was de- 
posited) or other waters of undesirable mineral qual- 
ity. Furthermore, overdraft conditions may result in 
an accumulation of excess minerals or salts in a 
ground water basin, which in a period of time may 
degrade the water quality beyond acceptable limits. 
Thus, it is evident that continuing overdrafts will not 
only drastically reduce the reserves in storage, with 
possible exhaustion in some cases, but in many in- 
stances will irreparably damage the immensely valu- 
able ground water reservoirs unless supplemental 
water supplies are developed. 

While experiencing problems of water deficiency on 
the one hand, California is presently faced with the 
anomaly of other problems of the exact opposite 
nature — that of periodic floods which result in major 
damage and loss of life. Ironically, in many cases the 
same areas suffering deficiency in water supplies are 
besieged with winter floods when the water, so ur- 
gently needed for the economy, wastes to the ocean, 
accomplishing nothing but damage and grief. His- 
torically, agricultural and urban development has 
occurred largely in valleys and on plains inherently 
subject to flooding. With the intensification of agri- 
culture and expansion of urban and industrial areas, 
future flood problems will become more severe unless 
remedial action is taken. 

Concurrently with the expanding population and 
increasing irrigation and industrial development in 
the valleys and metropolitan areas of the State, there 
has been increasing pressure for enhancement of fish 
and wildlife resources and for the provision of ade- 
quate recreational opportunities, particularly in the 
hill and mountainous areas. If these needs are to be 
adequately met, provision must be made therefor in 
future water development through development of 
water areas and live streams. 

The magnitude of the foregoing water problems 
may be better appreciated by referring to Plate 1, 
entitled "Present Water Problems." The 1947 Legis- 
lature, recognizing these problems and appreciating 
the role of water in the future of the State, directed 
that the water resources and present and future water 
requirements of California be studied and evaluated, 
and that plans be formulated for the orderly develop- 
ment of the State's water resources to meet its ulti- 
mate water requirements. This directive initiated the 
"State-wide Water Resources Investigation," which 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



has been under way for the past 10 years, culminating 
in the preparation of this bulletin. 

BASIS AND AUTHORITY FOR STATE-WIDE 
WATER DEVELOPMENT PLANNING 

The principle of state-wide planning for develop- 
ment of California's water resources is no innovation. 
Development of the water resources of California has 
long been recognised as a primary responsibility of 
the State. Expressions of state policy regarding water 
supply development are found in the State Constitu- 
tion and numerous court decisions. The State Water 
Code incorporates the following pertinent sections 
which constitute the basis for a state-wide water de- 
velopment plan : 

"100. It is hereby declared that because of the 
conditions prevailing in this State the general wel- 
fare requires that the water resources of the State 
be put to beneficial use to the fullest extent of which 
they are capable, and that the waste or unreason- 
able use or unreasonable method of use of water be 
prevented, and that the conservation of such water 
is to be exercised with a view to the reasonable and 
beneficial use thereof in the interest of the people 
and for the public welfare. . . . 

"102. All water within the State is the property 
of the people of the State, but the right to the use 
of water may be acquired by appropriation in the 
manner provided by law. 

"104. It is hereby declared that the people of 
the State have a paramount interest in the use of 
all the water of the State and that the State shall 
determine what water of the State, surface and un- 
derground, can be converted to public use or con- 
trolled for public protection. 

"105. It is hereby declared that the protection 
of the public interest in the development of the 
water resources of the State is of vital concern to 
the people of the State and that the State shall de- 
termine in what way the water of the State, both 
surface and underground, should be developed for 
the greatest public benefit. 

"12578. It is hereby declared that the people of 
the State have a primary interest in the control and 
conservation of flood waters, prevention of damage 
by flood waters, the washing away of river and 
stream banks by floods, and in the determination 
of the manner in which flood waters shall be con- 
trolled for the protection of life and property and 
the control, storage, and use of the State's water 
resources in the general public interest. 

"12579. It is hereby declared that recurrenl 
Hoods on streams and rivers, and other waterways 
of the State, causing loss of life and property, dis- 
ruption of commerce, interruption of transportation 



and communications, and wasting of water, are det- 
rimental to the peace, health, safety, and welfare 
of the people of the State. The control, storage and 
full beneficial use of flood waters, and the preven- 
tion of damage by flood waters, and the washing 
away of river and stream banks by floods are proper 
functions and activities of the State, in cooperation 
with counties, cities, state agencies and public dis- 
tricts, and in cooperation with the United States, 
or any of its departments or agencies. 

"12580. It is further declared that the State 
should engage in the study and coordination of all 
water development projects, including flood control 
projects, undertaken by counties, cities, state agen- 
cies and public districts, and the United States or 
any of its departments or agencies in order that 
such allocations and appropriations as are made 
by the State Legislature for such purposes will be 
expended upon those projects which are most bene- 
ficial to the State, and which will bring maximum 
benefits to the people of the State from the expendi- 
ture of public funds, and also that the State should 
participate in the construction of flood control 
works and projects and render beneficial aid thereto, 
when the benefits are in excess of the estimated cost. 

"12581. In studying water development proj- 
ects, full consideration shall be given to all bene- 
ficial uses of the State's water resources, including 
irrigation, generation of electric energy, municipal 
and industrial consumption of water and power, 
repulsion of salt water, preservation and develop- 
ment of fish and wildlife resources, and recreational 
facilities, but not excluding other beneficial uses of 
water, in order that recommendations may be made 
as to the feasibility of such projects and for the 
method of financing feasible projects. 

"12582. Fish and wildlife values, both economic 
and recreational, shall be given consideration in any 
flood control or water conservation program. ..." 

To implement state policy, the State Water Re- 
sources Board was established by legislative enactment 
in 1945, and was endowed with broad powers to initi- 
ate and conduct investigations of the water resources 
of the State. The Board was vested with the responsi- 
bility for conduct of the State-wide Water Resources 
Investigation by Chapter 1541, Statutes of 1947. 
Funds were provided in the 1947-48 budget for com- 
mencement of the investigation, and the Budget Acts 
of 1948 and subsequent years have made appropria- 
tions for completion of the investigation and for 
preparation of reports thereon. 

During the final phase of the State-wide Water lie- 
sources Investigation, major functions of the State 
Water Resources Hoard were radically changed by 
provisions of Chapter 52. Statutes of 1956. This statute 



INTRODUCTION 



created the Department of Water Resources which 
succeeded to the responsibilities of the former Board 
for initiating- and conducting' water resources inves- 
tigations. 

THE STATE-WIDE WATER RESOURCES 
INVESTIGATION 

The State-wide Water Resources Investigation has 
been conceived and developed as a fundamental, com- 
prehensive survey, designed to serve as the basis for a 
logical and orderly pattern of development of the 
State's water resources. The first phase of the investi- 
gation consisted of an inventory of the basic water 
resources of California. All available data on sources, 
quantities, and characteristics have been evaluated, 
and the results are presented in State Water Resources 
Board Bulletin No. 1, "Water Resources of Califor- 
nia," published in 1951. This bulletin contains a 
compilation of data on precipitation, natural stream 
runoff, flood flows and frequencies, and quality of 
water throughout the State. 

The second major phase of the State-wide Water 
Resources Investigation dealt with present and ulti- 
mate requirements for water. Its findings are published 
in State Water Resources Board Bulletin No. 2, "Wa- 
ter Utilization and Requirements of California," June. 
1955. This bulletin includes determinations of the 
present use of water throughout the State for all con- 
sumptive purposes, and presents forecasts of probable 
ultimate requirements based, in general, on the capa- 
bilities of the land to support further development. 
The bulletin also discusses implications of non- 
consumptive requirements for water as they relate to 
planning for the future. 

The foregoing studies provide basic data for the 
third and concluding phase of the State-wide Water 
Resources Investigation, presented herein. This phase 
correlates the determinations of water resources and 
ultimate requirements established in Bulletins Nos. 1 
and 2, and, based on these findings, formulates The 
California Water Plan for satisfying these require- 
ments, insofar as practicable, as well as for the 
solution of the State's many other water problems 

PREVIOUS STATE-WIDE PLANNING 

The State-wide Water Resources Investigation, al- 

| though the first truly comprehensive effort to evolve 

( a complete state-wide plan for ultimate water supply 

1 development, has been preceded by a number of studies 

that approach it in scope a ml magnitude. 

The first broad investigation of the irrigation prob- 
1 lem of California was made by a board of commis- 
sioners authorized by Congress and appointed by the 
President. The commission's report on "The Irriga- 
tion of the San Joaquin. Tulare, and Sacramento 



Valleys of the State of California" was published by 
the House of Representatives in 1*74 as Ex. Doc. No. 
290, Forty-third Congress, First Session. It outlined 
a hypothetical irrigation system for the San Joaquin, 
Tulare, and Sacramento Valleys. Other investigations 
by federal and state agencies followed during the 
next several decades, the most noteworthy of which 
were made by Wm. Ham. Hall, State Engineer from 
1878 to 1889. His reports contain meteorological and 
stream flow data, with notes on irrigation, drainage, 
and flood control, all of which proved of great value 
in planning water developments in the years that 
followed. 

The most comprehensive recent investigations of the 
water resources of California were those made by the 
State Engineer under authority of acts of the Legisla- 
ture in 1921, 1925, and 1929. First reports of these 
investigations were presented in Division of Engineer- 
ing and Irrigation Bulletins Nos. 4, 5, and 6, and in 
Division of Water Resources Bulletins Nos. 9, 12, 13, 
14, and 20. A report giving results of subsequent 
investigations, and outlining revised proposals, was 
published in 1930 as Division of Water Resources 
Bulletin No. 25, entitled "Report to Legislature of 
1931 on State Water Plan." It outlined a coordinated 
plan for conservation, development, and utilization of 
the water resources of California. The plan was ap- 
proved and adopted by the Legislature by Chapter 
1185, Statutes of 1941, and designated the "State 
Water Plan." Division of Water Resources Bulletins 
Nos. 26, 27, 28, 29, and 31 outlined in greater detail 
project plans for coordinated development of the 
water resources of the Central Valley, and for water 
conservation and flood control in the Santa Ana River 
Basin. Bulletins Nos. 34, 35, and 36 dealt with collat- 
eral matters of water charges and costs and rates of 
irrigation development. Bulletin No. 31 discussed 
briefly the plans for diversion and transmission of 
Colorado River water to the South Coastal Basin 
under the project of The Metropolitan Water District 
of Southern California. 

Contemporaneously with these studies by the State, 
agencies of the Federal Government, notably the Bu- 
reau of Reclamation and the Corps of Engineers, 
have conducted comprehensive studies of the develop- 
ment of water resources on various streams in Cali- 
fornia, particularly with respect to the Central Val- 
ley. The most noteworthy of these reports are: Senate 
Document 113, 81st Congress, First Session. "Cen- 
tral Valley Basin," by the U. S. Bureau of Reclama- 
tion, August 1949; and House Document No. 367, 
81st Congress, First Session, "Sacramento-San Joa- 
quin Basin Streams, California," by the Corps of 
Engineers, U. S. Army, 1949. It should be noted that 
none of these previous studies have envisioned the 
transfer of water from northern California to south- 
ern California. 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



CONCURRENT RELATED INVESTIGATIONS 

A number of specific regional water resources in- 
vestigations, complementing the state-wide studies, 
have been carried on concurrently by the Department 
of "Water Resources and its predecessors. Some of 
these investigations utilized state funds entirely, 
while others were financed cooperatively by state 
and local interests. The planning for water develop- 
ment in those regions has been coordinated with and 
integrated into The California Water Plan. The 
features of the Plan in those regions of special in- 
vestigation have been formulated and reported upon 
in more detail than are presented herein. The follow- 
ing bulletins present results of these regional studies. 

California State Department of Public Works, Division of 
Water Resources. "Survey of Mountainous Areas." 
Bulletin No. 56. December, 1955. 

"Santa Margarita River Investigation." Bulletin No. 

57. June, 1956. 

"Northeastern Counties Investigation. Report on Upper 

Feather River Service Area." (interim report) April, 
1955. 

"Program for Financing and Constructing the Feather 

River Project as the Initial Unit of The California 
Water Plan." February, 1955. 

"Report to the California State Legislature on Putah 

Creek Cone Investigation." December, 1955. 

California State Department of Water Resources. "Investiga- 
tion of Upper Feather River Basin Development, In- 
terim Report on Engineering, Economic, and Financial 
Feasibility of Initial Units." Bulletin No. 59. Febru- 
ary, 1957. 

"Interim Report to the California State Legislature on 

the Salinity Control Barrier Investigation." Bulletin 
No. 60. March 1957. 

California State Water Project Authority. "Report to the Cali- 
fornia State Legislature on Feasibility of Construction 
by the State of Barriers in the San Francisco Bay 
System." March 1955. 

California State Water Resources Board. "Santa Cruz-Mon- 
terey Counties Investigation." Bulletin No. 5. Sep- 
tember, 1953. 

"Sutter-Yuba Counties Investigation." Bulletin No. 6. 

September, 1952. 

"Santa Clara Valley Investigation." Bulletin No. 7. 

June, 1955. 

"Elsinore Basin Investigation." Bulletin No. 9. Febru- 
ary, 1953. 

■ — "Placer County Investigation." Bulletin No. 10. June. 

1955. 
■ "San Joaquin County Investigation." Bulletin No. 11. 

June, 1955. 

— "Ventura County Investigation." Bulletin Xo. 12. Oc- 
tober, 1953, Revised April, 1956. 

— "Alameda County Investigation." Bulletin No. 13. 
(preliminary report) July, 1955. 

"Lake County Investigation." Bulletin No. 14. (pre- 
liminary report) October, L955, 

"Santa Ana River Investigation." Bulletin No. 15. 

(preliminary report) April, 1956. 

"American River Basin Investigation, Report on De- 
velopment Proposed for The California Water Plan." 
P.ulletin No. 21. (preliminary report) June, 1955. 



"Interim Report on Klamath River Basin Investiga- 
tion, Water Utilization and Requirements." March, 
1954. 

"Interim Summary Report on San Luis Obispo County 

Investigation." October, 1955. 

Other studies conducted by the Department and its 
predecessor agencies, the results of which are not yet- 
available in final report form, include the following: 

Cache Creek Watershed Investigation — Yolo 

County 
Klamath River Basin Investigation 
Northeastern Counties Investigation 
Salinas River Basin Investigation 
San Luis Obispo County Investigation 
Shasta County Investigation 

Data and information from the many other investi- 
gations conducted by the Department have been uti- 
lized. Pertinent investigations and plans of the U. S. 
Department of the Interior; the Corps of Engineers, 
U. S. Army; and the Department of Agriculture have 
been utilized and integrated into The California 
Water Plan. 

THE CALIFORNIA WATER DEVELOPMENT 
PROGRAM 

In order to plan intelligently for future develop- 
ment of California's water resources to meet increas- 
ing water needs, the investigation and study of water 
requirements, available resources, and potential water 
development projects must be a continuing process. 
This continuing need has been recognized, as is evi- 
denced by legislative acts authorizing the Feather 
River Project provides for a multipurpose develop- 
tion, and, most recently, the Inventory of Water Re- 
sources, all of which are designated functions of the 
Department of Water Resources. These three investi- 
gations are discussed in the following sections. Com- 
plementing these investigations, and in close coordi- 
nation therewith, the Department is engaged in an 
intensive and continuing program of study of the 
needs for specific projects, economic and financial 
analyses, and determination of recommended staging 
of construction. All of these investigations and studies 
collectively comprise the California Water Develop- 
ment Program, which incorporates subsequently au- 
thorized data gathering and planning activities. 

Feather River Project 

Many of the principles of The California Water 
Plan are embodied in the authorized Feather River 
Project, the initial unit of the Plan. The Feather 
River Project provides for a multipurpose develop- 
ment for firming water supplies, providing flood pro- 
tection in the Feather River area, generating hydro- 
electric energy, and exporting surplus waters 
available in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta to 
areas of deficiency in the San Joaquin Valley, San 



INTRODUCTION 



Francisco Hay Area, and .southern California, with 
incidental fish, wildlife, and recreational benefits. 
This project was conceived by former State Engineer 
A.. D. Edmonston and formulated by the former Di- 
vision of Water Resources. It was first presented in 
1951 in a publication of the State Water Resources 
Board entitled "Report on Feasibility of Feather 
River Project and Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta 
Diversion Projects Proposed as Features of The Cali- 
fornia Water Plan." The Legislature authorized the 
project in 1951 and provided funds for additional 
i studies, including preparation of plans and specifica- 
tions. These further studies are published in a report 
on "Program for Financing and Constructing the 
Feather River Project as the Initial Unit of The 
California Water Plan," submitted in February, 
1955. 

The Legislature, by the Budget Act of 1956, appro- 
priated $9,350,000 for continued engineering design 
(and exploration, including the preparation of con- 
istruction plans and specifications and providing for 
acquisition of right of way for some of the project 
[features. The 1957 Legislature passed an urgency ap- 
, propriation for $25,190,000 to commence relocation 
\ of the Western Pacific Railroad and U. S. Highway 
40 Alternate out of the Oroville Reservoir area. 

Salinity Control Barrier Investigation 

The need and feasibility of physical barriers to 
salt-water inflow in the San Francisco Bay system has 
been evaluated by the Division of Water Resources, 
! pursuant to the Abshire-Kelly Salinity Control Bar- 
rier Act of 1953. Chapter 1104, Statutes of 1953. In- 
corporated in the report entitled "Feasibility of Con- 
struction by the State of Barriers in the San 
Francisco Bay System," March 1955, are provisions 
for conserving and developing waters presently being 
utilized for repulsion of sea water in the Sacramento- 
San Joaquin Delta. A conduit for conveying Sacra- 
ment River flow across the Delta is also proposed. 
These features, which are vital elements of The Cali- 
fornia Water Plan, are receiving further considera- 
tion through an extension of this study authorized 
by the Abshire-Kelly Salinity Control Barrier Act 
of 1955, Chapter 1434. Statutes of 1955. An interim 
report entitled "Salinity Control Barrier Investiga- 
tion," March 1957, describes the recommended plan 
for accomplishing the foregoing objectives. 

Inventory of Water Resources 

Pursuant to Chapter 61, Statutes of 1956, the De- 
partment of Water Resources is conducting an in- 
vestigation to determine in detail: the amount of 
water resources available in the separate watersheds 
in the State ; the amounts of present and ultimate 
water required for beneficial uses in those watersheds ; 
and, from the foregoing, the quantities of water, if 



any, available for export from the watersheds of ori- 
gin. This investigation, which will continue over a 
period of years, will be accomplished in greater detail 
than has heretofore been undertaken and will serve as 
a basis for assuring reservation of adequate water 
resources for the areas of origin. 

OTHER PROPOSALS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF 
THE STATE'S WATER RESOURCES 

The increasing awareness of the present prevailing 
water problems, and of the need for state-wide devel- 
opment of California's water resources, has been man- 
ifested in a number of ideas or proposals paralleling 
The California Water Plan. In general, these pro- 
posals purport a common objective, that is, the trans- 
fer of surplus northern waters to southern areas of 
deficiency. However, they have been advanced without 
adequate engineering and geologic study. Further- 
more, their objectives and scope, as compared with 
those of The California Water Plan, are inadequate. 

One such proposal, which has been termed the 
"Gravity Plan," has received considerable publicity 
during recent years. This plan would convey water by 
gravity conduit extending from Shasta Dam southerly 
to the Merced River. There it would cross the San 
Joaquin Valley and would be pumped over the Coast 
Range, where it would continue by gravity conduit 
into southern California. It is a fact, however, that the 
water supplies involved in the Gravity Plan are not 
available in adequate quantity, nor in proper monthly 
distribution to enable operation of the plan. 

Another serious shortcoming in the Gravity Plan 
and other similar proposals involves their conflict with 
presently vested water rights, and interference with 
existing projects of various agencies. These plans 
would involve exchanges of water which would be 
impossible of accomplishment. 

All of these alternatives have been analyzed by the 
Department of Water Resources in the formulation of 
The California Water Plan, and those elements found 
feasible have been incorporated into the Plan. 

SCOPE OF PLANNING PHASE OF STATE-WIDE 
WATER RESOURCES INVESTIGATION 

The planning phase of the current State-wide Wa- 
ter Resources Investigation, broader in scope than that 
for earlier investigations, has as its objective the form- 
ulation of a long-range plan for the comprehensive 
development of the water resources of the entire State. 
It contemplates the full control, conservation, protec- 
tion, distribution, and utilization of the water re- 
sources of California, both surface and underground, 
to meet present and future water needs for all bene- 
ficial purposes and uses in all areas of the State, in- 
sofar as practicable. 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



The scope of the planning phase includes studies 
of numerous physical and economic considerations 
necessary to the formulation of a realistic long-range 
water resource development plan. Use has been made 
of all available basic data and information pertinent 
to water supply, water requirements, characteristics of 
water service areas, hydroelectric power potentialities, 
food control, ffch and wildlife, recreation, drainage, 
water quality, physical features of dam sites and con- 
duit routes, physical characteristics of ground water 
basins, construction methods, construction costs, and 
trends of social, economic, and technological advance- 
ment. These basic data have been utilized in an analyt- 
ical process involving engineering design, cost esti- 
mates, and economic selection from alternative project 
proposals. Throughout the process a substantial meas- 
ure of engineering judgment has been necessary, tem- 
pered by knowledge of the limitations of the informa- 
tion on hand, and with awareness of inherent un- 
knowns in planning for the indefinite future. 

One of the most outstanding aspects of the planning 
phase of the State-wide Water Resources Investiga- 
tion is the consideration of unprecedented interbasin 
projects, by means of which large quantities of sur- 
plus water could be regulated and transported long 
distances from areas of surplus to areas of deficiency. 
These projects are of such scope and magnitude as to 
constitute in the aggregate a very real but not im- 
possible challenge to the future of California. Of equal 
significance is the planning for local projects to meet 
present and future local water needs. Such projects 
are often intimately involved with the major export- 
import works. In areas of ultimate water deficiency, 
the distribution and use of additional supplies that 
may be developed locally would be coordinated with 
that of imported supplemental waters. In areas of ulti- 
mate surplus, works for local water service would be 
fully coordinated with those for export. In the case of 
all projects, involving either major or minor works, 
full consideration has been given to existing develop- 
ments and interests and to vested water rights. 

Formulation of The California Water Plan was 
based upon the concept of optimum utilization of the 
water resources of the State. It involves, where pos- 
sible, the use of multipurpose reservoirs to gain their 
several advantages, including economy of construction 
and the conservation of project sites. Favorable dam 
and reservoir sites are rare and it is essential that the 
potentialities of each site be utilized to the maximum 
feasible extent. Water supplies would be developed 
and conserved for irrigation, municipal, and indus- 
trial purposes. Furthermore, the works would provide 
for flood control and flood protection; production of 
hydroelectric energy; quality control; salinity con- 
trol; enhancement of fish, wildlife and recreation; 
drainage; and other beneficial purposes. Estimates 



of water requirements published in State Water Re- 1 
sources Board Bulletin No. 2 have been generally ac- 
cepted as a measure of requirements, although minor 1 
modifications have been made, where such have been 
indicated by further study. 

Concepts of Planning 

The formulation of The California Water Plan was 
predicated upon and guided by certain basic concepts) 
which are expressed herein as the essence of the Plan. 
These concepts should be clearly borne in mind when 
evaluating the various facets of the Plan subsequently 
described in this bulletin. 

1. The California Water Plan is conceived as ai 
ultimate plan, one that will meet the requirements 
for water at some unspecified but distant time in the 
future when the land and other resources of Cali- 
fornia have essentially reached a state of complete 
development. 

2. The Plan is designed to be comprehensive. It 
provides for future beneficial uses of water by in- 
dividuals and agencies in all parts of the State. Legis- 
lative acceptance of the Plan, and firm provision for 
its progressive project authorization as component 
projects become feasible, would tend toward elimina- 
tion of sectional concern as to future availability of 
necessary water supplies. 

3. The California Water Plan is a flexible pattern 
or framework into which future definite projects may 
be integrated in an orderly fashion, with due consid- 
eration being given to varying interests. As additional 
data and experience are gained, as technology ad- 
vances, and as future conditions change in patterns 
that cannot be foreseen today, The California Water 
Plan will be substantially altered and improved. 

4. The Plan is designed to be susceptible of orderly 
development by logical, progressive stages as the 
growing demands and requirements of the State may 
dictate. Certain of these features should be imple- 
mented immediately, while others should be deferred. 

5. The many features broadly embraced in The 
California Water Plan, while believed to be endowed 
in common with physical feasibility, have widely 
variant relationships to present concepts of economic 
and financial feasibility. As an example, extremely 
costly works would be required to conserve and con- 
vey water long distances to irrigate certain lands of 
very limited present crop adaptability, or to serve 
lands lying at high elevations, requiring net pump 
lifts of several thousand feet in some cases, such as 
the desert area in southern California. Such works 
are for the indefinite future and their need may never 
be realized. However, the economics of the distant fu- 
ture cannot be foreseen, and the planning effort is 
deemed necessary at this time in order that provi- 
sion may be made for such development if and when 
the requirement arises. 






INTRODUCTION 



6. The California Water Plan is designed to in- 
Lude or supplement, rather than to supersede, exist- 
\g water resource development works. It also in- 
orporates certain of the planned works now pro- 
osed or authorized by public and private agencies 
nd individuals. Of special significance in this re- 
pect is the Feather River Project, which is proposed 
a unit for initial construction under The California 
S'ater Plan. 

Summarized, the foregoing concepts define The 
,'alifornia Water Plan as a comprehensive pattern, 
i-ith broad flexibility and susceptible of orderly and 
rogressive development as needed, under which the 
orecast ultimate requirements for water by indi- 
iduals and agencies for all purposes in all parts of 
he State can be met. Water is not to be taken away 
rom people who will need it ; rather, it is proposed 
supply the needs of areas of deficiency by transfer 
nly of excess or surplus water from areas of abund- 
nce. Under The California Water Plan, water de- 
elopment by all agencies, federal, state, local, and 
private, can proceed in a coordinated manner toward 
ommon objectives and for maximum ultimate benefit, 
he Plan is not intended in any way to constitute 
n inflexible regulation or construction proposal. 

The California Water Plan does not purport to in- 
lude all possible water development projects in the 
tate. Rather, it serves to demonstrate that the full 
atisfaction of ultimate water requirements in all 
arts of the State is physically possible of accomplish- 
nent. Therefore, the omission herein of any project 
loes not preclude its future construction and integra- 
:ion into the Plan. Further investigation may indicate 
ilternative projects which are more feasible than 
:hose discussed herein and which would accomplish 
:he same results. 

It is fully acknowledged that The California Water 
Plan, like any plan for the indefinite future, is based 
m present forecasts, utilizing data from the short 
recorded past and accepted technology of today, and. 
as such, is inherently subject to substantial alteration 
vith the passage of time and the trial of experience. 
For these reasons, investigation and planning for 
I further water resource development must be a con- 
■Itinuing process. 

' Planning Considerations 

In all planning for water resource development, 
■[first and prime consideration was given to the re- 
Iquirements, both present and future, for all water 
iuses in areas of origin, before a determination was 
tmade of the surplus waters that might be available 
■ for exportation to areas of deficient supply. Inter- 
[ ference with works of existing entities, or with their 
operations with respect to use of water, was avoided 
wherever possible. In fact, most existing facilities 
would be integrated into the Plan. Present rights and 



established interests in the use of water have been 
taken into consideration, although no detailed studies 
of the status of existing rights have been made 
specifically for this report. The significance of such 
studies to state-wide planning is fully recognized but 
is beyond the scope of this bulletin. 

It should be recognized that the planning has nec- 
essarily been of a preliminary nature and is appropri- 
ate only to the initial definition of projects. In this 
connection, one controlling factor is dam site founda- 
tions, for which, in general, only limited engineering 
and geologic examination has been possible within 
the scope of the present investigation. Subsurface geo- 
logic conditions have been estimated in most cases only 
by reconnaissance surface inspection, which is gen- 
erally not adequate to determine all essential subsur- 
face features. 

The need for further surveys involving foundation 
excavations and borings before projects can be def- 
initely proposed for construction can be best appreci- 
ated with knowledge of the importance of foundation 
characteristics in engineering design. Not only does 
the foundation constitute one of the major factors in 
determination of type, height, cost, and feasibility of 
a dam, but quite often the inadequacy of a foundation 
leads to abandonment of one site and adoption of an- 
other. Similar geologic and engineering information 
must be developed with respect to availability and 
quality of construction materials in the vicinity of 
dam sites. Detailed subsurface investigations will also 
be needed along conduit routes. It will be imperative 
to conduct an extensive program of exploratory drill- 
ing and excavation under more detailed planning 
studies, prior to final determination of the feasibility 
of the features of definite projects. Even more de- 
tailed engineering and geologic studies will be re- 
quired for preparation of construction plans and 
specifications. 

Limitations inherent in the concept of "ultimate," 
on which are based the pattern of development and the 
water requirements under The California Water Plan, 
are of prime significance. This concept pertains to con- 
ditions after an unspecified but long period of years 
in the future when land use and water supply devel- 
opment will be at a maximum and essentially stabi- 
lized. It must be realized that any forecasts of the 
nature and extent of such ultimate development and 
resultant water utilization are inherently subject to 
appreciable errors. However, such forecasts, based 
upon best available data and judgment, are necessary 
in establishing long-range objectives for development 
of water resources. They are so used herein, with full 
knowledge that their re-evaluation, after the experi- 
ence of a period of years, will result in considerable 
revision. 

Possible advancement in certain fields of technology 
relating to water development may require considera- 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



tion at a future time. The field of atomic energy may 
offer a most promising potentiality in this respect. 
Utilization and production of electrical energy under 
The California Water Plan have been based generally 
on current economic considerations. Future develop- 
ments in utilization of atomic energy may become in- 
strumental in making economically feasible the con- 
version of saline water to water of acceptable quality. 
At the present time, research studies by certain agen- 
cies are concerned with the various aspects and proc- 
esses available for the desalting of sea water. It is 
reported that certain of these processes show promise 
for the distant future. 

Large-scale availability of low-cost energv might ef- 
fect future changes in The California Water Plan 
with respect to feasibility of pumping lifts and eco- 
nomic lengths of conveyance tunnels. In addition, eco- 
nomics of hydroelectric projects would be affected, 
since the cost of thermal energy production is a factor 
in evaluating hydroelectric energy. This would prob- 
ably mean that the power plants proposed under the 
plan for hydroelectric generation, based upon preva- 
lent concepts of value of power, may be subject to re- 
consideration under future concepts. 

Another potentiality for change in requirement for 
imported water supplies exists in the possible ad- 
vancement of technology and economy in treatment 
and reclamation of sewage. Currently, such waters are 
substantially wasted, with little consideration being 
given to their use either because of the cost involved 
or for esthetic reasons. 

The technique of weather modification might ad- 
vance to the point whereby The California Water 
Plan could be affected to some degree. It appears un- 
likely, however, that effects of this modification could 
be of sufficient proportions as to change materially 
the over-all plan as presented herein. If such did oc- 
cur, it could result in a significant increase in water 
supply in areas of natural surplus of water, a minor 
increase in areas of deficiency, with both areas need- 
ing added flood protection. 

One additional aspect of the planning process re- 
quires emphasis. It is evident that the development of 
water in California today deals largely with "left- 
over" projects, and must utilize dam sites and even 
entire stream systems which were passed over in the 
early days as being too difficult of development. Not 
so evident, however, nor as Avell recognized, is the 
fact that in order to effect the greatest benefit at the 
leasl cost for any water resource development project 
today, careful sorting of many alternative plans is 
required. This involves painstaking study, engineer- 
ing judgment, and consideration of all possible 
aspects of the development as related to multiple and 
often incompatible demands for the water. 

Thus, while it is appareni that the fundamental 

hasis of The California Water Plan must rest on 



presently available economic and technical knowl- 
edge, it is recognized that future developments mayi- 
change this basis. Accordingly, The California Water 
Plan has been formulated to perform an essential 
function, in that it forms the engineering basis for 
guidance and coordination in the planning, construc-i 
tion, and operation of water resource developments! 
which are and will be required in meeting the needs! 
for water throughout the State. It represents an 
assurance that the waters of the State can be devel- 
oped in such a manner that the greatest public benefit! 
will be derived, in the light of best available 
knowledge. 

PUBLIC HEARINGS ON PRELIMINARY 
EDITION OF BULLETIN No. 3 

In order to evaluate the adequacy of The Call] 
fornia Water Plan, a preliminary draft of Bulletin 
No. 3, "Report on The California Water Plan," dated 
May, 1956, was released to responsible agencies and 
individuals throughout the State for their review and 
comment. Opportunity for presentation of written or 
oral comments on the Plan Avas afforded by a series 
of public hearings which all agencies and individuals 
were invited to attend. These hearings, conducted 
jointly by the Department of Water Resources and 
the State Water Board, were held as shown in the 
following tabulation : 

San Francisco August 31, 1956 

Eureka September 6, 1956 

Redding September 7, 1956 

Quincy September 8, 1956 

Los Angeles September 13, 1956 

Santa Barbara September 14, 1956 

Fresno September 24, 1956 

Bakersfield September 25, 1956 

Sacramento October 4, 1956 

In addition to providing information to the public, 
thus facilitating a better understanding of the water 
problems of California and of plans for their solu- 
tion, the public hearings were highly beneficial to the 
Department of Water Resources in the preparation 
of Bulletin No. 3 for final publication. Nearly 1,500 
persons attended the hearings, and some 200 written 
or oral statements representing a wide diversification 
of areas and interests throughout the State were pre- 
sented. These statements, which covered a variety of 
subjects, have been given careful review and analysis, 
and the recommendations have been incorporated into 
The California Water Plan wherever pertinent. 

ORGANIZATION OF BULLETIN 

Results of the third and final phase of the State- 
wide Water Resources Investigation, comprising the 
planning necessary for the solution of California's 
water problems, are presented in this bulletin in the 
live ensuing chapters. Chapter II, "Water Problems 
of California," evaluates the primary water problem 



INTRODUCTION 



of California through a comparison of the water re- 
sources and water requirements as determined during 
the first two phases of the State-wide Water Re- 
sources Investigation, and corollary problems. Chap- 
ter III, "Water Development Planning," presents a 
brief historical account of water resource planning 
and development in California up to the present time, 
discusses the urgent need for comprehensive coordi- 
nated planning and development on a state-wide 
basis, and outlines the considerations necessary to the 
formulation of plans to accomplish the solution of 
California's water problems. Chapter IV, "The Cali- 
fornia Water Plan," describes the physical features 
and accomplishments of works, both local and state- 
wide, which would meet the basic objectives heretofore 
described. Chapter V, "Implementation of The Cali- 
fornia Water Plan, ' ' discusses various considerations, 
such as legal, economic, financial, and engineering, 
and others which are vital to the physical implementa- 
tion of The California Water Plan. Chapter VI, 
"Summary, Conclusions, and Recommendations," 
summarizes the bulletin, and presents the conclusions 
resulting from the State-wide Water Resources In- 
vestigation and the recommendations based upon the 
conclusions. 

Appendix A to this bulletin presents a more de- 
tailed engineering report on The California Water 
Plan. It describes both local and interbasin transfer 
projects on an individual basis, with accompanying 
tabulations of physical features and capital costs. It 
also discusses, in some detail, the accomplishments of 
The California Water Plan and the considerations 
upon which the operation of the plan will be con- 
tingent. 

There will be published separately, and at later 
dates, additional appendixes which will elaborate on 
certain specific phases of The California Water Plan, 



and on considerations and premises on which the 
Plan was based. The basic assumptions, criteria, and 
procedures employed in formulating the Plan are 
presented in Appendix B. General geology of the 
State, geologic conditions affecting the location and 
design of engineering works, and ground water 
geology are described in Appendix C. Appendix D 
outlines the utilization of ground water storage 
capacity under The California Water Plan, particu- 
larly with regard to conjunctive operation of surface 
and underground reservoirs. Factors involved in 
maintenance of water quality are treated in Appen- 
dix E. 

The effects of The California Water Plan on fish 
and wildlife are presented in Appendix F, as are the 
potentialities for enhancement of recreational facil- 
ities. Flood problems and existing project works are 
described in Appendix G, and flood control accom- 
plishments of The California Water Plan are dis- 
cussed. Economic and financial aspects of The Cali- 
fornia Water Plan are discussed in Appendix H. 
Water rights and attendant legal considerations and 
their implications with respect to The California Wa- 
ter Plan are presented in Appendix I. 

In the State-wide Water Resources Investigation, 
due cognizance has been taken of all possibilities for 
augmenting the State 's water supplies. The potential- 
ities of sea-water conversion, waste-water reclama- 
tion, artificial increase of precipitation, and watershed 
management are discussed and evaluated in Appen- 
dix J. Future power sources and energy requirements 
as related to The California Water Plan are con- 
sidered in Appendix K, which discusses the develop- 
ment of power requirements and future load char- 
acteristics, and the adaptability of atomic energy and 
its influence upon the development of hydroelectric 
energy. 



.* arf * >*< 






^.. v 







"The primary water problem of maldistribution of California's water resources . . ." 
Klamath River 
San Joaquin Valley 



CHAPTER II 

WATER PROBLEMS OF CALIFORNIA 



The past and future growth of California has been 
and will continue to be dependent upon the develop- 
ment of its water resources. The primary reasons for 
this are threefold : first, California is endowed by 
nature with millions of acres of fertile lands of high 
crop productivity; secondly, due to the semi-arid 
climatic characteristics, most agricultural lands in 
j the State must be irrigated; and thirdly, California 
j has a great potential for urban and industrial de- 
velopment, resultant in part from the substantial 
| agricultural potential. However, the growth of the 
State, in itself made possible and stimulated by the 
development of water, has continually created water 
problems which have become progressively more and 
more difficult of solution as local sources of surplus 
water have been developed. 

Why. we might ask, should California have water 
problems when nature has provided an abundance of 
water within the State? The answer to this question 
is simple and clear: the bulk of the waters of the 
State do not occur where they are needed and are not 
naturally available when they are needed. However, 
this answer — true as it is — grossly oversimplifies the 
far-reaching and serious basic water problem pres- 
ently facing us. and becoming magnified and intensi- 
fied year by year. 

The primary water problem of maldistribution of 
( 'alif ornia 's water resources and requirements is 
evaluated in this chapter for each of the major hydro- 
graphic areas of the State. This is followed by a dis- 
cussion of other corollary problems, namely surface 
water deficiency, ground water overdraft, floods, and 
impairment of water quality. 

WATER RESOURCES 

As previously mentioned, the first phase of the 
State-wide Water Resources Investigation was de- 
voted to evaluation of the water resources of the 
State and determination of their characteristics, 
specific nature, occurrence, quantities, and distribu- 
tion. These data, which have been published in State 
Water Resources Board Bulletin No. 1, form the basis 
for the generalizations presented herein. 

Precipitation 

From a practical standpoint, all Avater resources 
stem from precipitation. Its regimen and other char- 
acteristics profoundly affect the occurrence of water 
supplies. California receives most of its precipitation 



from north Pacific storms. Most of the precipitation 
occurs in the form of rain at lower elevations and 
snow in the higher mountain regions. Precipitation 
varies widely geographically throughout California, 
due principally to the topography and the Pacific 
storm pattern. This variation is illustrated by Plate 
2, entitled "Geographical Distribution of Precipita- 
tion and Runoff." At sea level along the coast, pre- 
cipitation varies from a seasonal depth of about 50 
inches in the north to 10 inches in the south. In the 
Coast Range and Sierra Nevada, precipitation gen- 
erally increases with elevation, reaching an aver- 
age of 110 inches per season in the northwest corner 
of the State. By way of contrast, the deserts of the 
southeast, with elevations extending below sea level, 
average as little as 2 inches of precipitation per sea- 
son. On the floor of the Central Valley, seasonal pre- 
cipitation ranges from about 38 inches at Redding to 
about 6 inches at Bakersfield. 

In addition to the wide range of geographical dis- 
tribution, precipitation in California varies consider- 
ably with time, both within the season and from year 
to year. In general, more than 80 per cent of the total 
seasonal precipitation occurs during the five months 
of November through March. To add further to the 
problem, precipitation frequently departs widely from 
the mean from year to year, and it is quite common 
to experience a several-year period of greater than 
mean precipitation, followed by a period of somewhat 
similar or even greater length during which the pre- 
cipitation is considerably less than mean. These two 
types of periods are commonly referred to as "wet 
periods" and "drought periods," and their generally 
alternating occurrence in the past has given rise to the 
term ' ' cycles. ' ' These so-called cycles have varied both 
in length and intensity. One of the most severe 
drought periods of record occurred throughout most 
of the State from 1928 through 1934, with an average 
precipitation of less than 60 per cent of the mean. 
The seasons of 1923-24 and 1930-31 were generally the 
driest in California for the period of record. 

Runoff 

Runoff is defined as that portion of precipitation 
which drains from the land through surface channels. 
The amount of runoff constitutes that portion of the 
water resources that is available for control, regula- 
tion, and distribution to meet requirements for water. 
Most of the runoff in California originates on moun- 
tain and foothill lands, and debouches from these wa- 



(11) 



12 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



tersheds onto adjoining valley floors. For this reason, 
estimates of runoff presented herein generally repre- 
sent that part of precipitation that flows from moun- 
tain and foothill areas. 

The Sacramento River, which, along with the San 
Joaquin River, drains the Central Valley, is the larg- 
est stream in the State. The main stream originates 
in the Cascade Range at the northern end of the 
State and flows almost due south through the Sacra- 
mento Valley. It is joined at the Sacramento-San 
Joaquin Delta by the San Joaquin River, which drains 
the northern portion of the San Joaquin Valley, and 
both streams flow westward in a network of channels 
emptying into San Francisco Bay. 

The Klamath-Trinity River system, second only to 
the Sacramento River, drains a large part of the 
northern mountain watershed, including lands across 
the state boundary in Oregon. Other major streams, 
including the Mad, Eel, and Russian Rivers in the 
north; Salinas, Santa Maria, and Santa Ynez Rivers 
in the central part of the State ; and Santa Clara, Los 
Angeles, San Gabriel, Santa Ana, San Dieguito, and 
San Diego Rivers in the southern sector, convey run- 
off from the seaward slopes of the Coast Range to the 
ocean. 

The remainder of the State, with the exception of 
a narrow strip adjoining the Colorado River, has no 
outlet to the ocean. The eastern slopes of the Sierra 
Nevada give rise to a number of rivers flowing east- 
ward into Nevada, including the Truckee, Carson, and 
"Walker. The Owens River, also rising along the east 
slopes of the Sierra, flows southerly along the foothills 
and terminates in Owens Lake. In the southern part 
of the State several streams originate on the landward 
side of the coastal mountains and extend easterly to 
natural sumps in the desert. Among these are the 
Mojave River, whose course traverses the Mojave 
Desert to Soda Lake, although its flow rarely reaches 
its terminus, and the Whitewater River, which ex- 
tends to but seldom discharges into the Salton Sea. 

Because runoff in California is derived from pre- 
cipitation, it generally reflects similar monthly and 
seasonal variations, particularly in those portions of 
the State where precipitation occurs as rainfall. More- 
over, the steep slopes, shallow soil mantle, and rela- 
tively sparse vegetative cover in many of the water- 
sheds have little retarding effect on the precipitation 
as it collects and concentrates in stream channels on 
its inexorable journey to the ocean. Thus, with the ex- 
ception of snow-fed streams, runoff in California is 
generally sporadic in nature, with short, intense floods 
followed by long periods of little or no flow. 

A substantial portion of California's precipitation 
occurs in the form of snow in the Sierra Nevada and 
parts of the Cascade and Siskiyou Ranges, which con- 
tributes a modifying effect, era runoff. This water accu- 



mulates during the winter in extensive snow fields at 
high elevations and is released, as runoff, months later 
during the late spring and early summer snowmelt 
period. This flow is far more uniform than runoff 
resulting directly from rainfall, and its value is< 
greatly enhanced by its more or less predictable na- 
ture and the fact that it is sustained well into the! 
growing season when precipitation is negligible. Out-j 
standing examples of the retarding effect of snowpack 
storage on runoff are found in the flows of the San 
Joaquin River at Friant and the Kings River at 
Piedra, where 75 per cent of the runoff occurs during 
the April-July snowmelt period, during which time 
average precipitation approximates 15 per cent of the 
seasonal total. 

It is estimated that seasonal natural runoff for the 
State (not including California's rights in and to the 
waters of the Colorado River) averaged some 71,000,- 
000 acre-feet per season during the 53-year period 
1894-95 through 1946-47. Runoff in individual years 
has varied from a high of 135,000,000 acre-feet in 
1937-38 to a minimum o f 18,300,000 acre-feet in 
1923-24. The average seasonal runoff during the crit- 
ical 10 years from 1927-28 through 1936-37 averaged 
only 69 per cent of the mean for the 53-year period, 
and in no season did runoff reach the long-time mean. 

As previously stated, the bulk of the total seasonal 
natural runoff in California occurs in the northern 
portion of the State, with more than 40 per cent from 
the North Coastal Area and about 32 per cent stem- 
ming from the Sacramento Valley. In contrast, only 2 
per cent of the total runoff occurs in the South 
Coastal and Colorado Desert Areas. Estimated mean 
seasonal natural runoff for the several major hydro- 
graphic areas of the State is listed in Table 1 and is 
graphically illustrated on Plate 2. The major hydro- 

TABLE 1 

ESTIMATED MEAN SEASONAL FULL NATURAL 
RUNOFF OF HYDROGRAPHIC AREAS 



Area 


Hydro-graphic area 


Runoff » 


number 

on 
Plate 3 


In acre-feet 


In per 
cent of 
total 






28,890,000 
1,245,000 
2,448,000 
1,227,000 
1,212,000 
22,390,000 
11,240.000 
3,177,000 
221,000 
4,150,000 




2__ 












4_. 












5A 






5B, C 

6 


San Joaquin-Tulare Lake Basin 

Lahontan. 


14.7 


7. 












TOTALS... 






70,212,000 


100.0 



Values uivi'ii represent runoff from mountain anil foothill areas generally at the 
base of the foothills. Comparatively little control Is possible below that point. 
' Ih-ulalcd Nous represent in« California's rights in and to the waters of the 
Colorado River, 



WATER PROBLEMS OF CALIFORNIA 



13 



raphic areas are delineated on Plate 3, entitled 
'Major Hydrographic Areas and Planning' Groups." 

Ground Water 

The extensive ground water basins of California 

provide natural regulation for runoff from tributary 

ilrainage areas and for precipitation directly on over- 

ying lands. Some 250 ground water basins having 

/alley floor areas of about 5 square miles or larger 

lave been identified in California. A large part of the 

{ surface runoff from tributary mountain and foothill 

-j Ivatersheds that would otherwise waste to the ocean is 

retained in these basins and conserved for later utili- 

I Ration. In effect, these ground water reservoirs pro- 

: K-ide a means for natural regulation of stream flow 

in much the same manner as is accomplished by 

surface reservoirs. 

• Sufficient data on the ground water basins of Cali- 
fornia are available to permit an estimate of grofs 
| storage capacity within certain depth limits for 211 
Jjv'alley floor areas. The areas for which such storage 
capacities were estimated comprise 96 per cent of the 
total valley floor area of all basins of the State. The 
depth limits vary from basin to basin, but the average 
I weighted interval is approximately 185 feet, or gen- 
• erally between the depths of about 15 and 200 feet. 
The gross storage capacity within this depth interval 
is about 450,000,000 acre-feet. The Central Valley 
alone contains over 130,000,000 acre-feet of this total 
in approximately the same depth interval. 

Only a portion of the gross storage capacity is 
usable storage, largely because of the presence of 
saline water or other waters of deleterious mineral 
■■ quality. These waters either limit the depth to which 
ground water levels may be lowered or, in many areas, 
preclude the use of ground water. Enough informa- 
I !tion is presently at hand to estimate the usable stor- 
age capacity for only 80 ground water basins, com- 
prising 43 per cent of the total valley floor area of 
the State. In the Central Valley, usable capacity in 
the depth interval from 15 to 200 feet aggregates 
about 100,000,000 acre-feet. 

1 More than half the water presently consumptively 
used in California comes from underground sources. 
Many of these ground water basins have been in- 
tensively developed. In the San Joaquin Valley and 
parts of southern California particularly, the ready 
(availability of ground water has been primarily re- 
' sponsible for supporting rapid expansion of agricul- 
[jture and industry far beyond the firm capabilities of 
water resource developments. This has been accom- 
plished by utilizing the vast reserves of water stored 
in these underground reservoirs, in many cases at 
rates greatly exceeding their replenishment. Presently 
available data concerning ground water are far less 
comprehensive than for surface water resources. 
Much more study will be necessary to evaluate rea- 



sonably accurately the capability of ground water 
resources of the State. 

WATER REQUIREMENTS 

Under the State-wide AVater Resources Investiga- 
tion all lands in the State have been classified as to 
their suitability for development under probable ulti- 
mate conditions. Determinations have also been made 
of the location, nature, and extent of present water 
service areas, and appropriate factors for the various 
types of water use have been evaluated. Estimates of 
present and probable ultimate water requirements de- 
veloped from these data, and published in State 
Water Resources Board Bulletin No. 2, have been 
generally accepted as a measure of water requirements 
for the formulation of The California Water Plan. 
However, modifications have been made where the 
need for such has been indicated by further study. 
These estimates, modified where necessary, are sum- 
marized in this section. 

In 1950, the year adopted as "present" in Bulletin 
No. 2, a gross area of about 7,300,000 acres was under 
irrigation in California. The actual area irrigated, 
or net area, was about 6,900,000 acres. A gross area 
of about 20,000,000 acres is classified as suitable for 
irrigated agriculture, of which an estimated 16,200,- 
000 acres could be irrigated in any one season under 
ultimate conditions of development. In 1950, approxi- 
mately 1,100,000 acres were devoted to urban, sub- 
urban, and industrial types of land use. It is esti- 
mated that urban, suburban, and industrial water 
service areas will ultimately occupy about 3,600,000 
acres. 

For the most part, the remaining lands of Califor- 
nia include only scattered water service areas, largely 
in mountainous and desert regions and in national 
forests and monuments, public beaches and parks, 
private recreational areas, wildfowl refuges, and mili- 
tary reservations. It is expected that even under ulti- 
mate development the majority of these lands will be 
only sparsely settled and will have only very minor 
requirements for water service. About 180,000 acres 
of such remaining lands actually receive water service 
at the present time. It is assumed that all of the ap- 
proximately 77,300,000 acres of such lands ultimately 
will be served with water in the minor amounts suf- 
ficient for their needs. 

Table 2 summarizes data relative to present and 
ultimate water service areas in the seven major hydro- 
graphic areas of California, classified by broad laud 
usage groupings. The potential water .service areas 
under The California Water Plan, consisting of all 
lands included in the irrigated and urban-suburban- 
industrial categories, are delineated on Plate 4. en- 
titled "Present and Ultimate Areas of Intensive 
Water Service." 



14 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



TABLE 2 
PRESENT AND PROBABLE ULTIMATE WATER SERVICE AREAS 



Area 
number 



Hydrotrraphic area 



Areas of intensive water service 



Urban, surburban, and 
industrial 



Miscellaneous 

water service 

areas 



5A... 

5B, C. 



North Coastal 

San Francisco Bay 

Central Coastal 

South Coastal 

Sacramento River Basin 

San Joaquin-Tulare Lake Basin 

Lahontan 

Colorado Desert 



223,000 
163,000 
362,000 
652,000 
,130,000 
;, 993,000 
236,000 
587,000 



(123,01111 
66,000 
244,000 
156,000 
603,000 
955,000 
107,000 
822,000 



19,000 
225,000 
52,000 
547,000 
101,000 
90,000 
10,000 
14,000 



53,000 
,408,000 
169,000 
,611,000 
127,000 
165,000 
54,000 
33,000 



19,000 
50,000 
12,000 

1,000 
28,000 
57,000 

5,000 
10,000 



11,425,000 
1,222,000 
5,808,000 
4,228,000 
13,380,000 
12,820,000 
17,812,000 
10,561,000 



12,501,01 

2 

7,221, 

6,995, 
17,110,i 
20,940,000 >; 
20,973,000 
12,416,000 



TOTALS. 



7.346,000 



19.976,000 



1.058,000 



3.620,000 



ISJOOO 



77,256.000 



100,852.000 l 



Present seivicc areas determined as of 1950. 

TABLE 3 

ESTIMATED PRESENT AND PROBABLE ULTIMATE MEAN SEASONAL 
WATER REQUIREMENTS 

(In acre-feet) 






Area 
number 


Hydrographic area 


Irrigation 


Urban, suburban, and 
industrial 


Miscellaneous 


Totals 


Plate 3 


Present* 


Ultimate 


Present* 


Ultimate 


Present* 


Ultimate 


Present* 


Ultimate 


j 




483,000 

294,000 

572,000 

1,020,000 

3,645,000 

9,057,000 



712,000 

3,261,000 


1,880,000 
98,000 
2,010,000 
1,901,000 
6,912,000 

15,605,000 


0,508,000 
6,192,000 


21,000 
386,000 

52,000 
885,000 
104,000 

173,000 


12,000 
23,000 


85,000 
3,408,000 

217,000 
3,635,000 

303,000 

438,000 


108,000 
107,000 


9,000 
30,000 
6,000 
2,000 
70,000 

143,000 



17,000 
56,000 


99,000 
6,000 
19,000 
16,000 
212,000 

262,000 

876,000 
120,000 
111,000 


513,000 

710,000 

630,000 

1.907,000 

3.819.000 

9,373,000 



741,000 

3,340,000 


2,064,000 


2 




3,512,000 


3 




2,246,000 








5A. . 


Sacramento River Basin 

San Joaquin-Tulare Lake Basin 
(Including Sacramento-San 




5B, C 






16,305,000 




Operation of Salinity Control 


876,000 


6 




6,736,000 


7 




6,410,000 




TOTALS 






19,044,000 


41,106,000 


1,656,000 


8,301,000 


333,000 


1,721,000 


21.033,000 


51,128,000 



* Present requirements determined as of 1950. 

By far the largest use of water in California is for 
agriculture, a condition that will prevail even under 
conditions of complete development. The present con- 
sumption of water for irrigation is estimated to be 
about 90 per cent of the total for all beneficial pur- 
poses, and will amount to about 80 per cent ulti- 
mately. Tli " actual requirement for water for irri- 
gated agriculture, at present about 19,000,000 acre- 
feet per season, would more than double under con- 
ditions of complete development, to about 41,000,000 
aere-feet per season. The total requirement for water 
in California for all consumptive purposes in 1950 
was about 21,000,000 acre-feet per season. It is fore- 
east that this will eventually increase to some 51,000,- 
000 acre-feet per season. 

Estimates of present and ultimate mean seasonal 
water requirements, under the broad land use group- 
ings and by the major hydrographic areas, are pre- 
sented in Table 3. 



CALIFORNIA'S WATER PROBLEMS 

From the discussion and data presented in the pre- 
ceding sections of this chapter, it is apparent that 
California 's water problems result primarily from the 
maldistribution of its water resources and water re- 
quirements, both geographically and with respect to 
time. The major sources of water are in the northern 
part of the State where stream flow wastes into the 
ocean virtually unused. The productive land and 
major urban areas are located in the central and 
southern regions, where water supplies are insufficient. 
Interposed between the major sources of water and 
the principal areas of deficiency are great distances 
and formidable ranges of mountains. Well over 70 
per cent of the total stream flow in the State occurs 
north of an east-west line drawn through Sacramento. 
In contrast, an estimated 77 per cent of the present 
and 80 per cent of the forecast ultimate water require- 






WATER PROBLEMS OF CALIFORNIA 



L5 



nients are found south of the same line. This geo- 
graphic disparity is clearly indicated in Table 4, 
which shows a comparison of the water supply with 
the present and ultimate water requirement for each 
major hydrographic area of the State, expressed as 
percentages of the respective totals for the State. 

In addition to the unequal areal distribution of 
California's water resources and requirements, its 
water problems are further intensified by the sporadic 
nature of the occurrence of runoff, both within the 
season and from year to year. The greater part of the 
runoff occurs during the winter and spring months 
when the demand for water is the least. Fortunately, 
a considerable portion of the runoff of most major 
inland mountain streams is detained in snowfields of 
the Sierra Nevada until the late spring and early 
summer snowmelt period. However, this natural regu- 
lation is not by any means sufficient to provide for 
the large demands in the summer and fall. 

Although seasonal fluctuation of runoff is a serious 
problem, because its regulation requires a consider- 
able amount of storage, it is the fluctuation of stream 
flow from year to year that presents the most difficult 
problem of regulation. California is subject to ex- 
tended wet and dry periods. As previously stated, the 
State suffered a severe drought in the late 1920 's and 
early 1930 's, one of many in the past, during which 
the runoff of streams throughout the State for a 10- 
year period averaged only 69 per cent of the long- 
time mean. These periodic droughts have superim- 
posed on the need for storage for normal seasonal 
regulation the need for provision of extremely large 
amounts of reservoir storage capacity for necessary 
cyclic regulation of water supply. A severe drought, 
superimposed upon present deficiencies in water sup- 
ply development, could create widespread havoc and 
even economic disaster throughout California. Fur- 
thermore, there is no reason to believe that drought 
conditions in the future may not be more intense and 



of longer duration than those of the short recorded 
past. 

All other water problems of California basically 
result from the primary problem of geographical mal- 
distribution and seasonal and cyclic fluctuation of the 
water resources of the State, and are briefly discussed 
herein as problems of water deficiency, both surface 
and underground, floods, and impairment of water 
quality. 

Problem of Water Deficiency 

Because of the characteristic semiarid climate, 
nearly all areas of the State experience a natural sur- 
face water deficiency during the summer and fall 
months when rainfall is negligible and runoff is mea- 
ger. This seasonal deficiency is often greatly intensified 
and prolonged by the extremely variable occurrence 
of California's water resources from year to year, 
whereby rainfall and resultant runoff is subnormal 
for varying periods of years. To add to the natural 
problems of seasonal and cyclic deficiency, the water 
resources are not geographically distributed in con- 
formity with the requirements. This has necessitated a 
high degree of development of available resources in 
the central and southern parts of the State. 

Works have been constructed by numerous entities 
for regulation of stream flow and conveyance to areas 
of use, and the water thus delivered has allowed ex- 
tensive agricultural activity on fertile lands which 
formerly supported only hay, grain, and native 
grasses. Many fertile areas of potential productivity, 
however, are not close enough to surface supplies to 
allow their development within the limited means of 
some local agencies. 

Further, during periods when runoff is deficient 
over a series of years, those agencies and individuals 
depending on facilities adequate only for seasonal 
regulation are faced with the necessity of cutback in 
their economy. Occasionally, agricultural develop- 



TABLE 4 
DISTRIBUTION OF WATER RESOURCES AND REQUIREMENTS 



Area 

number 

on 


Hydrographic area 


Natural stream 

flow, in 

per cent of 

total for 

State 


Requirement for water, 
in per cent of 
total for State 


Requirement for additionally 

developed water, 

in acre-feet 


Plate 3 


Present* 


Ultimate 


Present* 


Ultimate 




40.8 
1.7 
3.5 
1.7 

31.6 

15.9 
0.0 
4.5 
0.3 


2.4 
3.4 
3.0 
9.1 

18.1 

44.5 
0.0 
3.6 

15.9 


4.0 
6.9 
4.4 
10.9 
14.5 

31.9 
1.7 
13.2 
12.5 


13,000 
42.000 
65,000 
370,000 
124,000 

1,661,000 



279,000 










'.- 










**3,027.000 
3,732,000 


5A 




5B. C 


San Joaquin-Tulare Lake Basin (including Sacra- 


9,427,000 








6 

7 


Lahontan 


6,148,000 




TOTALS 




100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


2.554.000 









Present requirements determined as of 1950. 

Assumes imports to full extent of claimed water rights. 



16 



THE CALIFORNIA 



ments — and urban developments as well — have over- 
extended their economy during wet periods with 
extremely critical results during following periods of 
drought, 

Surface diversions and interbasin transfers have 
done much in the past to develop the economy of the 
State and are the great potential of the future. How- 
ever, it may be categorically stated that the degree of 
economic development which is enjoyed today would 
not have been possible without the utilization of 
ground water. The availability of what appeared to be 
an unlimited supply of ground water has been a great 
boon to this development. It has been necessary only 
to put down a well and utilize water from a vast 
underground reservoir at relatively small cost ; expen- 
sive conservation and transmission systems have been 
unnecessary and distribution facilities minimized. Ex- 
tensive areas overlying natural ground water basins 
have been developed to a high level of productivity. 
By utilization of a ground water source, many munici- 
palities in the central and southern parts of the State 
have also experienced expansion which otherwise 
would have been impossible. 

However, the high level of economic development in 
many areas of the State has been achieved at the 
expense of overdraft conditions on the underlying 
ground water basins, wherein the extraction has ex- 
ceeded the replenishment. In many of these areas the 
overdraft is continuing — in fact increasing — generally 
with no active measures being taken to correct the 
serious problem. How long these conditions of over- 
draft, or "mining" of ground water resources, can 
continue without drastic and far-reaching detrimental 
consequences is a matter of serious concern. If the 
underground sources of water are allowed to be 
completely depleted and no other sources of supply 
are developed in the interim, the economy of the 
State will not just stand at the current level, but must 
of necessity regress to one supportable largely by 
surface developments. Surface water sources are mea- 
ger in the central and southern areas of the State 
where the water requirements are the greatest. The 
calamity of economic depression attendant on the 
excessive depletion of ground water reservoirs would 
not be limited to those agricultural areas overlying 
the reservoirs. Just as the whole State now enjoys the 
benefits of an expanding economy, so would the whole 
State — north as well as south — feel the possible catas- 
trophic effects of the destruction of ground water 
basins by continued overdraft. 

Overdraft conditions presently exist in several of 
the major and in many of the minor ground water 
liasins in the State. The most serious overdraft in 
terms of magnitude is manifested in the San Joaquin- 
Tulare Lake Basin where the present (1955) draft 
exceeds the mean seasonal replenishment by some 
2,500,000 acre-feet. Conditions are particularly acute 



WATER PLAN 

along the west and south sides of the basin. Overdraft : \ 
conditions are also serious in the Antelope Valley, 
presently approximating 175,000 acre-feet per season. 1 
The overdraft on the coastal plain of Los Angeles, 
Orange, Santa Barbara, and Ventura Counties is esti- 
mated at 400,000 acre-feet per season. In addition to ] 
these areas of critical overdraft, substantial over- 
drafts are being experienced in portions of the Sacra- 
mento Valley, in the Santa Clara, Salinas, and Santa 
Maria Valleys in central California, and the Santa 
Clara River Valley in southern California. Twenty- 
four smaller ground water basins are also known to 
be overdrawn. 

The present (1955) deficiency in developed water 
supply, both surface and underground, aggregates 
some 4,000,000 acre-feet per season on a state-wide 
basis, largely representing an overdraft on ground 
water supplies. It is forecast that, if California is to 
attain her full economic potential, additional water 
supplies amounting to some 31,000,000 acre-feet per 
season must ultimately be developed to meet con- 
sumptive requirements plus irrecoverable losses. On 
certain streams additional water will have to be de- 
veloped for stream flow maintenance for fish, wildlife, 
and recreational purposes, and for maintenance of 
water quality. 

Problem of Floods 

It is ironical that the very forces which man now 
attempts to control to prevent flood damage have 
formed the flat fertile valleys which attracted him 
originally. Agricultural enterprise, with the resultant 
urban and industrial economy, has been developed 
almost entirely upon the fertile natural flood plains 
and basins and alluvial fans of active streams. 

The great Central Valley is itself an evolvement of 
many centuries of periodic flooding of the Sacramento 
and San Joaquin Rivers and their tributaries. It also 
is the major example in California of the results of 
recent intensive improvements encroaching upon 
flood plains. During the flood of December, 1955, great 
havoc was wrought throughout this area, which in- 
cludes that particular area of disaster in and about 
Yuba City. Protective works were generally designed 
for the economy existent prior to World War II. 
When the levees of the Feather River were breached, 
38 lives were lost and some 100,000 acres flooded, in- 
cluding Yuba City. It should be noted that this tragic 
loss of lives and destruction of property would have 
been prevented had Oroville Dam and Reservoir been 
in operation in conjunction with existing downstream 
flood control works. 

The combined effect of Hood runoff of Central Val- 
ley shrams and coincident extremely high tides dur- 
ing the l!)5. r > flood, produced critical conditions in the 
Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. Consisting as it does 
of a maze of reclaimed islands and separating chan- 




'. . . the State . . . has developed an economy which is largely contained on areas naturally subject 
to flooding." 

Break on Feather River Near Yuba City, December, 1955 



18 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



nels, the Delta is particularly vulnerable to the com- 
bination of flood flows, high tides, and strong winds, 
as is a great part of the shore of San Francisco Bay. 
The below-sea-level elevation of most of the islands 
in the Delta, and the poor bearing properties of the 
organic soils which limit the height to which levees 
can be built, constitute a flood problem. This resulted 
during the 1955 flood in the inundation of two islands 
and partial flooding of three others. 

Flood conditions in the North Coastal Area are 
particularly acute on the isolated flood terraces along 
streams such as the Klamath, Trinity, Mad, Eel, and 
Van Duzen Rivers. During floods these streams dis- 
charge tremendous quantities of water with extremely 
destructive force. Floods have, in fact, removed whole 
villages and left little evidence to indicate their 
former existence. The isolated nature and partial de- 
velopment on these flood terraces restrict the amount 
of protection which could be economically afforded at 
the present time ; but the nature of existing conditions 
does point up the flood damage potential as develop- 
ment proceeds in this and other comparable areas and 
the necessity for giving consideration to flood control 
needs in future water projects. 

The critical position of extensive urban encroach- 
ment on alluvial fans, with respect to the inherent 
flood conditions on these fans, is particularly notable 
in the area along the east shore of San Francisco Bay 
and in the South Coastal Area, the major examples of 
this development in California. Constantly shifting 
channels, high flood velocities, and heavy debris loads 
are always a threat on active alluvial fans. The result- 
ant danger to human life and concentrated economic 
developments was early realized, particularly in the 
South Coastal Area. Basin-wide flood control projects 
constructed in that area are indicative of the degree 
of planning which is necessary and which will become 
necessary in many other natural flood areas as they 
develop in the future. Although flood conditions still 
exist in the South Coastal Area, because many proj- 
ects are not yet completed, the potential damage has 
been greatly reduced. Likewise, the Sacramento River 
Flood Control Project, first authorized in 1917, has 
provided a substantia] degree of protection to valley 
lands, although additional upstream storage is re- 
quired for full protection. 

An important consideration in the matter of flood 
conditions is that of lack of watershed management. 
Early-day hydraulic mining contributed substantially 
to flood problems in the valley lands below areas i I 
mining operations. The debris load of flooding streams 
was increased many fold over what would have been 
naturally transported. The debris load is a prime 
factor in the cause of flooding, because al slower 

stream velocities on the valley floor the debris Settles 
out and effectively reduces the stream channel 
rapacity. 



Today hydraulic mining has virtually ceased in the 
mountains of California, but there are still causes 
existent which unnaturally increase the debris load of 
streams and, also, unnaturally increase the runoff of 
streams during periods of high flow. Overgrazing by 
stock, forest fires, and often excessive cutting of tim- 
ber very seriously reduce the vegetative cover of moun- 
tainous watersheds, thereby lessening or destroying 
completely the natural retentive and retarding qual- 
ities of the watershed with regard to the precipitation 
which falls thereon. 

In summary, the present population of the State — 
some 14,000,000 people — has developed an economy 
which is largely contained on areas naturally subject 
to flooding. While noteworthy progress in flood con- 
trol has been achieved, particularly by the flood con- 
trol projects constructed and under construction by 
the Corps of Engineers, U. S. Army, the growth of the 
State has been so rapid that these efforts still fall far 
short of providing an adequate degree of protection, 
even for the present population, in most areas of the 
State. Future increases in population of the State to 
an estimated ultimate total of some 40,000,000 will 
magnify and intensify present flood problems, as the 
increased development will continue to concentrate 
generally in the same areas naturally subject to flood- 
ing. Additional flood protection must be provided as 
rapidly as possible. 

Problem of Water Quality 

Deleterious effects on the quality of water are gen- 
erally manifested as a consequence of surface and 
ground water deficiencies, lack of drainage, and im- 
proper disposal of wastes. Problems of water quality 
are common to nearly all other water problems. 

In 1949 the State Legislature considered mainte- 
nance of the quality of the State's water resources of 
sufficient importance to warrant the formation of a 
State Water Pollution Control Board and nine re- 
gional water pollution control boards to protect the 
beneficial uses of the State's waters from adverse and 
unreasonable detriment due to disposal of sewage and 
industrial wastes. Responsibility for protection of the 
public health from hazard due to improper disposal 
of sewage and industrial wastes was continued in the 
State and local health departments. By a concurrent 
action, the Legislature added Sections 229 and 231 to 
the Water Code, which direct the Department of 
Water Resources to: 

"229. . . . , either independently or in coop- 
eration with any person or any county, state, fed- 
eral or other agency, to the extent that funds are 
allocated therefor, shall investigate conditions of 
the quality of all waters within the State, including 
saline waters, coastal and inland, as related to all 
sources of pollution of whatever nature and shall 
report thereon to the Legislature and to the appro- 



WATER PROBLEMS OF CALIFORNIA 



19 



priate regional water pollution control board annu- 
ally, and may recommend any steps which might be 
taken to improve or protect the quality of such 
waters. 

"231. . . . , either independently or in coop- 
eration with any person or any county, state, fed- 
eral or other agency, shall investigate and survey 
conditions of damage to quality of underground 
waters, which conditions are or may be caused by 
improperly constructed, abandoned or defective 
wells through the interconnection of strata or the 
introduction of surface waters into underground 
waters. The department shall report to the appro- 
priate regional water pollution control board its 
recommendations for minimum standards of well 
construction in any particular locality in which it 
deems regulation necessary to protection of quality 
of underground water, and shall report to the Leg- 
islature from time to time, its recommendations for 
proper sealing of abandoned wells." 

By these actions, it was recognized that the problem 
of water quality is essentially an unnatural one, 
caused largely by mismanagement of water resources 
as well as by inadequate treatment before disposal of 
utilized waters. 

In numerous coastal ground water basins normally 
containing fresh water, overdraft conditions have re- 
sulted in the intrusion of sea water into the aquifers, 
or the natural underground formations which store 
and transmit water. This has been caused by reversal 
of the natural seaward ground water gradient due 
to excess of pumped extractions over the natural 
ground water replenishment. As the aquifers of the 
coastal ground water basins are generally below sea 
level, saline water has moved in to replace a portion 
of the extracted water. In some cases — the Salinas 
Valley, southern Alameda County, and Orange County 
are notable examples — sea water has intruded into 
these erstwhile fresh water aquifers for distances of 
two or more miles. The restitution of areas which have 
been lost to sea-water degradation or any other type 
of degradation will be a long process — if possible at 
all, since the saline water must be physically removed, 
either by pumping or by maintenance of favorable 
gradients for an extended period. Meanwhile, overly- 
ing users have lost an economical source of water 
which can be replaced only by the costly process of 
deepening wells to a lower undegraded aquifer — 
when existent, or by importing surface supplies. 

There also exist potential sources of quality degra- 
dation from deep connate brines and adverse salt 
balance. Connate brines are ocean waters that were 
trapped in ground water basins which were inundated 
by the ocean in past geologic periods. Bodies of con- 
nate brines underlie large areas of the Sacramento 
and San Joaquin Valleys at varying depths. In some 
areas the upper surfaces are relatively close to the 



land surface, as along the west side of the San Joa- 
quin Valley and in the Delta area, thereby reducing 
the potential yield of these basins by limiting the ex- 
tent to which the ground water resources can be 
developed without infiltration of these brines. In 
many areas of the Central Valley connate brines have 
already been encountered in pumping operations 
where localized overdraft conditions exist. In some 
of these areas, the overlying fresh waters have be- 
come too saline for use. 

The extent of adverse salt balance in ground water 
basins throughout the State is not known at the pres- 
ent time, due to the lack of long-term records of 
mineral analyses. Salt balance refers to that desirable 
condition wherein the amount of soluble salts entering 
a basin is balanced by the amount of salts leaving the 
basin — either by natural disposal, sewage outflow, or 
by pumping for export. 

All waters contain some salts in solution. Circula- 
tion of available water by continued use and re-use in 
a ground water basin, with a gradual decrease in 
supply due to evaporation and transpiration while 
the mineral content of the basin remains relatively 
constant, will result in an increase in the proportion 
of salts in solution with respect to the remaining 
water available. Continued lack of supplementary 
water supplies in present areas of overdraft points 
to the fact that eventually the concentrations of 
soluble salts will reach limiting values beyond which 
the water will be unfit for beneficial use. 

In the process of drilling and altering wells, im- 
proper methods are being employed in many in- 
stances, resulting in an inadequate seal between strata 
of usable and unusable waters, thus allowing inter- 
change ; and in lack of adequate surface seals, permit- 
ting inflow of inferior surface waters with consequent 
damage to ground water quality. Likewise, failure to 
seal abandoned wells, or improper sealing when at- 
tempted, has resulted in the degradation or pollution 
of ground water. These problems are rapidly be- 
coming more serious as older well casings deteriorate 
and are abandoned and the drilling of new wells con- 
tinues at an unprecedented rate. At the present time 
the Department of Water Resources is investigating 
well drilling conditions and methods in the State in 
order to formulate well drilling and abandonment 
standards to afford adequate protection to the quality 
of ground waters. 

A quality problem involving surface water is pres- 
ently manifested in the inherently high mineral con- 
tent of streams draining the west side of the San 
Joaquin Valley. The problem is particularly acute 
during periods of low flow when, in traversing ground 
water basins on the valley floor, the water percolating 
into these stream beds contributes to adverse salt bal- 
ance in those basins, particularly those suffering an 
overdraft condition. 



I'd 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



Surface sea-water encroachment into the Delta 
region of the Central Valley has occurred in the past 
due to the seasonal and cyclic fluctuation in stream 
flow and the depletion by extensive upstream diver- 
sions. All irrigation supplies for fertile Delta islands, 
and for many of the lands along the Sacramento 
River, are diverted from the intervening streams and 
sloughs, and the threat to the agricultural economy 
of this area is serious. 

Alleviation of the salt-water intrusion problem was 
of prime consideration in the planning and construc- 
tion of the Central Valley Project. Stored winter 
surplus waters from reservoirs of the project have 
been used for repulsion of saline Avater by maintain- 
ing a certain minimum fresh-water outflow to Suisun 
Bay during periods of low natural flow in the summer 
and fall months. However, ultimate developments re- 
quiring greater beneficial use of all available waters 
will eventually require that repulsion of saline water 
by fresh-water outflow be substantially reduced. A 
plan for physical barriers, being considered in the 
ultimate development of the State's water supply, is 
discussed in Chapter IV. 

So far, this discussion has dealt largely with prob- 
lems of protection of mineral quality from deteriora- 
tion due to man's development of the water resources 
concerned, a matter to which too little attention has 
been given to date. Better known are the disastrous 
results caused by disposal of inadequately treated 
sewage and industrial wastes to streams and to ground 
water basins. Waste disposal problems may arise not 
only from liquid-borne wastes but also from disposal 
of garbage, refuse, and industrial wastes. Notable 
progress has been made by the State and Regional 
Water Pollution Control Boards and by the State and 
local health departments in preventing and abating 
pollution and contamination due to waste disposal. 
Every effort must continue to be made in the future 
to maintain the quality of the State's waters by ap- 
propriate planning for and control of the treatment 
and disposal of wastes, giving consideration to the 
effect of such waste disposal upon future planned 
uses as well as the present uses of the receiving 
waters. In planning for future urban and industrial 
development, careful consideration must be given to 
problems of waste disposal to prevent damage to the 
quality of the State's water resources. 

Man's development has characteristically exerted 
an adverse effect upon the native quality of waters. 
.Musi uses of water by man, For irrigation, for in- 
stance, as well as for the disposal of sewage and 
industrial wastes, add pollutants and degradants to 
the waters with resultant deterioration of the quality. 
Bencej ;is these uses increase, the necessity for ade- 
quate treatment and disposal of waste waters be- 
comes increasingly imperative if the quality is to be 
maintained at satisfactory levels for the higher uses. 
This is particularly true in areas of deficiency, where 



the quality of imported waters must be maintained at 
sufficiently high levels to permit necessary re-use. 

The removal and final disposal of harmful de- 
gradants or pollutants without danger or detriment, 
whether by means of separate lined conveyance con- 
duits or in natural channels, in may cases is possible 
only by providing for dilution of the waste waters 
with waters of higher quality. This may require the 
use of a portion of developed local supplies or the 
importation of water specifically for that purpose. 
The use of water resources for waste disposal is a 
necessary one and must be considered along with other 
water requirements for beneficial use. It will be neces- 
sary to find and apply the degree of dilution of waste 
waters needed in order to arrive at the proper and 
economic balance in the use of water as between waste 
removal and higher uses. One of the determinants in 
the use of water for waste removal is the necessity for 
maintaining a favorable salt balance. These are prob- 
lems requiring continuing study for proper solution. 

In summary, it may be stated unequivocally that 
unless the quality of the State's water resources is 
maintained at proper levels, full satisfaction of Cali- 
fornia's ultimate water requirements will not be 
possible. 

Problem of Production of Hydroelectric Energy 

The further extensive development of hydroelectric 
power as an inseparable part and partner in Cali- 
fornia's water resource development is a fully recog- 
nized requisite. The power potential of the north 
coastal streams, certain tributaries of the Sacramento 
River, and remaining undeveloped sites on east side 
tributaries in the San Joaquin Valley almost equals 
the total present steam and hydroelectric capacity 
now available in California. Full future satisfaction 
of water demands in all parts of California will re- 
quire mass movement of large volumes of water 
through long conveyance systems and over high 
mountain ranges. Considerably more energy will be 
needed for pumping than is presently developed in 
California. Moreover, it is estimated that by the year 
2000, California's total energy demand Avill exceed 
by 10 to 12 times the present power capability; the 
pumping load will be only a small part of that total 
demand. Hydroelectric power now finds its greatest 
value as "peaking" energy, and efficiently and eco- 
nomically complements steam power generated from 
fossil fuels. Likewise, it will combine equally well 
with atomic power generation in the years ahead. It 
seems reasonably certain that the power market will 
absorb hydroelectric power output as rapidly as it can 
he made available. The problem then, is to make each 
hydroelectric power opportunity yield the maximum 
in terms of energy output and revenue, but in proper 
balance with the other demands on and for the water 
resources concerned. 



WATER PROBLEMS OF CALIFORNIA 



2] 



Problems of Recreation, Fish, and Wildlife 

The need for more and better opportunities for 
wholesome outdoor recreation in California is rapidly 
expanding', due to the impact of a growing popula- 
tion, increased awareness by the people of the joys 
and benefits of such activity, and increased time and 
opportunity available to them for such pursuits. Ac- 
cessible water areas and flowing streams well stocked 
with fish constitute an important aspect of the public- 
desire for recreational opportunities. Satisfaction of 
that desire to the maximum feasible extent is a prob- 
lem inherent in the development of California's wa- 
ter resources. That development will provide several 
hundred new reservoirs with many thousands of 
i acres of water area, and will make possible releases 
of water in hundreds of miles of natural streams for 
improvement of fish and wildlife habitat. Enhance- 
I ment of fish and wildlife resources and development 
1 of the recreational potential will provide important 
• economic assets to many areas in California, particu- 
I larly in the mountains and foothills. Provisions of 
facilities and opportunities for such use by the public 
therefore becomes an important objective in further 
water development. 

Problem of Drainage 

An ever-present problem in irrigated agriculture is 
the necessity of providing adequate drainage. Ex- 
tensive drainage systems may be necessary to main- 
tain soil productivity. Leaching and drainage have 
made possible the reclamation and use of large areas 
formerly considered valueless. Adequate drainage 
and proper disposal of saline drain waters may be an 
: important factor in maintenance of ground water 
quality. 

At the present time, the most serious unsolved 
drainage problem in California is in the west side of 
the San Joaquin Valley. It is considered probable 
that full solution will require a master drainage 
channel extending from Buena Vista Lake in Kern 
County to Suisun Bay. 

Drainage must be considered an integral and in- 
dispensable part of the development and utilization 
of water resources. Adequate provision must be made 
therefor in the total program. 

Problem of Full Use of Available Storage Capacity 

A highly important problem which must be con- 
tinually kept in mind in the further development of 
California's water resources involves the proper use 
of available storage capacity, both surface and under- 
ground. With respect to surface storage development, 
the most economical clam and reservoir sites have 
already been developed, leaving the less desirable 
projects available for future construction. Remaining 
combinations of good dam sites with surface reser- 
voir sites of adequate capacity are rare, particularly 
in the areas in which export waters must be devel- 



oped. With regard to groin id water, it has been 
demonstrated in many areas of the State that the 
ground water basins, once considered a source of 
virtually inexhaustible supply, must be carefully 
managed in order to ensure their continued usability. 

Because of the limited remaining surface storage 
capacity susceptible of development and the many 
purposes and uses to which the developed water must 
be put, it is highly important and urgently necessary 
that the available storage capacity be used wisely and 
for maximum benefit. This can be accomplished only 
by achieving the optimum development at each site 
selected for construction, which necessitates provi- 
sion for the full development of the water production 
capabilities of the watershed and, in many instances, 
operation of the reservoir to meet the needs of several 
purposes, such as irrigation, urban, and industrial 
uses ; flood control ; power generation ; recreation ; 
fish and wildlife ; and protection of water quality. 

Failure to develop a site to its full potential 
through construction of a single-purpose project 
where a multipurpose project is necessary and justi- 
fied initially in the public interest, or initial construc- 
tion such as to preclude later full development, would 
result in the extravagant waste of the site. 

Of paramount importance among the advantages 
inherent in multipurpose planning and development 
are economy and conservation of project sites. With 
respect to economy, it is generally cheaper to provide 
for several water uses in a single project than to 
build several single-purpose projects. Conservation of 
project sites is necessary because the scarcity of favor- 
able dam sites dictates the fullest practicable develop- 
ment of the potential of each site. 

In view of California's continuing growth in popu- 
lation and water demand, practices which result in 
the wasting of surface storage opportunities by in- 
adequate development, without regard to future re- 
quirements for other purposes, should no longer be 
permitted on any stream in the State. These criteria 
should apply wherever storage is contemplated by 
the State or any other agency. In those cases where 
initial construction to optimum size of reservoir is 
currently infeasible, then provisions for future rais- 
ing of the dam to full height should be incorporated 
in the original construction. 

Careful management of California's underground 
storage capacity will be required not only in areas 
where increased use of ground water resources is ex- 
pected, but also for preservation of the present level 
of use in those basins which are experiencing or are 
threatened with overdraft and deterioration of water 
quality. In other words, unless an effective manage- 
ment program is implemented in the near future, in- 
volving the maintenance of water quality and the 
limiting of pumping extractions within safe yield 
rates, the utility of the State's ground water basins 
cannot be perpetually maintained. 




water is the lifeblood of recreation and fish and wildlife. 



CHAPTER III 

WATER DEVELOPMENT PLANNING 



The discussion and data presented in Chapter II 
have firmly established the fact that the number one 
present and future water problem in California 
centers around the disparities in the occurrence of 
water supply and requirements — both in terms of 
time and place. In brief review, the disparity in time 
refers to the natural occurrence of runoff principally 
during the winter and spring months and in highly 
varying quantities from year to year, while the re- 
quirements for water imposed by man's develop- 
ments are characteristically the greatest during the 
summer months and are relatively uniform from year 
to year. The disparity in place refers to the varying 
distances between the sources of supply and the areas 
of need, with the bulk of the resources occurring in 
the north and the major requirements in the central 
and southern areas of the State. All planning and 
construction efforts by agencies and individuals have 
been and will continue to be dedicated mainly to the 
equalizing of the "time" and "place" factors. How- 
ever, with a few notable exceptions, these efforts have 
in the past been limited in scope and objectives to 
local areas. 

This chapter presents a brief historical account of 
water resource planning and development in Cali- 
fornia up to the present time, discusses the urgent 
need for comprehensive coordinated planning on a 
state-wide basis, and outlines the planning considera- 
tions utilized as bases for formulating The California 
Water Plan. 

HISTORY OF WATER RESOURCE 
DEVELOPMENT 

The history of water resource development in Cali- 
fornia has largely been that of control and regulation 
of the supply at its source, to insure its availabil- 
ity when needed, and conveyance to the area where 
needed. Fortunately, the greater portion of the water 
resources of the State so far developed and utilized 
have been regulated in ground water storage by na- 
ture, thus reducing the need for construction of sur- 
face storage reservoirs. Furthermore, the extensive 
occurrence and ready availability of ground water 
resources in these areas have greatly reduced the past 
need for extensive conveyance facilities. However, 
many areas of the State have been and will continue 
to be dependent primarily upon the development of 
surface water supplies. As future water requirements 
increase throughout the State, development of surface 



water supplies and transfer to areas of need will be- 
come increasingly important. 

History of the use of water in California by white 
settlers began with the Spanish missions in the final 
third of the eighteenth century. Profiting by their ex- 
perience in arid Baja California, the padres estab- 
lished most of the Alta California missions at loca- 
tions where water for irrigation was available. 
Except for limited cultivation by Indians along the 
west bank of the Colorado River, it was in the mission 
gardens of fruits and vegetables, and perhaps in oc- 
casional fields of grain, that irrigation in California 
had its beginnings. Even today, more than a century 
and a half later, remnants of mission works to supply 
irrigation and domestic water may be seen, notably 
at San Diego Mission Dam on San Diego River, at 
Santa Barbara Mission Dam and Reservoir above 
Santa Barbara, and at Mission San Antonio de Padua 
near King City. 

Acreage irrigated at the Spanish missions was 
small, yet it provided an important object lesson for 
American and European settlers who began arriving 
in California in the 1830 's and 1840 's. During the 
first two decades of American occupation, from 1850 
to 1870, settlers in the southern part of California 
built small ditches diverting from streams of the 
coastal plain, mainly in the Los Angeles, San Gabriel, 
and Santa Ana River Basins. In the northern and 
central parts of the State water was also diverted 
from streams or obtained from artesian flows, and to 
a limited extent was lifted from streams with steam- 
driven pumps. In the foothills of the Sierra Nevada 
development of irrigated agriculture was accelerated 
by the expansion in population that accompanied and 
followed the Gold Rush. Mining ditches were subse- 
quently utilized to convey irrigation supplies to areas 
of use after mining had ceased. 

The first irrigation supplies were diverted from 
nearby streams, without storage, and lands irrigated 
were limited to those that could be watered from 
available low summer flows. In southern California, 
however, the need for storage reservoirs was soon 
recognized and several important dams, including 
Bear Valley, Hemet, Sweetwater, and Cuyamaca, 
were constructed or begun in the 1880 's. In the re- 
mainder of the State all major storage reservoirs, pri- 
marily for irrigation and flood control, have been con- 
structed since 1900. A number of these, such as 
Melones, Don Pedro, and Exchequer, were financially 
assisted by the hydroelectric power developed from 
the water stored. 



(23) 



24 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



Early irrigation following' the Spanish and Mexican 
days was practiced mainly on an uncoordinated, indi- 
vidual basis. By 1856, however, a commercial company 
had constructed canals to irrigate wheat near Wood- 
land in Yolo County, and about that time groups of 
settlers were joining together to build ditches in the 
south. Construction of larger irrigation works by de- 
velopment companies and cooperatives was well under 
way by the 1870 's and 1880 's, in both the southern 
part of the State and the central and southern parts 
of the San Joaquin Valley. 

In 1887, the original Wright Irrigation District Act 
was passed by the Legislature, partly as a result of 
prior court decisions regarding water rights which 
were adverse to irrigation development. These de- 
cisions had established the doctrine of riparian rights, 
which largely limited the use of water to lands border- 
ing natural stream channels. By providing for the 
organization and government of irrigation districts, 
declaring use of water for irrigation of district lands 
a public use, and vesting in the districts the power of 
eminent domain to acquire necessary water, riparian 
or otherwise, the Wright Act and subsequent acts 
which have developed from it have made possible 
much of the present great agricultural development 
of California. Activities of many individuals, cooper- 
atives, and water utilities also have contributed to the 
dominant importance of irrigated agriculture to the 
economy of the State. 

The large metropolitan areas of the State, under 
pressure of ever-increasing requirements and dimin- 
ishing sources of undeveloped local water, have exer- 
cised initiative and leadership in solving their water 
supply problems. By their efforts, outstanding achieve- 
ments in developing remote sources of supply and 
crossing mountains and deserts with extensive con- 
veyance systems have been accomplished. 

Typical of such accomplishments is the history of 
the City of Los Angeles which, as far back as 1905, 
had outgrown its local water supplies and had initi- 
ated studies to locate additional sources of water. 
These studies culminated in construction of a 238-mile 
aqueduct to convey waters developed on the Owens 
River, on the eastern slopes of the Sierra Nevada, to 
terminal reservoirs in the San Fernando Valley. This 
project was completed in 1913, and in 1940 the system 
was extended northward to develop additional sup- 
plies from the Mono Basin watershed. The present 
average capacity of the Los Angeles Aqueduct is esti- 
mated at 320,000 acre-feel per season. The system op- 
erates entirely under gravity flow, except that during 
periods Of extreme drought- 1 he surface runoff has 
been augmented by pumping from wells in Owens 
Valley. Hydroelectric power generating installations 
are provided to utilize the substantial elevation differ- 
entials along the route of the aqueduct. 

Ten years after completion of the Los Angeles 
Aqueduct, the City of Los Angeles and other commu 



nities in southern California foresaw the need for 
additional water supplies. Studies of the possibilities 
of importing water from the Colorado River were ini- 
tiated by the Los Angeles Department of Water and 
Power, but were taken over in 1928 by The Metropoli- 
tan Water District of Southern California, then a 
newly formed organization of 11 southern California 
cities. The studies culminated in construction by the 
district of the Colorado River Aqueduct, which di- 
verts water from the Colorado River at Lake Havasu 
behind Parker Dam. The water is lifted 1,617 feet 
over mountain barriers by a series of five pumping 
plants, and conveyed a distance of 242 miles to Lake 
Mathews, western terminus of the aqueduct proper. 
A distribution system from Lake Mathews serves 
lands in Los Angeles, Orange, Riverside, and San 
Bernardino Counties. The San Diego Aqueduct, a 
twin-barrelled conduit, conveys water from the Colo- I 
rado River Aqueduct to San Diego County. The Colo- 1 
rado River Aqueduct, in operation since 1941, is the ] 
longest and largest domestic water supply line in the I 
world. It is designed to deliver 1,212,000 acre-feet 
annually, the total right of the Metropolitan Water ! 
District, when completed to full capacity. It is now I 
estimated that this source will furnish ample water 
for perhaps 10 or 15 years, at which time another i 
and even longer step must inevitably be taken. 

Other outstanding examples of initiative and lead- 
ership in water supply development in California are 
manifested by the major reservoirs constructed by 
communities of the San Francisco Bay Area on the 
Mokelumne and Tuolumne Rivers on the western slope 
of the Sierra Nevada, and the aqueducts which con- 
vey municipal and industrial water great distances to 
the Bay area, the South Bay area, and southern por- 
tions of Alameda County. The City and County of 
San Francisco foresaw many years in advance that its 
locally available water supply would be outgrown, and 
initiated planning studies as early as 1900 for develop- 
ing a major system for importing large quantities of 
water from a distant source. The Tuolumne River sys- 
tem was chosen as the source of San Francisco's future 
water supply, and by 1934, when needed, Hetch 
Iletchy Reservoir and Lake Eleanor in the Tuolumne 
River watershed had been completed and water was 
delivered to the San Francisco Peninsula by the Hetch 
Iletchy Aqueduct, extending some 135 miles from the 
Tuolumne River to Crystal Springs Reservoir on the 
peninsula. 

The Hetch Iletchy Aqueduct features a 25-mile tun- 
nel through the Coast Range, the longest tunnel in the 
Avorld at the time of completion. The aqueduct will 
convey not less than 448,000 acre-feet per season to 
the service area, as now constituted, of the Hetch 
Iletchy system when that system is developed to its 
ultimate capacity. This will require additional storage 
and duplication of present conveyance facilities, in- 
cluding a parallel bore through the Coast Range. 




. the East Bay area 
Pardee Dam 



has developed the waters of the Mokelumne River . . 




. water pumped from the Delta for use in Contra Costa County.' 
Contra Costa Canal 



26 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



The many communities in the East Bay area, 
through the formation of the East Bay Municipal 
Utility District, have developed the waters of the 
Mokelumne River by Pardee Reservoir, and have con- 
structed the Mokelumne Aqueduct to transport the de- 
veloped waters from Pardee Reservoir to terminal 
reservoirs in western Contra Costa and Alameda Coun- 
ties. The aqueduct presently delivers about 125,000 
acre-feet per season, and has a conveyance capacity of 
some 162,000 acre-feet per season. The district con- 
templates an ultimate yearly delivery of 364,000 acre- 
feet through the Mokelumne Aqueduct. The district 
proposes to construct additional storage facilities on 
the Mokelumne River and additional aqueduct ca- 
pacity to make this delivery possible. 

All the aforementioned water supply projects have 
been conceived and consummated through local effort. 
However, especially during the past 20 years, federal 
agencies have entered the field of water resource de- 
velopment in California. The Corps of Engineers of 
the United States Army, through its responsibilities 
for flood control and navigation, as previously men- 
tioned in Chapter II, and the Bureau of Reclamation 
of the Department of the Interior, in the interests of 
conservation and reclamation, have both constructed 
comprehensive projects. The most extensive of these is 
the Central Valley Project, now being completed in 
substantial accord with the State Water Plan, as pub- 
lished in Division of Water Resources Bidletin No. 
25 and reported to the Legislature in 1931. 

The Central Valley Project, constructed and oper- 
ated by the Bureau of Reclamation, is a multipurpose 
development designed to supply water for irrigation, 
municipal, industrial, and other uses, improve navi- 
gation on the Sacramento River, provide adequate 
flows to maintain suitable water quality in the Sac- 
ramento-San Joaquin Delta, control floods in the Cen- 
tral Valley, and produce hydroelectric energy. In ac- 
complishing the first-named function, it conserves sur- 
plus flows of the Sacramento River for use in the Sac- 
ramento Valley and in the Delta and for conveyance 
to and use in the San Joaquin Valley. Shasta Dam, 
key structure of the project, stores headwaters of the 
Sacramento River. Its regulated releases, after pass- 
ing through hydroelectric power plants at Shasta mid 
Keswick Dams, flow down the stream channel to the 
Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. A pumping plant 
located near Tracy lifts water from sea level in the 
Delta to an elevation of about 200 feet and discharges 
it into the Delta-Mendota Canal, which extends 117 
miles along the west side of the San Joaquin Valley to 
Mendota Pool in the San .Joaquin River. 

The second major elemenl of the Central Valley 
Project consists of Prianl Dam on the San Joaquin 
River and the Madera and Friant-Kern Canals. Tins 
unit supplies lands on the easl side of the San Joaquin 
Valley in Madera, Fresno, Tulare, and Kern Counties. 



These diversions from the San Joaquin River are 
partly replaced by Sacramento River waters at Men- 
dota Pool to supply certain former users of San Joa- 
quin River flows under an exchange contract. 

These basic elements of the Central Valley Project 
are augmented by additional associated units. The 
transfer of Sacramento River water across the Delta 
to the Tracy Pumping Plant is accomplished by the 
Delta Cross Channel. The Contra Costa Canal con- 
veys water pumped from the Delta for use in Contra 
Costa County. A number of lesser conservation, con- 
veyance, and distribution works provide additional 
water service, and an extensive transmission network 
has been established to facilitate utilization of energy j 
from the several power features of the project. 

Folsom Dam on the American River, now com- 
pleted, will contribute to the over-all operations of the 
Central Valley Project. Consideration is now being 
given to the so-called Folsom South Canal to convey 
releases from Folsom Reservoir southward to supply 
lands in Sacramento and San Joaquin Counties. Lat- 
est addition to the Central Valley Project is the 
Trinity Project, incorporated in the original State 
Water Plan but later eliminated by action of the 
State Legislature. This unit, the only feature of the 
project extending beyond the Central Valley water- 
shed, is now under construction. It will develop flows 
of the upper Trinity River and convey them eastward 
across the drainage divide to the Sacramento River, 
utilizing the elevation differential for production of 
hydroelectric power. It should be noted that Folsom 
Reservoir and Trinity Diversion Project, although 
incorporated in the Central Valley Project, as author- 
ized by the Federal Government, and included in The 
California Water Plan, are not included in the Cen- 
tral Valley Project as defined in the State Water 
Code. 

Several other projects have been completed recently 
or are under construction in the State by the Federal 
Government. The Solano Project of the Bureau of 
Reclamation consists of Monticello Dam and Reservoir 
on Putah Creek, now completed, and the Putah South 
Canal extending southerly through Solano County, 
presently under construction. The Sly Park Project, 
recently constructed by the Bureau of Reclamation, 
develops water in the mountain watershed of the 
Cosumnes River and conveys it to the American 
River Basin for use on foothill lands. 

The Corps of Engineers has completed Pine Flat 
Reservoir on the Kings River and Isabella Reservoir 
on the Kern River for flood control and irrigation. The 
Corps is initiating construction of the Success Project 
mi the Tide River and is preparing plans for construc- 
tion of the Terminus Project on the Kaweah River, 
both also for flood control and water conservation. 

In the Central Coastal Area the Bureau of ReclaJ 
mation is constructing Vaquero Reservoir on the 




'The Central Valley Project . . . conserves surplus flows of the Sacramento River for use in the Sacra- 
mento Valley . . . the Delta . . . and in the San Joaquin Valley." 

Shasta Dam 

Delta-Mendota Canal 



28 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



Cuyama River, a tributary of the Santa Maria River. 
This reservoir will provide water conservation for 
recharge of ground water and flood control. In coordi- 
nation with a levee project authorized for construction 
by the Corps of Engineers on the Santa Maria River, 
nearly complete flood protection will be provided in 
the Santa Maria Valley. Cachuma Reservoir, recently 
completed by the Bureau of Reclamation on the Santa 
Ynez River, provides supplemental water in Santa 
Barbara County. The Bureau of Reclamation also is 
constructing Casitas Reservoir on Coyote Creek, a 
tributary of the Ventura River, to increase supple- 
mental water supply in Ventura County. 

Several reservoir projects are presently under con- 
sideration by the Bureau of Reclamation, including 
Auburn Reservoir on the American River and San 
Luis Reservoir westerly of Los Banos in the San 
Joaquin Valley. 

The United States Department of Agriculture under 
the authority of the federal "Watershed Protection 
and Flood Prevention Act" as amended, is partici- 
pating to an increasing extent in water resource 
control and development in California. The federal 
legislation authorizes the Department of Agriculture 
in cooperation with the states and their political sub- 
divisions to investigate, to provide financial and other 
assistance, and to undertake works of improvement 
for : (1 ) flood prevention, including structural and 
laud treatment measures; and (2) the conservation, 
development, utilization, and disposal of water for all 
purposes and uses. The act provides that initial appli- 
cations for projects be submitted to the appropriate 
state agency or the governor, and if not disapproved 
within 45 days, the Secretary of Agriculture may 
approve and proceed with the investigation, negotia- 
tions for, and construction of the proposed works. 
Projects are limited to watershed areas not exceeding 
250,000 acres, and reservoirs are limited to a capacity 
not exceeding 2,500 acre-feet, unless specific congres- 
sional approval of larger reservoirs is given. 

Despite the foregoing limitations on size of projects, 
this program if undertaken on a large scale may have 
far-reaching consequences in the development of Cali- 
fornia's water resources. It is therefore of primary 
importance that the closest coordination and coopera- 
tion be maintained as to these projects during plan- 
ning and later stages among the state agencies 
concerned with land and water resource development, 
the federal agencies, and the local agencies involved. 
The coordination should be initiated long before offi- 
cial submission of proposals to the State for approval 
or disapproval, in order that the availability and the 
best use of the water resources involved may be 
determined and agreed upon. 

Waters of the Colorado River are of vital importance 
to the developed economy of southern California. In 
addition to supplying The .Metropolitan Water Dis- 



trict of Southern California through the Colorado 
River Aqueduct, these waters are utilized to irrigate* 
lands in Palo Verde, Imperial, and Coachella Valleys. 
The All- American Canal, built by the Bureau oi 
Reclamation and now operated by the Imperial Irriga-j 
tion District, originates at Imperial Dam on the 
Colorado River near Yuma and extends westerly 
across Imperial Valley along the California side of 
the Mexican border. The canal has an intake capacity 
of about 10,000 second-feet. Near the boundary of the 
Imperial Irrigation District, the Coachella Canal 
branches northward from the All-American Canal to 
supply lands along the eastern shore of the Salton 
Sea and in lower Coachella Valley. It should be noted 
that the Ail-American system, in common with the 
Colorado River Aqueduct, is dependent upon Hoover 
Dam and its reservoir, Lake Mead, for regulation of 
the Colorado River. 

The foregoing water supply projects by no means 
represent the entire existing water development pic- 
ture for California. Projects of lesser magnitude, 
though not necessarily of secondary significance, 
transport supplies to areas of use in other drainage 
basins. Localized conservation developments, many of 
them incorporating flood control and hydroelectric 
power features, constitute a large factor in the State 's 
water supply program. 

Not to be overlooked in the history of water supply 
development in California are the ground water reser- 
voirs, which at present furnish more than one-half the 
water used on irrigated lands and for domestic, mu- 
nicipal, and industrial purposes. Extensive develop- 
ment of ground water is concentrated largely in the 
Central Valley and southern California, and consists 
primarily of a multitude of individually owned instal- 
lations operated on a completely uncoordinated basis. 
Improvement of pumping equipment, and extension 
of electric power service generally over most of the 
important ground water basins since the turn of the 
century, together with the rapid growth of water re- 
quirements, particularly in recent years, have so stim- 
ulated development that in many basins the ground 
waters have been severely overdrawn. Serious losses 
have already resulted and more will follow until cor- 
rective measures are taken. The Raymond Basin area 
in Los Angeles County provides an example of prop- 
erly managed ground water resources. This resulted 
from court action. Similar actions are in process for 
the West Coast Basin in Los Angeles County and the 
Tia Jtiana Basin in San Diego County. 

Perennial lowering of ground water levels has been 
substantially retarded in several ground water basins 
by artificial recharge with both native and imported 
waters. About 25 public districts and private entities 
of various types are presently conducting such pro- 
grams. Essentially, artificial recharge involves the 
use of stream channels, spreading basins, or aban- 



WATER DEVELOPMENT PLANNING 



29 



doued gravel pits to supplement natural percolation. 
The recharge capability of these percolation works is 
commonly increased by detention of excess runoff in 
upstream reservoirs and the control of releases to 
rates within the percolation capacity of the works. 

Notable achievements in artificial recharge have 
been accomplished by the Los Angeles County Flood 
Control District, the Orange County Flood Control 
District, United Water Conservation District in Ven- 
tura County, San Bernardino County Flood Control 
District, Santa Clara Valley Water Conservation Dis- 
trict, and Kern County Land Company, among others. 

COMPREHENSIVE COORDINATED PLANNING 
AT STATE-WIDE LEVEL 

A great deal of progress has been made so far in 
the development of California's water resources. No 
one can refute the fact that the initiative and re- 
sourcefulness of local agencies in planning and con- 
structing water development projects has been largely 
responsible for the present highly developed level of 
economy throughout the State. The assistance of the 
Federal Government has been most helpful. However, 
the growth of the State, made possible by the progres- 
sive development of water supplies, has constantly 
created new water problems, each of which has be- 
come successively more difficult of solution. All too 
often, limited planning for the future has resulted in 
construction of works sufficient only to meet the needs 
of the present, as growth throughout the State has 
continued at rates exceeding even the most optimistic 
forecasts. 

The great water development projects conceived 
and constructed in the past, notable as they are and 
vital to the State's development as they have been, 
represent comparatively localized planning when con- 
sidered from the state-wide standpoint. Even the Cen- 
tral Valley Project, a revolutionary plan when con- 
ceived and a phenomenal development as it is being 
constructed, is limited in its scope and benefits to a 
comparatively small part of the State as a whole, nota- 
bly portions of the Sacramento Valley, the Sacra- 
mento-San Joaquin Delta, and of the San Joaquin 
Valley. It is but a magnification of what some 100 
irrigation and reclamation districts have done on their 
own initiative with local financing. Without such local 
projects constructed in the past, however, California 
for the most part would still be a semiarid wasteland. 

Because of the dictates of economics, which governs 
i water development as well as all other engineering 
projects, the cheapest and easiest-to-develop water 
projects have always been selected first for construc- 
tion. Naturally, local water supplies were developed 
first. Development of water from distant sources and 
conveyance through lengthy and costly aqueducts have 
been resorted to only after available local supplies 



have become insufficient. The same principle of eco- 
nomics has prevailed in the selection of alternative 
sources of imported water supplies. Thus, we are now 
faced with the inevitable consequences : future water 
development in California must involve "leftover" lo- 
cal projects and costly major import projects which 
are generally beyond the means of all but a very few 
local agencies. 

Today, there is increasingly severe competition be- 
tween areas and between uses for the remaining avail- 
able water resources. In some streams there is no 
remaining unappropriated water available for the 
further development of areas which should logically 
be served therefrom. As previously mentioned, sev- 
eral of the major ground water basins are seriously 
overdrawn. 

In view of this and of the previously discussed 
wide disparity between the occurrence of the State's 
water resources and needs, both as to time and place, 
it is apparent that the era of piecemeal water de- 
velopment planning and construction virtually has 
reached an end. Future development of the State's 
water resources must rely, to a constantly increasing- 
extent, on coordinated, comprehensive planning on a 
state-wide level if the needs of all areas and all uses 
are to be met in the most effective and economical 
manner. The need for such planning is continually 
becoming more evident as undeveloped local water 
resources diminish and development of supplemental 
supplies becomes more complex, while water require- 
ments increase in unprecedented proportions. 

The purpose of such coordinated, state-wide plan- 
ning must be to establish a framework into which all 
future water development projects, both local and 
state-wide, can be integrated, and which will serve as 
a guide to ensure optimum development and utiliza- 
tion of available water resources, with due considera- 
tion to the varying interests and uses involved. This 
is the objective of The California Water Plan. It will 
serve as the engineering basis for proper administra- 
tion in the public interest of the State's water re- 
sources by the various agencies involved. It will 
provide the means for badly-needed coordination in 
further planning and in the construction and opera- 
tion of water projects among the manifold entities, 
federal, state, local, and private, engaged in water 
control and development in California. 

A continuing, coordinated, state-wide, planning 
program, implemented progressively by the construc- 
tion of projects as necessary and justified, is the only 
means by which the logical, orderly, and economic 
development of California's water resources can be 
assured to the degree necessary to meet the ultimate 
requirements for all uses. The construction of proj- 
ects to accomplish the objectives of the planning pro- 
gram will undoubtedly require the combined efforts 
of the Federal Government, the State Government, 



30 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



and local entities, but the State logically must take a 
leading role, since much of the development that will 
be needed is outside the scope of federal interest and 
beyond the capabilities of local entities. Further, the 
magnitude of the job to be done -will require the 
financial support of all agencies involved. 

PLANNING FOR DEVELOPMENT OF 
CALIFORNIA'S WATER 

Solution of California's water problems will not 
be fully accomplished until the water resources are 
captured and controlled at their source, transported 
to areas of need, and reregulated to the demand 
schedules prevailing in the particular areas served 
in amounts sufficient to meet the ultimate require- 
ments for all beneficial uses. The indicated solution 
will involve the redistribution of water supplies for 
use in local areas, and the transfer on a state-wide 
basis of water from northern areas of abundance to 
central and southern areas of deficiency. Thus, the 
planning of projects necessary for achievement of 
the required degree of water resource development to 
meet the ultimate requirements involves three pri- 
mary considerations, each of which presents difficult 
but not insurmountable obstacles. As presented 
herein, these considerations concern the development 
of a solution of ultimate problems, but do not cover 
the many phases of interim uses and transfers of 
water that would inevitably occur during the step-by- 
step implementation of the ultimate plan. 

Capture and Control of Water 

The first consideration — capture and control of the 
water at its source — involves the planning of large 
surface storage reservoirs and substantial ground 
water storage to regulate the inherent seasonal and 
cyclic fluctuation of stream flow to a more or less 
uniform seasonal supply, for conveyance to areas of 
use both local and distant. Actually it is the varia- 
tion of runoff from year to year, rather than that 
within the season, that imposes the large storage re- 
quirements, as sufficient storage must be available to 
capture surplus water during wet periods to carry 
through subsequent extended drought periods. "Were 
it not for the variable or cyclic occurrence of the 
water resources, the storage requirement would be 
greatly reduced. The enormous storage requirement, 
as subsequently developed in this bulletin, probably 
could be met by surface storage alone on the north 
coast streams. However, full cyclic regulation of the 
flow of the Sacramento Valley streams would neces- 
sitate not only full development of all available sur 
face storage opportunities but also conjunctive opera- 
tion of the large underground reservoirs in the 
Sacramento and San Joaquin Valleys. Some 30 per 
cent of the developed runoff of the Sacramento Val- 



ley would need to be regulated by underground 
storage. This in turn would require the provision of 
conveyance canals adequate in capacity to transport 
this secondary water, of irregular occurrence and 
variable flow characteristics, to the areas of recharge 
of the underground storage basins. 

Conveyance to Areas of Need 

The second consideration — the conveyance of water 
over long distances to areas of need — involves large 
conduits which must pass over or through either or 
both the Coast Range and Tehachapi Mountains, and 
which would extend practically from the northern to 
the southern borders of the State. Economic and geo- 
logic considerations dictate the design of such con- 
duits generally for continuous year-round conveyance 
of a uniform quantity of water, in order to minimize 
the size of tunnels, pumping plants, canals, siphons, 
and other conveyance facilities. In certain cases, how- 
ever, pumping plants and conduits would be designed 
for larger capacities to enable the use of lower cost 
off-peak power. Moreover, conveyance of the variable 
seasonal secondary water from the Sacramento Valley 
to the San Joaquin Valley would necessitate the de- 
sign of certain conduits to the maximum rather than 
the average seasonal flows. Even at their minimum 
possible size wherever possible, conveyance facilities 
required for interbasin transfer of water under ulti- 
mate conditions would be without precedent in magni- 
tude and scope. 

Reregulation in Areas of Use 

Finally, the third consideration — the reregulation 
of delivered water to the monthly demand schedule 
prevailing in the areas of use — involves the planning 
of terminal storage reservoirs to regulate the largely 
uniform deliveries to the varying monthly demands 
for the various uses in the areas served. Because the 
bulk of the water would be delivered to most areas on 
a uniform seasonal basis, the required terminal stor- 
age facilities would be relatively small. However, in 
areas such as the San Joaquin Valley, where a portion 
of the supplemental water would be delivered on a 
variable basis from year to year, final regulation 
would be accomplished by use of ground water storage 
to a very large extent. 

Development and Use of Water 

In addition to the foregoing considerations of de- 
velopment, conveyance, and reregulation of water, 
planning for the ultimate solution of California's 
water problems also requires the consideration of other 
physical problems brought about by the development 
and use of water. Those problems associated with the I 
development of water involve the operation of reser- 
voirs for the several beneficial, although somewhat in- 
compatible, purposes of providing municipal, irriga- 
tion, and industrial supplies; Hood control; fish and 



WATER DEVELOPMENT PLANNING 



31 



wildlife ; recreation ; navigation ; and power genera- 
tion. Problems associated with the use of water in- 
volve the consideration of protection of water quality 
and provision for adequate drainage. Means of financ- 
ing, although involving problems vital to the effectua- 
tion of the vast system of works necessary to the solu- 
tion of California's water problems, are beyond the 
scope of planning considerations presented herein. 

Certain basic legal concepts are inherent in the 
planning considerations necessary to the solution of 
California's water problems. Minimum pQssible inter- 
ference with vested water rights is a major objective. 
However, some instances of conflict with vested rights 
are inevitable in a plan of such magnitude. In those 
instances of interference and to the extent vested 
rights might be adversely affected, the interference 
would have to be adjusted either by agreement, pur- 
chase, or condemnation. Exchanges of water, where 
necessary or desirable, would be accomplished by mu- 
tual agreement among the parties affected, including 
the State and Federal Government where pertinent. 
With respect to the protection of areas of origin of 
water and the areas of deficiency for which new water 
supplies must be made available, it is assumed that 
the legislation necessary to provide that protection 
would be enacted prior to its need. Similarly, with 
regard to ground water operations, it is assumed that 
necessary legislation would establish the policy and the 
authority which would enable the operation of ground 
water basins to the degree required under ultimate 
conditions, prior to the time such operation becomes 
necessary. Many other legal problems are certain to 
arise as the water resources are developed. For the 
purposes of this report it is assumed that they will 
be solved as the need arises. 

Development of Water. As previously stated, 
problems associated with the development of water 
involve the operation of reservoirs for the somewhat 
incompatible purposes of providing municipal, irriga- 
tion, and industrial supplies; flood control; fish and 
wildlife ; recreation ; navigation ; and power genera- 
tion. This statement refers to the problem of resolving 
the inherent conflict in the allocation of limited avail- 
able reservoir storage to each of those purposes. As 
an example, operation for flood control sometimes re- 
M in i is the tise of storage that might otherwise be used 
for conservation. Operation for power generation sim- 
ilarly may encroach upon conservation storage, be- 
cause of the required minimum storage for mainte- 
nance of power head. Moreover, the schedule of power 
releases is not in phase with the schedule of releases 
for irrigation purposes, although a large portion of 
the conservation releases also accomplishes the dual 
purpose of power generation. Operation of reservoirs 
for water supply, flood control, and power generation 
is not readily amenable to recreational use of the res- 
ervoir area because of the extreme and sometimes rapid 



fluctuations of water levels. Furthermore, reservoir 
releases for downstream fishery enhancement may ad- 
versely affect the conservation yield for other pur- 
poses. Conversely, any major storage structure would 
affect anadromous fish by blocking their passage to 
upstream spawning areas, necessitating the provision 
of adequate facilities for maintaining the fisheries re- 
sources. To minimize the effects of these conflicts and 
thus achieve the maximum degree of conservation con- 
sistent with the manifold benefits desired, carefully 
coordinated operation of multipurpose reservoirs is 
mandatory. 

All of the foregoing purposes of water development 
are vitally necessary and must be fully considered in 
planning for the solution of the State's water prob- 
lems. Such planning involves consideration of certain 
reservoirs to be operated solely for flood control, other 
reservoirs to be operated solely for fish and wildlife 
and recreational purposes, and certain reservoirs to 
be operated primarily for power generation. However, 
most major reservoirs would be operated for all of 
these and other beneficial purposes. 

1. Flood Control. It should be pointed out that, 
in addition to planned operation for flood control, a 
measure of incidental flood protection would be de- 
rived from operation of any storage reservoir. How- 
ever, storage capacity sufficient to contain all flood 
waters would require extremely large and expensive 
reservoirs. Generally, it is not feasible to attain com- 
plete conservation and flood control by storage alone. 
Improvement of downstream channels in combination 
with upstream storage reservoirs will probably pro- 
vide the most economic solution to the important 
problem of flood control in California. Flood control 
has in the past and will continue to be largely a joint 
endeavor between the United States, the State, and 
local public interests. 

2. Recreation, Fish, and Wildlife. Outdoor recrea- 
tion and fish and wildlife conservation are essential 
considerations in planning for water resource develop- 
ment. When reservoir storage is contemplated on 
streams with recreation potential, sufficient reservoir 
releases must be planned to maintain favorable down- 
stream conditions for recreational pursuits and prop- 
agation of fish life. Planning of major dams which 
would block passage of migratory fishes to their an- 
cestral spawning grounds requires the concurrent plan- 
ning of fish ladders, substitute fish hatcheries, or 
spawning ground, or development of other streams 
solely for fish life as compensatory measures. Plan- 
ning for recreational purposes also involves the con- 
templated operation of reservoirs dedicated solely to 
the improvement of summer stream flow conditions in 
popular recreational areas where such Hows are pres- 
ently deficient. 




'Generally, it is not feasible to attain . . . flood control by storage alone." 
Sacramento Weir on Sacramento River 




'. . . hydroelectric power as an inseparable part and partner in California's water resource develop- 
ment is a fully recognized requisite . . 
Electra Power Plant on Mokelumne River 



WATER DEVELOPMENT PLANNING 



At the time of acquisition of lands, easements, and 
rights of way for reservoirs and other water develop- 
ment works, additional lands should be included 
tor public access and for development and use of rec- 
reational opportunities. Likewise, at the time water 

i resource development planning is done, planning by 
those state, federal and local agencies responsible for 
issociated recreational opportunities should be ac- 

: :omplished. 

• 3. Power Generation. The essential role of hydro- 
electric power production in the further development 
of California's water resources and economy was dis- 
cussed in Chapter II. As therein stated, the problem 
vvill be to make each hydroelectric power opportunity 
viehl the maximum feasible output in terms of firm 
japacity, energy, and revenue, consistent with the 
itlier demands for the water resources concerned. 
Major planning considerations include in each case: 
^termination of the most economic combination of 
height of dam, dead storage, head, and releases for 
power in balance with releases for other purposes; 
{provision for generation of the most economically 
Favorable peaking power capacity and energy, wher- 
ever pertinent, which includes adequate afterbay stor- 
ige and forebay storage as needed; and utilization of 
power drops along major aqueduct routes where feasi- 
ble, particularly on the descending side of mountain 
arossings. A possible future power opportunity may 
levelop in the form of pumped storage power plants 
which would use low-cost off-peak power from other 
sources for pumping to a reservoir at a higher eleva- 
tion and would generate high-value peaking power 
pn return of the water to an afterbay or to the aque- 
luet system. 

Use of Water. Delivery and use of supplemental 
water supplies in areas of need will solve the prob- 
lems of water deficiency and directly resultant 
problems ; but unless precautions are taken, other prob- 
lems may result as a consequence. Of these corollary 
(problems, water quality is one of the most significant. 
rThis is particularly serious in areas overlying ground 
' water basins which are utilized to any appreciable 
t extent in meeting the water requirements. The prob- 
I |lems in point concern the protection of mineral 
I jquality of the local ground waters by importing 
J waters of good mineral quality, by maintenance of 
i proper salt balance, and by the maintenance of favor- 
| able drainage conditions through control of the 
jground water levels by pumps and drainage systems. 
Maintenance of proper quality in surface streams is 
equally important. Another serious problem is that of 
[subsidence of lands, caused by heavy withdrawals of 
ground water and by application of surface water. 

1. Protection and Maintenance of Water Quality. 
The basic objective with regard to quality of water 
in the State under ultimate development concerns the 



assurance that the available waters will meet the 
minimum quality requirements for all beneficial uses 
thereof. Planning toward this objective involves the 
evaluation of the native quality of waters in terms 
of their suitability for such uses, the careful main- 
tenance of quality in areas of use, and protection of 
the quality of water in source areas in streams and 
reservoirs and of exported waters from degradation 
during transfer, at requisite levels to prevent in- 
jurious effects. 

With respect to the suitability of waters for bene- 
ficial uses, certain minimum quality requirements 
have been set forth, and are generally accepted as 
standards for classification of waters for the various 
uses. Probably the most widely accepted standards are 
those formulated by the United States Public Health 
Service for drinking water, as shown in Table 5. 

TABLE 5 

MINERAL STANDARDS FOR DRINKING WATER 
U. S. Public Health Service, 1946 

(In parts per million) 



Constituent 


Limit 


Mandatory limits 










0.05 




0.0.5 




0.05 


Nonmandatory but recommended limits 








Chloride (CI) 


250 




250 




3.0 










Dissolved solids 


500 (1,000 permitted) 



Quality requirements for irrigation water have been 
proposed by various investigators. Classifications of 
irrigation water presently in use by the Department 
of Water Kesources are based on studies of the Uni- 
versity of California at Davis. One such classification 
is set forth in Table 6. The classes shown in Table 6 

TABLE 6 

QUALITATIVE CLASSIFICATION OF IRRIGATION 

WATERS 



Chemical 


Class I 


Class II 


Class III 








properties 


Excellent 


Good to 


Injurious to 




to good 


injurious 


unsatisfactory 


Total dissolved solids: 








In ppm* 


Less than 700 


700-2,000 


More than 2,000 


In conductance, 








Ec X 10»at25°C 


Less than 1,000 


1,000-3.000 


More than 3,000 


Chlorides, in ppm. - 


Less than 175 


175-350 


More than 350 


Sodium, in per cent of 








base constituents 


Less than (10 


(10-70 


More than 7(1 


Boron, in ppm 


Less than 0.5 


0.5-2.0 


More than 2.0 



larts per million. 



34 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



are generally empirical, being based on average soil 
and crop adaptability. 

Recent research has been conducted at the Uni- 
versity of California at Davis, taking into account 
drainage characteristics of the soil and employing re- 
vised standards for evaluation of salinity of irriga- 
tion waters. These standards, which are coming into 
more general use, are presented in Table 7. Water 
quality standards will undoubtedly change in the fu- 
ture as a result of further study. Hence the standards 
given herein should not be regarded as absolute. 

TABLE 7 

TENTATIVE CLASSIFICATION FOR EFFECTIVE SALINITY 

OF IRRIGATION WATER 









Class of wate 




Soil conditions 


Terms used 


















11 


II 


ni* 


Little or no leaching of the 
soil can be expected. 


m.e./l' of ions 

ppm 
lbs/acre-foot 


3 
165 
450 


3-5 
165-275 
450-750 


5 

275 
750 


Some leaching but re- 
stricted. Deep percola- 
tion or drainage slow. 


m.e./l of ions 

ppm 
lbs/acre-foot 


5 
275 
750 


5-10 
275-550 
750-1500 


10 
550 
1500 


Open soils. Deep percola- 
tion of water easily ac- 
complished. 


m.e./l of ions 

ppm 
lbs/acre-foot 


7 
385 
1050 


7-15 
385-825 
1050-2250 


15 
2250 



Upper limit — maximum limit. 
- Lower limit — minimum limit. 
3 m.e./l — milli-equivalents per liter. 

Planning considerations with respect to water qual- 
ity involve the following: provision for protecting 
the mineral and sanitary qualities of waters at 
requisite levels; determination of natural base levels 
of radioactivity to facilitate the detection of any 
future increase in radioactive contamination; deter- 
mination of the waste assimilation capacity of the 
various waters concerned, or, in other words, the 
degree to which these waters can be used for waste 
disposal without adverse and unreasonable detriment 
to the beneficial uses, considering future as well as 
present uses thereof ; the necessity of providing water 
to dilute and carry away waste products resulting 
from man's activities without harmful effects; plan- 
ning for further urban and industrial development 
with due regard to the problems of waste disposal ; 
and maintenance of a favorable salt balance in the 
many basins of the State by provision for exporting 
from each basin at least as much salt as is brought 
into it each year by native and imported waters, as 
well as from other sources. 

Because of the widely varying quality require- 
ments for the manifold industrial uses, these require- 
ments are not discussed in this chapter. Such informa- 
tion will be published in Appendix E to this bulletin. 
In general it may be said that waters meeting the 
United States Public Health Service drinking water 
standards and the requirements for irrigation can 



be made acceptable for even the most exacting indus- 
trial requirements by proper treatment at the point 
of use. 

With respect to maintenance and enhancement of 
fish and wildlife, the maintenance of adequate dis- 
solved oxygen in the water and freedom from toxic 
concentrations of harmful materials are prime con- 
siderations. Also important are low turbidity and 
freedom from floating oil and grease. Further, high- 
quality water is necessary for maintaining a suitable 
habitat, food supply, and spawning areas. 

With respect to the quality of water necessary for 
the full effectuation of The California Water Plan, a 
Board of Water Quality Consultants, retained to 
advise on water quality problems under the ultimate 
pattern of water transfer and use, has submitted a 
report recommending specific limits of quality for 
water diverted from the southern boundary of the 
Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. 

These recommendations, as presented in Table 8, 
have been adopted by the Department of Water Re- 
sources as the quality objectives to be met at the 
points of diversion for water to be exported to the 
major areas of deficiency. These objectives have been 
used in formulation of The California Water Plan, 
and unless the quality is maintained at or higher 
than these levels, full implementation of the Plan 
will not be possible. 

TABLE 8 

WATER QUALITY LIMITS FOR WATER FOR EXPORT AT 

POINTS OF DIVERSION AT SOUTHERN BOUNDARY 

OF SACRAMENTO-SAN JOAQUIN DELTA 

RECOMMENDED BY BOARD OF CONSULTANTS ON WATER QUALITY 
AND ADOPTED BY DEPARTMENT OF WATER RESOURCES 



Item 


Limit 




400 ppm 
600 

160 ppm 
50% 
100 ppm 
100 ppm 
1 . ppm 
. 5 ppm 
7.0-8.5 
10 ppm 

rspiis Li 








Hardness as CaCOa _. __ 

Sodium Percentage 
















pH Value _ 








Other constituents as to which the U. S. Public Health 
Service has or may establish mandatory or rec- 









2. Maintenance of Drainage. Drainage of agricun 
tural lands, already a serious problem in many areas 
of California, will become an increasingly important 
consideration in planning for the future development 
and use of California's water resources. The large 
imports of water and the greatly increased applica- 
tion of water, under ultimate conditions would aggra- 
vate present drainage problems, would create new 
problems by forming swamps or "water-logged" 
areas in the lower portions of ground Avater basins, 
and would increase the probability for salinizat ion of 



WATER DEVELOPMENT PLANNING 



35 



the soils unless prevented by appropriate measures. 
The existence of high-water-table areas and increased 
Salinity problems would not only preclude the useful- 
mess of large areas of potential agricultural lands, 
but Avould result in excessive, uneconomic consump- 
tive use by swamp-type vegetation of water which 
ptherwise could be salvaged for beneficial purposes. 
I Solution of drainage problems will involve consid- 
eration of drainage ditches and canal networks, and 
pumps to control the elevation of the water table in 
areas subject to waterlogging. In addition, studies 
should be made relative to the permeability of soils, 
particularly with regard to reclamation of vast acre- 
wages of presently saline and sodium saturated lands, 
plethods employed under ultimate development prob- 
Fably would be similar to present practices in the 
[San Joaquin Valley, but on a broader scale. A further 
[consideration in planning for drainage is the point 
■of disposal of highly saline drainage waters. For the 
San Joaquin Valley, for instance, this may necessi- 
tate a master drain emptying into Suisun Bay. 

3. Subsidence. Subsidence of the land surface pre- 
sents unusual and difficult problems which must be 
considered in planning for the major conduits re- 
quired for transportation of water to central and 
southern areas of deficiency. The most serious sub- 
idence now is in the San Joaquin Valley, where sink- 
ing of the land surface has changed the gradient of 

portion of the Delta-Mendota Canal of the U. S. 
Bureau of Reclamation enough in places to reduce 
its capacity. Subsidence also has damaged canals, 
wells, and pipe lines of numerous irrigation systems, 

well as oil and gas pipe lines, electric transmission 
towers, and numerous buildings. Two separate types 
of subsidence have been identified in the San Joaquin 
Valley, namely: (1) regional or deep-seated, sub- 
sidence, and (2) local shallow subsidence. 

The deep-seated subsidence is believed to be caused 
by withdrawal of ground water from pressure 
aquifers, the lowering of the pressure head being ac- 
companied by sinking of the land surface. A related 
type of subsidence has occurred in the Long Beach 
area, where subsidence accompanying heavy with- 
drawals of oil has caused actual or threatened surface 
advance of the sea into certain areas. The deep-seated 
subsidence in the San Joaquin Valley is occurring 
principally on the west side of the valley in an 
elongated area stretching from north of Mendota to 
south of Huron, and in the southern part of the valley 
an irregularly shaped area centering near Delano. 
The maximum amount of subsidence in the Mendota- 
Huron area is actually greater than 16 feet, and the 
area is presently subsiding at a rate of almost 1 foot 
per year. It is the effect of this deep-seated subsidence 
which has changed the gradient of the Delta-Mendota 
Canal. The maximum subsidence in the Delano area 
amounts to more than 13 feet. Other areas in the 



State, such as the Santa Clara Valley, also are affected 
by subsidence. 

Notwithstanding the adverse effects from deep- 
seated subsidence, the local shallow type of subsidence 
probably has the potential to cause most damage to 
man-made structures. This type of subsidence occurs 
when water is applied in quantity, as by irrigation, 
on certain low-density soils which occur extensively 
on the semiarid west side of the San Joaquin Valley. 
Settlement of this type of land after irrigation is 
very irregular and causes heavy sinking of irrigation 
ditches, breaking of concrete-lined ditches and of pipe 
lines, tilting of high tension towers, and cracking and 
breaking of foundations of buildings after lawn irri- 
gation which, in places, has caused houses to tilt at 
strange angles. 

The areas affected by shallow subsidence extend 
around the western and southern borders of the San 
Joaquin Valley, at the base of the Coast Range. Local 
subsidence of 10 feet and more has occurred in loca- 
tions where unlined ditches were attempted in earlier 
days. The surface of an experimental test plot, kept 
under water continuously for several months during 
1956 and 1957, has subsided 7 feet in 7 months. 
Although the mechanism of shallow subsidence is not 
clear, it probably involves rearrangement and compac- 
tion of soil particles when wetted, accompanied per- 
haps by removal of gypsum and other solubles by 
solution. 

Shallow subsidence also has occurred in the peat 
lands of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, where 
much of the land is now below sea level, resulting in 
severe flood control problems. This subsidence may 
be due to a lowering of the water table, consumption 
of peat by plant growth, drying and blowing away of 
the peat by wind, or a combination of these and other 
factors. 

The magnitude of the effect of subsidence on plan- 
ning the routes and design of major conduits for 
transportation of water from north to south is evi- 
denced by the large areas subject to subsidence, which 
must be either crossed or detoured. In addition to 
subsidence of peat lands in the Delta, which must be 
crossed by all water transferred to the central and 
southern portions of the State, there are more than 
70 miles of lands along the contemplated conduit 
routes in the Mendota-Huron area which are subject 
to both shallow and deep-seated subsidence. Moreover, 
along these routes, some 50 miles of lands south of 
Kettleman City and Tulare Lake and 20 miles of 
lands south of Buena Vista Lake are subject, at least 
in part, to shallow subsidence. 

Faced by these conditions, the Department of 
Water Resources is actively investigating the causes 
and mechanisms of land subsidence in cooperation 
with a number of other state and federal agencies, 
coordinated by the Inter-Agency Committee on Land 
Subsidence in the San Joaquin Valley. 



CHAPTER IV 

THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



The water problems of California and the need for 
comprehensive planning have been described in the 
preceding' chapters. This chapter presents a summary 
discussion of the physical features and accomplish- 
ments of the works which would fulfill the objectives 
of The California Water Plan in the solution of those 
problems. To facilitate a greater appreciation and 
better understanding- of the Plan, its scope and objec- 
tives and the concepts basic to the attainment of its 
objectives should be clearly borne in mind, and are 
re-emphasized for this purpose in the following para- 
graphs. 

The California "Water Plan is a master plan for the 
control, conservation, protection, and distribution of 
the waters of California, to meet present and future 
needs for all beneficial uses and purposes in all areas 
of the State to the maximum feasible extent. It is a 
comprehensive plan which would reach from border 
to border both in its constructed works and in its 
effects. The Plan is a flexible pattern susceptible of 
orderly development by logical progressive stages, 
the choice of each successive incremental project to be 
made with due consideration to the economic and 
other pertinent factors governing at the particular 
time. 

The water development works described in this 
chapter and shown on the plates accompanying this 
bulletin demonstrate one means believed practicable 
of accomplishing the objectives of The California 
Water Plan in each area of the State, based on 
presently available knowledge. As knowledge in- 
creases, as technology improves, as conditions change 
through the years, and as future patterns of devel- 
opment become more easily discernible, more suitable 
alternatives to any feature or features herein dis- 
cussed are likely to be found. It is the intention that 
as the time approaches for construction in any given 
area, further studies will be made to determine the 
most feasible solution in the light of conditions then 
obtaining. That solution may depart considerably 
from the Plan as now conceived. In the meantime, the 
elements of The California Water Plan presented 
herein will provide a basis of comparison with other 
alternatives, and furthermore, will serve as a guide 
for the selection of works for future construction. 
It is anticipated that continuing study will be given 
to The California Water Plan and that it will be 
modified when and as necessary. 

The California Water Plan, as now presented and 
as it may be modified from time to time, is designed 



to serve as the engineering basis for the administra- 
tion of the State's water resources by the various 
agencies concerned, to the end that maximum benefit 
may ultimately be achieved. It will provide a much 
needed means of coordination of the efforts of the 
manifold federal, state, and local public agencies and 
private entities engaged in the planning, construction, 
and operation of water projects. 

The California Water Plan is an ultimate plan, de- 
signed to meet the water requirements of the indefi- 
nite future when the land and other resources of the 
State are essentially fully developed. It is fully ac- 
knowledged that certain of the forecast ultimate re- 
quirements for water may never be realized, and that 
the facilities which would provide for those require- 
ments may never be constructed. However, the plan- 
ning effort is deemed necessary at this time in order 
that provision may be made for such development if 
and when such requirements arise. The Plan includes 
and would fully utilize existing works, as well as those 
works presently proposed by public and private agen- 
cies and individuals. It is designed so that it would 
interfere with vested water rights to the minimum 
possible extent. In those instances where such inter- 
ference would be inevitable, it is contemplated that 
just compensation would be paid. Likewise, it is 
anticipated that exchanges of water, where necessary 
to achieve the most economical solution, would be 
consummated only after agreements had been reached 
with the holders of vested rights thereto. 

The omission of a project from those described 
herein does not necessarily preclude the possibility 
of construction of that project. Nor does the inclusion 
of a particular project indicate that that specific ele- 
ment is the only one that should be considered. Bather. 
each project should be judged on its merits when it is 
proposed, in the light of its prospective accomplish- 
ments in meeting the basic objectives of The Cali- 
fornia Water Plan for the particular water resources 
concerned. 

The California Water Plan consists of two principal 
categories of water resources developments. The first 
category embraces the local works designed to meet 
present and future water needs in each of the major 
hydrographic areas of the State. Water development 
projects within this category are hereinafter described 
under the heading "Development to Meet Local Re- 
quirements/' The second category comprises a major 
system of works to conserve and export surplus waters 
from the North Coastal Area and the Sacramento 



38 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



River Basin, and to transfer these waters to areas of 
deficiency elsewhere in the State in sufficient amounts 
to meet the forecast ultimate requirements. These in- 
terbasin transfer facilities are collectively designated 
the "California Aqueduct System," and are subse- 
quently described under that heading. 

The California Water Plan, comprising both the 
local development works and the California Aqueduct 
System, gives consideration to water conservation and 
reclamation, to flood control and flood protection, to 
the use of water for agricultural, municipal, and in- 
dustrial purposes, to hydroelectric power generation, 
to salinity control and protection of the quality of 
fresh waters, to drainage, to navigation, and to the 
interests of fish, wildlife, and recreation. It con- 
templates the conjunctive operation of surface and 
ground water reservoirs, which operation would be 
essential to regulation of the large amounts of water 
ultimately to be involved. 

DEVELOPMENT TO MEET LOCAL 
REQUIREMENTS 

In the course of the current investigation, numerous 
preliminary plans have been made for development 
of local water resources to meet local needs throughout 
California. The formulation of these plans was based 
upon the premises that the water occurring in each 
hydrographic area would be developed to the maxi- 
mum reasonable and practicable extent, that exports 
from areas of surplus would be limited to that water 
available over and above local needs, and that imports 
to areas of deficiency would be limited to only that 
water needed to supplement locally developed supplies. 

Although this section is confined to a summary 
description of local developments insofar as possible, 
features of the California Aqueduct System necessarily 
enter into the discussion wherever their effects would 
supplement the accomplishments of local developments. 
However, the description of the aqueduct facilities is 
presented separately in a later section of the chapter. 

Local development features of The California 
Water Plan are presented by the major hydro- 
graphic areas of the State, in the following order : 
North Coastal Area, San Francisco Bay Area, Cen- 
tral Coastal Area, South Coastal Area, Sacramento 
River Basin, San Joaquin-Tulare Lake Basin, Lahon- 
tan Area, and Colorado Desert Area. The location of 
these areas is shown on Plate 3, and the local develop- 
ment works are delineated on the 26 sheets of Plate 5. 

North Coastal Area 

The North Coastal Area is by far the most prolific 
water-producing area in California, with an aggregate 
mean seasonal unimpaired runoff of nearly 29,000, 000 
acre-feet. The estimated present and probable ulti 
mate seasonal waier requirements of 518,000 acre-feel 
and 2, Kid, 0(H) acre-feet, respectively, represent hut a 



fraction of the available supply. In spite of this abun- 
dance of water, the North Coastal Area is not without 
its water problems. 

Because of the relatively low elevation of the North 
Coastal Area and its proximity to the ocean, most of 
the precipitation occurs as rainfall, and stream dis- 
charge into the ocean increases markedly within a 
short time following a storm. More than 85 per cent 
of the total seasonal runoff occurs during the 6-month 
period from November through April, on the average. 
The need for water is characteristically greatest dur- 
ing the dry summer months from July through October, 
when less than 10 per cent of the total seasonal runoff 
occurs. Thus, there is need for seasonal regulation by 
storage, whereby winter flood flows are stored for use 
during the following summer months of high demand. 
In addition to variation within the season, runoff in 
the North Coastal Area experiences considerable fluc- 
tuation in amount from year to year, resulting in 
so-called "wet" or "dry" periods. This characteristic 
of the water supply creates a need for cyclic carry- 
over storage in addition to the need for seasonal 
regulation. 

The greatest water problem facing the North 
Coastal Area is that of occasional great floods such 
as occurred in 1907, 1938, 1950, and 1955. The last 
and worst of these great floods, in December, 1955, sent 
streams of the area to record heights, and caused loss 
of life and widespread destruction of communities, 
farm lands, industry, and utilities, particularly along 
the Eel, Klamath, Trinity, Mad, Smith, and Russian 
Rivers, and Redwood Creek. However, because of the 
large amount of storage required for effective flood 
control, single-purpose flood control reservoirs are 
generally not economically justified. 

Except for the extensive Klamath Project of the 
United States Bureau of Reclamation, described here- 
after, present development of the ample water re- 
sources of the North Coastal Area is very limited. 
Storage at Lake Pillsbury on the upper Eel River 
and a diversion into the Russian River Basin are 
operated primarily for generation of hydroelectric 
power. A power development is located on the Kla- 
math River near the state line, the water supply for 
which is regulated in Oregon. Sweasey Dam on the 
Mad River provides municipal water supplies for 
the City of Eureka. Dwinnell Dam and Reservoir on 
the Shasta River furnishes irrigation water to lands 
in Shasta Valley. Several relatively small irrigation 
systems serve upland valleys, and minor pumping of 
ground water for domestic, municipal, and irrigation 
purposes is scattered throughout the area. 

Two major projects are presently under construc- 
tion in the North Coastal Area by federal agencies. 
The Coyote Valley Project, under construction by the 
Corps of Engineers, P. S, Army, on the East Fork 
of the Russian River, will develop water for munici- 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



39 



pal. industrial, and irrigation purposes, and will sub- 
stantially enhance recreational opportunities and fish 
and wildlife resources in the Russian River Basin. 
[The Trinity Division of the Central Valley Project. 
being constructed by the United States Bureau of 
Reclamation, will divert water from the upper Trinity 
River to the Sacramento Valley, to develop hydro- 
electric energy and to augment the water resources 
of the Central Valley. The project will also provide 
local benefits. 

Local development works of The California Water 
Plan would meet future water requirements in the 
North Coastal Area. Both the local works and the 
works of the California Aqueduct System would pro- 
vide much needed flood control and would enable 
releases of stored water to enhance summer and fall 
stream flow in the interests of fish, wildlife, and 
recreation. It should be emphasized that facilities of 
the California Aqueduct System, in addition to their 
primary export function, also would accomplish sub- 
stantial benefits in the North Coastal Area in terms 
of flood control, stream flow maintenance, and power 
generation, and in this respect are difficult of differ- 
entiation from the local works. 

For planning purposes the North Coastal Area has 
been subdivided into four units, and the local develop- 
ment works are segregated according to these units 
for discussion herein. These units are designated the 
"Klamath-Trinity Group," "Eel-Mad Group," "Rus- 
sian River Group," and "Pacific Basins Group," and 
their locations are shown on Plate 3. The physical 
features and costs of all local works for the North 
Coastal Area are presented in Table 9 which follows 
this discussion under the heading "Summary of North 
Coastal Area." 

Klamath - Trinity Group. The Klamath -Trinity 
Group consists of the California portion of the drain- 
age system of the Klamath River, including the entire 
Trinity River system. Its area within California ap- 
proximates 10.000 square miles, most of which «s 
occupied by mountains and foothills. However, the 
Tule Lake area and Shasta, Scott, Hayfork, and 
Hoopa Valleys contain substantial areas of agricul- 
tural lands. 

The Klamath Project, built and operated by the 
United States Bureau of Reclamation, is by far the 
largest existing water supply development in the 
Klamath-Trinity Group. This project utilizes waters 
of the Klamath River and Lost River system to irri- 
gate nearly 200.000 acres of lands in Oregon and 
California. The project also controls water levels in 
Tule Lake, and reregulates the flows of the Klamath 
River for power generation. The previously men- 
tioned Trinity Diversion of the Central Valley Project 
will divert H72.000 acre-feet of water annually from 
the upper Trinity River to the Central A'alley. and 

3—5:14 7!' 



will generate a substantial block of hydroelectric 
power. 

The Klamath-Trinity Group, although favored with 
abundant water resources, is confronted with several 
present and future water problems. First, the group 
will require the development of an additional 640,000 
acre-feet of water per season to meet the full irriga- 
tion, urban, and industrial potential. Second, there is 
an urgent need for the control of floods on the Klamath 
and Trinity Rivers. Floods threaten the valley lands 
adjacent to those rivers, and the threat is particularly 
acute in the urban and agricultural areas on the 
coastal plain. The community of Klamath near the 
mouth of the Klamath River, and Klamath Glen a 
few miles upstream, were virtually demolished by the 
flood of December, 1955. Third, there is the problem 
of maintenance of favorable anadromous fishery, 
which is not so much a problem at the present time, 
but which will arise after the development of major 
dams and reservoirs in the area which would block 
the passage of anadromous fish to their spawning 
grounds and would inundate spawning areas. More- 
over, the streams of the Klamath-Trinity Group have 
a large hydroelectric power potential which is a prime 
consideration in future development of the water re- 
sources of the group. 

The Klamath River Basin Compact, an interstate 
compact which has as its purpose the promoting of 
orderly and comprehensive development and the use 
of the water resources of the Klamath River Basin, 
has been ratified by the States of California and Ore- 
gon and is now awaiting approval of the Congress of 
the United States. This compact provides for the dis- 
tribittion and use of water within the Upper Klamath 
River Basin, which is defined as the drainage area of 
the Klamath River and all its tributaries upstream 
from the boundary between Oregon and California, 
including the closed basins of Butte, Red Rock, Swan 
Lake, and Lost River Valleys, and Crater Lake. 

Terms of the Klamath River Basin Compact estab- 
lish an order of preference of use of water within 
the Upper Klamath River Basin, with domestic and 
municipal use first and irrigation use second, followed 
in turn by recreational use, including use for fish 
and wildlife, industrial use, and use for hydroelectric 
power generation. Diversions of water outside the 
Upper Klamath River Basin are prohibited, with 
minor exceptions, by the compact, which also makes 
available to the California portion of the upper basin 
sufficient water from the Klamath River in Oregon 
for the future irrigation of 100,000 acres of unde- 
veloped irrigable land which cannot feasibly be served 
from any other source. There is also established a per- 
manent commission to administer the terms of the 
compact. 

The objectives of The California Water Plan in the 
Klamath-Trinity Group are threefold: first, the de- 






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North Coastal Area— Redwood Grov 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



41 



velopment of sufficient water supplies to satisfy the 
present and ultimate requirements for water for irri- 
gation, urban, industrial, recreational, and power 
generation purposes, and to preserve and enhance 
fishery and wildlife resources; second, the provision 
of adequate flood protection; and third, the conser- 
vation of some 8,000,000 acre-feet of water per season 
for export to areas of deficiency elsewhere in the 
State. These objectives could be met by the planned 
local developments and the major reservoirs and 
conduits of the California Aqueduct System. 

Local development works in the Klamath-Trinity 
Group could provide water to meet irrigation, urban, 
and industrial needs, and could considerably improve 
existing stream flow conditions in the interests of 
fishery resources and recreation. In addition, opera- 
tion of these works could effect some flood control. 
Major reservoirs of the California Aqueduct System 
on the Klamath and Trinity Rivers, in developing 
some 8,000,000 acre-feet of water seasonally for ex- 
port, could effect a high degree of flood control on 
those rivers, and generate an abundance of power for 
enhancement of the local economy. The adverse effect 
of these major reservoirs on the anadromous fishery 
could be offset somewhat by compensatory measures, 
such as improvement of downstream flow conditions 
and a new lake fishery. Also, the improvement of 
environmental conditions on other streams could be 
effected, as will be shown during the ensuing discus- 
sion. 

Beatty, Boundary, and Chiloquin Narrows Dams, 
if constructed as parts of the Klamath Project of the 
Bureau of Reclamation, could augment the yield of 
that project by developing the waters of the Sprague 
j and Lost Rivers. Boundary dam site is located on Lost 
River at the upper end of Langell Valley on the Cali- 
fornia-Oregon line. Beatty and Chiloquin Narrows 
Dams and Reservoirs would be located on the Sprague 
River in Oregon. Under terms of the aforementioned 
Klamath River Basin Compact, the water supply de- 
veloped by these works would be utilized throughout 
the Upper Klamath River Basin, including lands in 
Oregon as well as in California. Water would be 
served to lands in California by appropriate convey- 
ance facilities, as shown on Sheet 1 of Plate -5. 

Iron Gate Dam and Reservoir, located on the Klam- 
ath River about 4 miles east of Hornbrook, California, 
could be constructed primarily to provide urgently 
needed reregulation of releases from the California 
Oregon Power Company's hydroelectric power devel- 
opments on the Klamath River. It could also provide 
a forebay for pumping irrigation supplies for use in 
Shasta Valley. Under this plan the water developed 
in the upper basin would be conveyed to Shasta Val- 
ley by the Bogus Conduit, two pumping lifts along 
the route of the conduit being required. 



Montague Dam and Reservoir, located on the Shasta 
River about 4 miles north of Yreka, if constructed 
would also provide water for irrigation use in Shasta 
Valley. In addition, sufficient releases would be made 
to the Shasta River to maintain a minimum flow of 
20 second-feet for recreational purposes. 

Grenada Ranch Dam and Reservoir, located on the 
Shasta River about 3 miles southeast of the town 
of Grenada, could be constructed to supply municipal 
water to the City of Yreka, as well as to provide a 
gravity irrigation supply for portions of Shasta Val- 
ley adjacent to the river. 

Callahan Dam and Reservoir, located near the town 
of Callahan, could be constructed to regulate the 
Scott River and to develop water for irrigable lands 
in Scott Valley. Callahan Reservoir would also pro- 
vide flood control for the valley. Releases would be 
made to maintain and improve the present fishery. 

Layman Dam and Reservoir, located on Hayfork 
Creek just above its confluence with the South Fork 
of the Trinity River, if constructed would be utilized 
primarily to supply water for irrigable lands in Hay- 
fork Valley. In addition, sufficient releases to the 
downstream channel would be made to maintain a 
minimum flow of 10 second-feet during the summer 
months, which would enhance fishery conditions below 
the dam. 

The hydroelectric power potential of the Salmon 
River could be developed by Morehouse Reservoir and 
its associated power plant, located on the Salmon 
River just below the mouth of Morehouse Creek. Al- 
though Morehouse Reservoir would be utilized pri- 
marily for power production, the incidental stream 
flow regulation provided would materially enhance 
accomplishments of downstream units of the Cali- 
fornia Aqueduct System. Moreover, the reservoir 
would provide a measure of flood control. 

Waters of the South Fork of the Trinity River 
could be regulated by Smoky Creek Reservoir, located 
about 7 miles upstream from Forest Glen and above 
Eltapom Reservoir, a feature of the California 
Aqueduct System. This reservoir would be dedi- 
cated solely to maintenance of favorable stream flow 
conditions throughout the summer months. A mini- 
mum flow of 45 second-feet would be maintained, 
whereas under present conditions the summer flows 
have upon occasion virtually ceased. Thus, a 22-mile 
reach of stream between Smoky Creek Dam and 
Eltapom Reservoir would be considerably improved 
as a habitat for fish life, particularly for the several 
trout species, and spawning areas would be available 
for the lake fishery that would develop in Eltapom 
Reservoir. 

In summary, the 10 reservoirs and associated works 
constituting the local development works for the 
Klamath-Trinity Group under The California Water 
Plan would have an aggregate storage capacity of 



4 2 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



1,920,000 acre-feet, and would make available addi- 
tional water supplies amounting to some 760,000 acre- 
feet per season. About one-third of this yield would be 
utilized in Oregon, and the remainder would serve 
California lands. The described development would 
not fully satisfy the possible ultimate water require- 
ments of the group, as there are a number of small 
scattered areas of irrigable land which are too remote 
to be economically reached by projects of the scope 
considered herein. However, adequate local water re- 
sources are available in the event that requirements 
for such lands materialize. 

Facilities considered for conveyance of the devel- 
oped water supplies to areas of use include 7 pumping 
plants and 53 miles of conduits. A yearly total of 
about 343,000,000 kilowatt-hours of electric energy 
could be made available by the Morehouse Power 
Plant. Furthermore, the foregoing local development 
works, operated in conjunction with facilities of the 
California Aqueduct System, would considerably en- 
hance the recreational potential of the group by 
reservoir releases to maintain stream flow throughout 
the summer months. 

Data on the general features and capital costs of 
the local development works in the Klamath-Trinity 
Group are presented in Table 9. The location and lay- 
out of their component features are delineated on 
Sheets 1 and 3 of Plate 5. 

In addition to local developments, The California 
"Water Plan envisages 10 storage reservoirs in the 
Klamath-Trinity Group, to be operated primarily as 
features of the California Aqueduct System. These 
reservoirs would provide nearly 27,500,000 acre-feet 
of additional storage capacity in the group. As previ- 
ously stated, the aqueduct features are difficult of dif- 
ferentiation from local developments with respect to 
creation of recreational opportunities, protection from 
flood damage, and power generation. These 10 reser- 
voirs would constitute large bodies of water adaptable 
for swimming, boating, and other recreational activi- 
ties. The minimum pools maintained at many of these 
reservoirs would provide opportunities for develop- 
ment of trout fisheries. Furthermore, a large degree of 
protection from floods would be afforded by the con- 
servation reservoirs, for both local and export pur- 
poses, which would provide about 870,000 acre-feet of 
surcharge storage in addition to their normal conser- 
vation pools. The detention effect of this storage ca- 
pacity would substantially reduce peak flood flows, 
even without planned operation of the reservoirs for 
flood control. Damage caused by the floods of Decem- 
ber, 1955, would have been considerably reduced had 
these units of The California Water Plan been in 
operation. Complete flood protection could be provided 
by reservation of storage space specifically for that 
purpose. However, the degree of flood protection war- 



ranted is a matter of economics and a factor for future 
determination. 

Eel-Mad Group. The Eel-Mad Group includes the 
drainage basins of the Eel and Mad Rivers, and all the 
remaining coastal drainage between the Mattole River 
on the south and Redwood Creek on the north. The 
terrain, typical of most of the North Coastal Area, 
is predominantly mountainous. Valley and mesa lands 
comprise only about 5 per cent of the total area of 
4,340 square miles, and are mostly located near the 
mouth of the Eel River and adjacent to Humboldt 
Bay. Eureka, the largest city in the North Coastal 
Area, is situated on the shore of Humboldt Bay. 

The abundant water resources of the Eel-Mad Group 
are largely undeveloped at present. The Scott and Van 
Arsdale Dams on the upper Eel River are operated 
in conjunction with a diversion from the Eel Riven 
Basin to the Russian River Basin for hydroelectric i 
power generation, and Sweasey Dam on the lower i 
Mad River is operated for development of a munici- 
pal water supply for the City of Eureka. Small local 
surface diversions and minor ground water pumping, 
constitute the only remaining water supply develop- 
ments within the group. 

Water problems of the Eel-Mad Group are of the 
same nature as those of the foregoing Klamath-Trinity 
Group. The demands for agricultural, domestic, and I 
industrial water supplies are growing and will ulti- 
mately require a supplemental water supply of about 
366,000 acre-feet per season, most of which will be fori 
irrigated lands. However, the industrial potential fori 
water is considerable, particularly in the processing of 1 
timber for pulp production. Although the foregoing! 
estimate of ultimate supplemental water requirements 
includes provision for future pulp production, it is 
quite possible the estimated requirements for this pur- 
pose may have to be revised upward, with a resultant 
modification of water development plans. Adequate 
water could be made available for such possible in- 
creases if they materialize. 

The pressing need for flood control projects in the- 
Eel-Mad Group was demonstrated by the flood of 
December, 1955. Record flows in the Eel River caused 
widespread destruction in areas important to both the 
present and future economy of the group. Agricul- 
tural lands and a number of lumber mills on the 
alluvial plains near the mouths of streams, particu- 
larly those of the Eel and Mad Rivers and Redwood 
Creek, were severely damaged. 

There exists a significant potential for improvement 
of summer stream flow characteristics in every major 
waterway of the Eel-Mad Croup, not only for en- 
hancement of the fish habitat, but also for the further- 
ance and development of recreational areas. Such 
areas are now in increasing demand by visitors from 
throughout the State. Recreation is bound to be im- 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



43 



portant to the future economic welfare of the North 
iCoastal Area. 

The objectives of The California Water Plan in the 
Eel-Mad Group consist of the development of suf- 
ficient water supplies to satisfy the ultimate water 
I (requirements for all beneficial purposes, including irri- 
gation, urban, industrial, recreational, fish and wild- 
life, and power generation ; provision of adequate 
i 'flood control; and the regulation of some 2,600,000 
acre-feet of water per season for export to areas of 
deficiency elsewhere in the State. The ultimate water 
((requirements within the group itself could be met by 
construction of storage reservoirs on local streams ad- 
jacent to the areas of need. Such reservoirs would also 
enhance the fishery and the recreational opportunity, 
and would provide some flood control. In addition, 
the major reservoirs of the California Aqueduct Sys- 
tem on the Eel River could serve to generate a large 
\ block of hydroelectric power to support local in- 
dustrial development, and effect a high degree of 
flood control on the Eel River. In compensation for 
adverse effects of the major reservoirs on the anadrom- 
lous fishery, the South Fork of the Eel River and the 
Bear River could be developed solely for improve- 
ment of the fishery and of recreational conditions. 
, Local developments discussed herein generally fall 
into two categories. Reservoirs in the first category 
would be primarily for development of irrigation, 
municipal, and industrial water supplies, while those 
of the second category would provide for enhancement 
of the fishery and the general recreational potential. 

Crannell Dam and Reservoir, located on Little River 
about 1 mile upstream from the community of 
Crannell, if constructed would provide domestic and 
industrial water for the Eureka-Arcata area. Water 
service would also be provided to the northernmost 
portion of the agricultural and domestic areas lying- 
north of the Mad River. 

The Butler Valley dam site is located on the Mad 
River about 1 mile northwest of the community of 
Maple Creek. If a dam were constructed at this site, 
releases from the reservoir would flow down the Mad 
River, from which water could be diverted at Sweasey 
Dam or pumped from the lower Mad River and con- 
veyed to service areas lying both north and south of the 
river. In this connection, a dam and reservoir is con- 
templated for construction by the Humboldt Bay Mu- 
nicipal Water District on the upper Mad River at 
the Ruth site near the Humboldt-Trinity county line. 
Ruth Dam and Reservoir would develop municipal 
and industrial water for use in the Eureka area. This 
project has been approved by the Department of Wa- 
ter Resources as an initial local development on the 
Mad River. However, the development of the upper 
Mad and Van Duzen Rivers for export purposes, as 
subsequently described under the California Aque- 
duct System, would necessitate the eventual replace- 



ment of Ruth Dam with a similar development, at the 
Butler site or an alternative downstream site. 

Yager Dam and Reservoir, located on Yager Creek 
about 8 miles east of Fortuna, could serve lands lying 
north and south of the lower Eel River. Water would 
be released from the reservoir down Yager Creek and 
pumped to the service areas. In addition, releases 
from Yager Reservoir would improve summer stream 
flow conditions in lower Yager Creek, and in the 
lower Van Duzen and Eel Rivers into which it dis- 
charges, thus enhancing fishing and other recreational 
pursuits. 

The South Fork of the Van Duzen River could 
be developed by Larabee Valley Dam and Reservoir, 
located at Larabee Valley about 7 miles east of 
Bridgeville. Water released from Larabee Valley 
Reservoir would flow down the Van Duzen River, im- 
proving summer flows for fishing and recreation along 
the lower river, an area of scenic beauty and the pres- 
ent location of a state park. The water could then be 
routed from a pumped diversion to the delta areas 
north and south of the Eel and Van Duzen Rivers. 

The ultimate requirements for irrigation, urban, 
and industrial water in the vicinity of Will its in 
Little Lake Valley could be met by Valley 's End Dam 
and Reservoir on Tomki Creek about 7 miles east of 
Willits. Under this project water would be diverted 
from Valley's End Reservoir through a tunnel into 
Berry Creek in Little Lake Valley, and rediverted 
from Berry Creek for delivery around the edge of 
the valley. 

Streeter Dam and Reservoir could be constructed 
on Tenmile Creek, a tributary of the South Fork of 
the Eel River, about 5 miles northwest of Laytonville. 
The conserved water could be delivered to irrigable 
lands in the Laytonville area by means of pump lifts 
and conduits. In addition, the reservoir would be well 
suited for recreational development, because of its 
proximity to U. S. Highway 101. 

Plans for provision of supplemental water to Round 
Valley involve a special situation. Under ultimate con- 
ditions the supplemental requirements of Round Val- 
ley could be met by water from Etsel Reservoir, a 
feature of the California Aqueduct System, and by 
pumpage from the Round Valley ground water basin. 
However, during the interim period preceding con- 
struction of Etsel Reservoir, Franciscan Dam and 
Reservoir which would be located on a tributary of 
the Middle Fork of the Eel River about 6 miles north- 
east of Covelo, could be operated in conjunction witli 
a direct diversion of water from Williams Creek to 
meet the ultimate requirements of Round Valley. The 
construction of Etsel Reservoir would require the 
raising of Franciscan Dam which would then become 
an auxiliary dam of Etsel Reservoir, as can he seen 
on Sheet 5 of Plate 5. 

Branscomb Dam would be located on the South 
Fork of the Eel River about 5 miles northwest of the 



44 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



community of Branscomb. If constructed, the reser- 
voir would improve summer flows in that accessible 
stream as is flows through groves of great redwood 
trees. The South Fork is world famous as a scenic 
recreational area. Releases of water from the reser- 
voir would eliminate summer stagnation in pools and 
temperatures intolerable to fish life. A minimum flow 
of 100 second-feet in the South Fork of the Eel River 
below the mouth of Rattlesnake Creek would be pro- 
vided. 

The fishery on the Bear River could be enhanced 
by construction of Brushy Creek Dam and Reservoir 
at a point 6 miles south of Scotia. Brushy Creek Res- 
ervoir would provide a minimum summer flow of 
about 14 second-feet in the Bear River for improve- 
ment of recreational and fishery conditions. 

Caution Dam and Reservoir on the North Fork of 
the Eel River could similarly improve stream flow 
conditions in the interest of fish life and recreation. 
Caution Dam would be located 8 miles north of the 
Trinity-Mendocino county line. Releases of water 
would be made from the reservoir to maintain a mini- 
mum discharge of 30 second-feet in the downstream 
channel to the proposed Sequoia Reservoir, a feature 
of the California Aqueduct System. 

In summary, the 10 reservoirs and associated fa- 
cilities comprising local development works for 
the Eel-Mad Group under The California Water Plan 
could meet all local ultimate supplemental water re- 
quirements, with the exception of those for certain 
small scattered parcels of land. The reservoirs would 
have an aggregate gross storage capacity of about 
450,000 acre-feet and could develop about 410,000 
acre-feet per season of firm supplemental water, in- 
cluding water to be released from storage for fish and 
recreation. 

The local developments, along with the major 
reservoirs of the California Aqueduct System in the 
Eel-Mad Group, could provide a high degree of flood 
control, particularly on the Eel River. It is esti- 
mated that the record peak flow of 500,000 second- 
feet in the Eel River at Scotia during the flood of 
December, 1955, would have been reduced to a peak 
flow of only 315,000 second-feet if all of the works 
proposed under The California Water Plan had been 
in operation. A considerable measure of flood control 
could also be provided on the Mad River by Ranger- 
Station Reservoir, or a substitute therefor, of the 
California Aqueduct System, and by Butler Valley 
Reservoir, a local development feature. 

Recreational opportunities associated with the local 
development works and the California Aqueduct Sys- 
tem would be abundant for the Eel-Mad Group. In 
addition to improved stream flow conditions, ap- 
proximately 73,000 acres of water surface area would 
be created by the 15 new reservoirs, thus affording 
expanded opportunities for such recreational pursuits 
as fishing, boating, picnicking, and swimming. 



Russian River Group. The Russian River Group 
comprises the Russian River Basin and a small area 
to the south draining into the Pacific Ocean and 
Tomales Bay. Its area totals about 1,750 square miles, 
of which some 1,500 square miles comprise mountains 
and foothills and the remainder is classified as valley 
and mesa land. 

Present water needs in the Russian River Group 
are met both by diversion of surface flows and pump- 
age of ground water. The largest existing water 
supply development is that of the Potter Valley Irri- 
gation District which serves about 4,000 acres of land 
in Potter Valley, utilizing waters diverted from the 
Eel River and released into Potter Valley for power 
generation purposes. The Santa Rosa water works is 
the largest municipal water service agency, delivering 
supplies from both surface and underground sources. 

Coyote Valley Dam and Reservoir, on the East 
Fork of the Russian River about 5 miles north of 
TJkiah, is presently under construction by the Corps 
of Engineers, U. S. Army, as a water conservation 
and flood control project. The project will develop 
irrigation and municipal water supplies for use on 
lands along the Russian River and in the lower basin 
extending south to the City of Santa Rosa. It will 
also enhance recreational opportunities and fish life 
in the lower Russian River by maintenance of desir- 
able summer stream flow. 

Coyote Valley Reservoir, when completed, will have 
a gross storage capacity of 122,000 acre-feet, includ- 
ing 48,000 acre-feet of flood control storage reserva- 
tion. Provisions have been made in the planning for 
future enlargement of the dam and reservoir to an 
ultimate storage capacity of 199,000 acre-feet. The 
Corps of Engineers is authorized to construct down- 
stream channel improvements as a part of this project. 

The Russian River Group has ample water resources 
to meet its present and future water requirements. 
However, because of the large fluctuation in runoff 
from season to season and within the season, the con- 
trol and development of the water resources presents 
a problem. Supplemental water supplies aggregating 
about 375,000 acre-feet per season would be neces- 
sary to fully meet requirements under ultimate condi- 
tions. 

The requirement for water for fish and recreation 
is also a major consideration on the Russian River 
and its tributaries. The lower portion of the Russian 
River is a famed summer recreational area, with 
pleasant weather, water for swimming and fishing, 
pleasing scenery, and proximity to large centers 
of population. Summer stream flows have, in the 
past, dropped considerably below the minimum re- 
quirements for these purposes. This condition will be 
corrected by operation of Coyote Valley Reservoir, 
which will provide release of water in sufficient volume 
to maintain a minimum flow of 125 second-feet in the 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



4.') 



lower Russian River near Guerneville, particularly 
during the summer months. 

In common with the rest of the North Coastal Area, 
the Russian River Group is presently faced with a 
serious flood control problem. The flood of December, 
1955, inundated agricultural lands, commercial struc- 
tures, and homes along the Russian River. Particu- 
larly heavy damage was inflicted on summer homes 
along the lower river, notably in and around Guerne- 
ville. 

Under The California Water Plan, 14 new dams 
and reservoirs are contemplated in the Russian River 
Group, including the future enlargement of the 
Coyote Valley Reservoir to its ultimate stage. These 
reservoirs could supply sufficient water to meet ulti- 
mate requirements for irrigation, municipal, and rec- 
reational purposes, and provide a substantial measure 
of flood control as well. 

The upper Russian River and tributaries could be 
developed by 6 reservoirs, in addition to the Coyote 
Valley Reservoir enlarged to its ultimate stage as 
proposed by the Corps of Engineers. These reservoirs, 
on Franz, Maacama, Big Sulphur, Cummisky, Feliz, 
Robertson, and Saysal Creeks, would be supplemen- 
tary to and operated in coordination with Coyote 
Valley Reservoir. Their combined yield could be uti- 
lized throughout the Russian River area, the Santa 
Rosa plains, and the Tomales-Bodega area, and sur- 
plus water could be exported to the San Francisco 
Bay Area. 

Knights Valley Reservoir would be unique in that 
it would involve two separate dams, one on Franz 
Creek and one on Maacama Creek, constructed to 
sufficient heights that they would form a common 
reservoir at higher water stages. Franz and Maacama 
Dams Avould be located about 6 miles east of Healds- 
burg. Knights Valley Reservoir could furnish water 
to local downstream lands and provide minimum sum- 
mer and winter stream flows in Maacama Creek of 5 
second-feet and 30 second-feet, respectively, for fish- 
ery enhancement. 

Big Sulphur Dam and Reservoir, located on Big- 
Sulphur Creek about 3 miles east of Cloverdale, 
could develop water for local downstream use and for 
conveyance to the Santa Rosa-Sebastopol and the 
Tomales-Bodega areas. In addition, the reservoir 
could provide 43,000 acre-feet of flood control storage 
space, and releases could be made to provide minimum 
summer and winter flows of 10 second-feet and 50 
Becond-feet, respectively, for improvement of fishery 
conditions. 

In addition to the foregoing, reservoirs could be 
constructed on four smaller tributaries to the upper 
Russian River. These include Cummisky Dam and 
Reservoir on Cummisky Creek, 5 miles north of 
Cloverdale ; Feliz Dam and Reservoir on Feliz Creek, 
1 mile west of Hopland ; Robertson Dam and Reser- 



voir on Robertson Creek, 4 miles north of Ukiah ; and 
Saysal Dam and Reservoir on Saysal Creek, 6 miles 
northeast of Healdsburg. Lands downstream from 
these reservoirs could be served by local distribution 
works. 

As previously stated, the seven reservoirs in the 
upper Russian River area could develop water for 
conveyance to the Santa Rosa plains, the Tomales- 
Bodega area and the San Francisco Bay Area, in 
addition to providing water for local downstream 
service areas. The water could be conveyed to all but 
the downstream service areas by the Sonoma Aque- 
duct, a feature of the California Aqueduct System, 
which would also convey water diverted from facili- 
ties of the Eel River Division of the California Aque- 
duct System. These facilities are delineated on Sheets 
5 and 7 of Plate 5. 

Dry Creek Dam and Reservoir, located on Dry 
Creek about 5 miles southwest of Cloverdale, could 
be operated to provide water for downstream service 
areas, and for fishery enhancement by releases of 
water to maintain minimum summer and winter flows 
of 10 second-feet and 75 second-feet, respectively. A 
minimum reservoir storage of 15,000 acre-feet would 
create favorable conditions for propagation of warm- 
water fish species. In addition, Dry Creek Reservoir 
could provide substantial flood protection by main- 
taining a flood control reservation of 43,000 acre-feet 
of storage capacity. 

A dam and reservoir on Warm Springs Creek, 6 
miles west of Geyserville, and one on Mill Creek, 3 
miles east of Healdsburg, could augment the water 
supply developed by Dry Creek Reservoir. Releases 
sufficient to maintain minimum summer and winter 
stream flows of 5 second-feet and 25 second-feet, re- 
spectively, could be provided from each reservoir for 
maintenance of fish life. Furthermore, minimum res- 
ervoir pools could be reserved for propagation of 
warmwater fishes. In addition to providing water to 
local downstream service areas, water from these res- 
ervoirs and Dry Creek Reservoir could be pumped 
from the Russian River and conveyed to the northerly 
portion of the Santa Rosa plains. 

Bearpen Dam and Reservoir on East Austin Creek 
about 7 miles above its mouth was planned for fishery 
and recreational purposes only, and as such would be 
operated to maintain summer stream flows in that 
creek below the dam. In addition to maintenance of 
a desirable stream flow for fishing and swimming, a 
minimum reservoir storage of 1,000 acre-feet could 
be provided for propagation of warmwater fish. 

Mark West Dam and Reservoir on upper Mark 
West Creek and Laguna Dam and Reservoir on lower 
Mark West Creek near its junction with the Russian 
River could jointly develop sufficient water to meet 
the remainder of the ultimate requirements of the 
Santa Rosa plains. Although the primary purpose of 
these reservoirs would be for conservation, there 






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North Coastal Area Economic Activities— Recreation and Dairying 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



47 



would be major incidental benefits to the fishery and 
to recreation. The Laguna reservoir area is already 
one of the most popular places in the State for duck 
and pheasant hunting, and enlargement of the exist- 
ing water area would substantially improve duck 
hunting. Furthermore, the reservoir would form a 
highly desirable warinwater fishing lake because of 
the shallow water and long shore line. Minimum sum- 
mer and winter flows of 5 second-feet and 25 second- 
feet, respectively, could be maintained by releases 
from .Mark West Reservoir for fishery enhancement. 
AValker Dam and Reservoir on Walker Creek about 
2 miles southwest of Tomales, could be constructed, to 

I j provide water for the Tomales-Bodega area. The water 

I developed by Walker Reservoir would be used pri- 
marily in the Stemple Creek drainage area, which 

I would require a substantial pumping lift. 

In summary, the local phase of The California 
Water Plan for the Russian River Group would com- 

I prise 14 reservoirs and associated works. Operated 
coordinately and as a basin-wide development, these 

I: local works could accomplish a threefold purpose: 

I namely, (1) provision of sufficient water to serve all 

I I potentially irrigable and urban lands within the Rus- 
i sian River Group, and to export a small supply to 
t the San Francisco Bay Area (2) enhancement of the 

I I anadromous, resident trout, and warmwater fishery 
j and of the recreational opportunity, and (3) pro- 
I vision of a substantial measure of flood control. The 
' local development works would have an aggregate 

gross storage capacity of about 1,100,000 acre-feet 

and could make available additional water supplies 

aggregating some 415,000 acre-feet per season. As 

I planned, the Russian River Group would receive 

• about 375,000 acre-feet of this water per season, and 

j about 40,000 acre-feet would be exported to the San 

III Francisco Bay Area. A large portion of the yield 
made available would be conveyed to the Santa Rosa 

i plains, the Tomales-Bodega area, and the San Fran- 

I cisco Bay Area by the Sonoma Aqueduct, proposed 

I I as a feature of the California Aqueduct System pri- 
> marily for transferring Eel River water to the San 

II Francisco Bay Area. 

The importance of the Russian River and its trib- 
I; utaries to sport fishing and recreation is fully recog- 
\ . nized in The California Water Plan. Releases of water 

I could be made from the reservoirs on the more im- 
i portant fishing streams to assure conditions satis- 
factory for fish life and for public recreation. 

In addition to the foregoing accomplishments, flood 

II control storage reservations aggregating about 134,000 
acre-feet could be maintained in Dry Creek, Big 

I Sulphur, and Coyote Valley Reservoirs. This reserved 
I storage capacity would provide a substantial measure 
I of flood protection. Additional incidental flood con- 
I trol benefits could be derived from the remaining 
I reservoirs and from authorized channel improvements 
to be constructed by the Corps of Engineers. These 



works would greatly reduce damage from flooding 
along the Russian River flood plain. However, com- 
plete prevention of damage to property would in- 
quire appropriate flood zoning in conjunction with 
the foregoing works. 

Pacific Basins Group. The Pacific Basins Group 
comprises three relatively small non-contiguous seg- 
ments of the North Coastal Area adjacent to the ocean, 
which are isolated from each other by the Klamath - 
Trinity and the Eel-Mad River drainage basins. Its 
total area of 3,530 square miles is predominantly 
mountainous. The group includes the Smith River 
drainage area in the northernmost segment and the 
Redwood Creek drainage area in the middle portion, 
while the larger southern section includes the drain- 
age areas of the Mattole, Noyo, Navarro, and Garcia 
Rivers. 

Present water development in the Pacific Basins 
Group is insignificant compared to the available water 
resources, and includes only the minor works of a 
number of small public and private agencies formed 
to supply water for municipal and domestic use. Agri- 
cultural water is presently developed entirely on an 
individual basis. 

The ultimate seasonal water requirement of the en- 
tire group is estimated to be only a little more than 
180,000 acre-feet, compared to the total mean seasonal 
runoff of about 12,000,000 acre-feet. However, satis- 
faction of those requirements would require the con- 
struction of water storage facilities. Moreover, since 
the streams flow largely in deep narrow canyons, sub- 
stantial pumping lifts and conduits with rather tor- 
tuous alignments would be required to deliver the 
conserved water to service areas which are located 
mainly on hills and ridge tops. 

The streams of the Pacific Basins Group are a 
natural habitat for anadromous fish such as steelhead 
trout and silver salmon, as well as resident trout. 
However, under present conditions extremely low 
summer flows cause the loss of a large percentage of 
the young fish, while erratic flows during early winter 
and spring frequently severely reduce the success of 
the spawning runs. Because of the importance of rec- 
reation and the fishery to the present and future econ- 
omy of the group, a number of reservoirs contem- 
plated under The California Water Plan would be 
dedicated to the improvement of stream flow condi- 
tions by planned releases for that purpose. 

In certain areas, notably on the Smith River Plain, 
on lands near the mouth of Redwood Creek, and 
along the lower Mattole River, large winter flows 
create a significant flood problem, causing consider- 
able damage to utilities and low-lying farm lands. 

The ultimate water requirements of the Pacific 
Basins Group could be met by local surface water 
development works and increased use of ground wa- 
ter. Summer stream flow conditions could be im- 



4S 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



proved by releases of water from reservoirs in the 
interests of fish life and recreation. 

The ultimate supplemental water requirement of 
about 55,000 acre-feet per season on the Smith River 
plain could probably be met by operation of the un- 
derlying ground water basin, without surface storage 
development. It appears that an adequate supply is 
available in the ground water basin if operated in con- 
junction with direct diversions from the Smith River. 
However, in the event that the yield of ground water 
should prove inadequate, Rowdy Creek Dam could be 
constructed on Rowdy Creek for development of the 
required additional yield. 

Green Point Reservoir, which would be located on 
Redwood Creek a short distance upstream from High- 
way 299, could be operated for maintenance of favor- 
able flow conditions in the downstream channel dur- 
ing the summer months. Releases of water from the 
reservoir amounting to 15 second-feet would supple- 
ment the natural flow below the dam, thus improving 
42 miles of stream channel for fishery and recreational 
purposes. 

Thorn Dam and Reservoir on the headwaters of the 
Mattole River could similarly be operated to improve 
downstream flow conditions by releases of water at 
the rate of 55 second-feet, resulting in improved con- 
ditions for fish on a 55-mile reach of the river. 

Water to meet the requirements of the area along 
the Mendocino coast from Rockport south to Fort 
Bragg could be developed by dams and reservoirs on 
Pudding, Campbell, and Hayworth Creeks, and on 
the South Fork of Tenmile River. Glenblair Dam and 
Reservoir would be located on Pudding Creek about 
4 miles east of Fort Bragg. Yesmar Dam and Reser- 
voir would be located a short distance downstream 
from the confluence of Campbell Creek and the South 
Fork of Tenmile River. These two dams would cre- 
ate a common reservoir in Little Valley which nor- 
mally drains into Pudding Creek. The yield of Glen- 
blair-Yesmar Reservoirs could be used in the northern 
portion of the Mendocino coast, including Fort Bragg. 

Hayworth Dam and Reservoir, located on Hay- 
worth Creek about 3 miles north of its confluence 
with the Noyo River, could meet the remaining water 
requirements of the northern portion of the Mendo- 
cino coast. Although the primary purpose of Hay- 
worth Reservoir would be water conservation to meet 
the foregoing requirements and not stream flow main- 
tenance, its operation would provide a minimum re- 
lease of 10 second-feet, which would improve stream 
flow conditions in the 26-mile reach between the dam 
and a downstream diversion point near the ocean. 

The water developed by Caspar Dam and Reser- 
voir, which would be located on Caspar Creek about 
4 miles upstream from the town of Caspar, could be 
utilized in the southern portion of the Medocino 
coastal area. 



Summer stream flow conditions in the Big River 
Basin could be improved by construction of Hellgate 
Reservoir on the South Fork of Big River about 5 
miles above the main stem. Releases of water from 
Hellgate Reservoir could increase the natural sum- 
mer flow in a 33-mile reach of the stream below the: 
dam by 15 second-feet. 

McDonald Dam and Reservoir, which would be h>- M 
cated on the Albion River approximately 6 miles east !| 
of Albion, could develop water for use on lands lying ! I 
on both sides of the Albion River. 

The ultimate water requirements of Anderson Val- 
ley and other service areas of the Navarro River 
Valley could be met by Lone Tree, Big Foot, and 
Castle Garden Dams and Reservoirs. In addition, re- 
leases of water from the reservoirs could be made for 
improvement of the fishery and the recreational op- 
portunity in the area. 

Lone Tree Dam and Reservoir would be located 
on Indian Creek about 6 miles upstream of Philo. A 
portion of the water yielded from the reservoir could 
supply irrigable lands located along the Navarro River 
between Booneville and Philo. In addition, water re- 
leased from the reservoir for the service area from 
Philo downstream to Navarro would utilize the nat- 
ural stream channel, thus improving the fishery and 
the recreational conditions. 

Big Foot Dam and Reservoir on Rancheria Creek 
about 4 miles south of Yorkville Post Office, could be 
operated for the maintenance of summer stream flow. 
Castle Garden Dam and Reservoir, located on the 
North Fork of the Navarro River, could also be 
operated for this purpose. Releases from Big Foot and 
Castle Garden Reservoirs could be made on a schedule 
designed to enhance the fishery and recreational op- 
portunity, with minimum summer flows of 16 sec- 
ond-feet and 10 second-feet, respectively, provided 
below the dams. Thus, fish life on the main stem of I 
the Navarro, as well as on two of its principal tribu- 
taries, would be considerably improved. Moreover, the 
attractiveness of the stream for recreational purposes, 
such as swimming, boating, camping, and picnicking 
in the redwood groves along the lower reaches would 
be enhanced. 

Tin Can Dam and Reservoir, which would be located 
on Alder Creek about 5 miles northeast of Manchester, 
could serve lands lying along the coast from the mouth 
of the Navarro River southerly to the Gualala River 
at the Mendocino-Sonoma county line, including the 
relatively extensive irrigable area in the vicinity of 
Point Arena. 

A headwater reservoir could be created in the 
Garcia River Basin by the construction of Garcia Dam 
and Reservoir just below the joining of Pardaloe and 
Mill Creeks. A minimum summer stream flow of 25 
second-feet for recreational purposes and fishery en- 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



49 



hancement could be assured by operation of Garcia 
Keservoir. 

Three reservoirs in the Gualala River Basin could 
be operated for improvement of summer stream flow 
conditions. Billings Dam would be located on the 
North Fork just below the junction of Billings and 
Bear Creeks, and could provide a summer release of 
20 second-feet into the downstream channel. Neese 
Ridge Dam and Reservoir, which would be located 
on the Wheatfield Fork just above "Wolf Creek, could 
also release 20 second-feet in the downstream channel 
during the summer months. Houser Bridge Dam and 
Reservoir would be located on the South Fork of the 
Gualala River about 6 miles southeast of Stewarts 
Point. It could provide summer releases of 35 second- 
feet into the downstream channel to supplement natu- 
ral flows. These three reservoirs in the Gualala River 
Basin would collectively improve the fishery and rec- 
reational conditions in 60 miles of stream channel, as 
well as maintain an open channel for the Gualala 
River all the way to the ocean. 

In summary, the 16 reservoirs constituting the local 
development works for the Pacific Basins Group under 
The California Water Plan would have an aggregate 
gross storage capacity of 314,000 acre-feet. They could 
make available additional water supplies amounting 
to some 156,000 acre-feet per season, consisting of 
84,000 acre-feet of conservation yield and 72,000 acre- 
feet of yield assigned to stream flow maintenance. An 
additional yield of approximately 55,000 acre-feet per 
season probably could be obtained from ground water 
storage underlying the Smith River plain. 

Including the foregoing yield from the ground 
water basin in the vicinity of Crescent City, the 
prospective local development works could meet all 
estimated future water requirements of the Pacific 
Basins Group, with the exception of certain widely 
scattered small parcels of agricultural lands which are 
too remote to be economically reached by projects of 
the scope considered herein. However, sufficient wa- 
ter supplies are available in the event that those lands 
should ever require service. 

In addition to meeting the agricultural, municipal, 
and industrial water requirements of the Pacific 
Basins Group, the local development works could sub- 
stantially improve more than 310 miles of stream 
channels for sport fishing and for general recreational 
purposes, including camping, boating, swimming, and 
picnicking. The future development of further recre- 
ational facilities has been considered so significant in 
the North Coastal Area that, wherever possible, stream 
flow maintenance works have been planned on the 
smaller streams of this group to minimize impairment 
on the more important streams elsewhere in the area. 

Summary of North Coastal Area. The California 
Water Plan in the North Coastal Area envisages a 
total of 50 new reservoirs for local water develop- 



ment purposes. Included are 25 reservoirs planned 
primarily for development of water supplies to meet 
increased consumptive use, 15 reservoirs planned pri- 
marily for stream flow maintenance, and 10 reservoirs 
that would provide water for both purposes. In addi- 
tion, 15 major dams and reservoirs with associated 
power plants, pumping plants, and tunnels, would be 
constructed in the area as features of the California 
Aqueduct System. These facilities, which are de- 
scribed in a subsequent section of this chapter, would 
conserve surplus flows of stream systems of the North 
Coastal Area for export to areas of deficiency else- 
where in the State. The prospective reservoirs to meet 
local water requirements would have an aggregate 
storage capacity of about 3,280,000 acre-feet and could 
provide an estimated yield of some 1,310,000 acre-feet 
per season for this purpose, plus an additional yield 
of about 250,000 acre-feet per season for stream flow 
maintenance. 

In addition to the yield of the foregoing reservoirs, 
an estimated 100,000 acre-feet per season of the ulti- 
mate local water requirement could be met by further 
development of ground water resources. The remain- 
der of this requirement in the North Coastal Area, not 
satisfied from contemplated local works of The Cali- 
fornia Water Plan, would occur primarily in connec- 
tion with irrigable lands lying in isolated small scat- 
tered tracts which, as previously stated, are considered 
too remote to be economically reached by projects of 
the scope considered in this bulletin. However, water 
resources are available for such lands for development 
by individuals or appropriate local agencies when and 
if the demand develops. 

Planned and incidental releases of water to down- 
stream channels from the local reservoirs and the in- 
cidental water releases from major reservoirs of the 
California Aqueduct System would increase the fish 
population and improve facilities for camping, boat- 
ing, swimming, and other recreational activities. 
These improved conditions would attract many addi- 
tional vacationists to the area, which is already fa- 
mous for such attractions. 

Features of the California Aqueduct System, in 
addition to enhancing the recreational potential of the 
North Coastal Area by provision of large water sur- 
face areas and improved stream flow would also result 
in a substantial measure of flood protection. This 
would be especially effective in the Eel River Basin. 
Studies indicate that the initial upstream features of 
the Eel River Division of the California Aqueduct 
System, consisting of Willis Ridge and Etsel Reser- 
voirs, could have almost completely regulated the flow 
of the Eel River below Dos Rios during the flood of 
December, 1955. 

Data on the general features and capital costs of 
the local development works of The California Water 
Plan in the North Coastal Area are presented in 
Table 9. The locations and layouts of these facilities, 



50 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



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THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



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52 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



which have been described in all the foregoing sec- 
tions, are delineated on Sheets 1, 3, 5, and 7 of Plate 5. 

San Francisco Bay Area 

Because of its mild and equable climate, its strategic 
location, its waterways and outstanding natural har- 
bor, and its fertile agricultural lands, the San Fran- 
cisco Bay Area has become one of the most highly 
developed regions of California. However, this high 
degree of development has imposed water demands 
far in excess of the yield of local water resources 
throughout most of the area. Had it not been for far- 
sighted planning and progressive water resource de- 
velopment, wherein water is imported on a large scale 
from distant watersheds, the population growth could 
never have reached its present stage. Yet, in spite of 
the notable steps taken to obtain water supplies to 
meet the ever increasing needs, severe water problems 
exist in several portions of the San Francisco Bay 
Area. 

The great need for water, coupled with the paucity 
of available water resources, has forced the people of 
the San Francisco Bay Area into a more advanced 
stage of water resource development than in many 
other areas of California. Opportunity for further de- 
velopment of local water resources is and has for 
some time been very limited, and has fostered the 
development of foreign watersheds and the importa- 
tion of water through aqueducts many miles in length. 

In efforts to solve water supply problems a number 
of public and private agencies have been formed, and 
by their initiative several outstanding water supply 
projects have been constructed. One of the most widely 
known of such projects, the Hetch Hetchy Project, 
was constructed by the City of San Francisco, and be- 
gan delivery of water from Hetch Hetchy Reservoir 
and Lake Eleanor in Yosemite National Park to the 
San Francisco Peninsula in 1934. The Hetch Hetchy 
Aqueduct is about 150 miles in length and features 
a 25-mile tunnel through the Coast Range, the longest 
tunnel in the world at the time of completion. The 
East Bay Municipal Utility District likewise has 
constructed an outstanding water supply project, 
involving the importation of water from Pardee Res- 
ervoir on the Mokelumne River to the East Bay area, 
a distance of some 95 miles, through the Mokelumne 
Aqueduct. 

I 'resent water problems in the San Francisco Bay 
Area are manifested by serious overdrafts on the 
ground water resources of Santa Clara Valley, Liver- 
more Valley, and the southern portion of Alameda 
County. Although these ground water basins are 
physically meeting the demands, their usefulness is 
threatened by the intrusion of sea water or of other 
waters of undesirable quality. The draft on these 
basins presently (1955) exceeds their mean annual 
replenishment by an estimated 41,000 acre-feet. The 



developed water surface supplies in Marin County are 
presently (1955) adequate to meet the requirements; 
however, the potential for further local development 
is limited, and water deficiency problems are immi- 
nent in the near future. Nearly all areas in the San 
Francisco Peninsula and the East Bay are dependent 
upon imported water supplies. 

It is estimated that satisfaction of water require- 
ments in the San Francisco Bay Area will ultimately 
involve the use of nearly 7 per cent of the total de- 
veloped water supplies in the State. "With less than 
2 per cent of the water resources of the State, it is 
obvious that the area will be a major area of ultimate 
water deficiency. The requirements for supplemental 
water, in addition to the import of water through 
present facilities to the full extent of existing or 
claimed rights, are forecast to reach some 2,110,000 
acre-feet per season under ultimate conditions. Nearly 
all of this water would of necessity be supplied by im- 
ports from areas of water surplus in other regions of 
California. 

Flood problems in the San Francisco Bay Area are 
largely local in nature, and occur primarily on the 
highly developed urban areas immediately adjacent 
to stream channels and along the bay shore. The flood 
of December, 1955, exemplified this type of damage. 
Throughout the entire bay area that flood sent 
streams to record heights and caused considerable 
damage in upstream areas as well as along the bay 
shore. The Napa River overflowed its banks through 
most of its length in Napa Valley. Large areas of agri- 
cultural lands in the Livermore and Amador Valleys 
were inundated by overflow of tributaries of Alameda 
Creek, and industrial developments in Livermore 
Valley and the highway and railroads in Niles Can- 
yon suffered heavy damage. Heavy damage was also 
inflicted upon southern Alameda County. The re- 
cently completed Lexington Dam and Reservoir on 
Los Gatos Creek averted a disaster of major propor- 
tions in Los Gatos and a portion of the City of San 
Jose. 

The objectives of The California Water Plan in 
the San Francisco Bay Area are twofold : first, the 
development of local water resources to the maximum 
practicable extent to satisfy increasing needs for irri- 
gation, urban, industrial, and recreational purposes, 
and a measure of flood control ; and second, the im- 
portation of water through facilities of the California 
Aqueduct System to meet the ultimate requirements 
of all lands considered susceptible of water service. 
Because of the limited potential for further develop- 
ment of local water resources, elimination of present 
water problems and provision of water to meet future 
increased requirements in the area will necessitate 
substantial importation of water from areas of sur- 
plus in other regions of the State. In this regard, 
additional imports proposed by certain water service 



54 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



agencies, notably the City of San Francisco and the 
East Bay Municipal Utility District, by extension and 
enlargement of their existing: facilities, have been 
taken into consideration in the formulation of plans 
for ultimate water supply in the area. 

For convenience of presentation herein, the San 
Francisco Bay Area has been divided into three 
major subareas. These are designated and are herein- 
after referred to as the "North Bay Group," "South- 
east Bay Group, ' ' and ' ' Peninsula Group, ' ' and their 
locations are shown on Plate 3. The layout of the 
water development works in the San Francisco Bay 
Area is delineated on Sheets 7, 8, and 10 of Plate 5. 
Data on the physical features and costs of the local 
works considered are presented in Table 10 which fol- 
lows this discussion under the heading "Summary of 
San Francisco Bay Area. ' ' 

North Bay Group. The North Bay Group em- 
braces those portions of Marin, Sonoma, Napa, and 
Solano Counties draining into San Francisco, Bo- 
dega, Tomales, San Pablo, and Suisun Bays. It 
reaches from the Pacific Ocean on the west to the 
Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta on the east, and ex- 
tends north to the drainage divides defining the Sac- 
ramento Valley and the Russian River Basin. The area 
is drained by the Napa River and Suisun, Sonoma, 
and San Antonio Creeks, which flow into San Fran- 
cisco Bay, and Lagunitas Creek, which empties into 
Bodega Bay. 

The meager water resources of the North Bay 
Group have been rather intensively developed. La- 
gunitas Creek, the principal stream in Marin County, 
has been almost fully developed by the Marin Mu- 
nicipal Water District. Present development on that 
creek includes Kent Lake, formed by the recently 
completed Peters Dam, Lagunitas Reservoir, and sev- 
eral smaller reservoirs. Surface water storage works 
in Napa Valley include, among others, Lake Henessey 
on Conn Creek, owned and operated by the City of 
Napa, and Rector Creek Dam, constructed by the 
State Department of Public Works to develop a water 
supply for the State Game Farm and the Veterans 
Home near Yountville. 

The City of Vallejo operates several reservoirs in 
Solano County for development of water supplies. 
In addition, the city has recently constructed an im- 
port water supply project involving' a pumped diver- 
sion of water from Cache Slough in the Sacramento- 
San Joaquin Delta and its conveyance to the city by 
pipe line. The capacity of this project is about 23,000 
acre-feel per season, although present (1955) delivery 
is less than 10,000 acre-feet. 

In addition to the foregoing surface water facilities, 
ground water is developed in I'etaluma, Sonoma and 
Napa Valleys, and the Fairfield area of Solano 
County. It is estimated that these ground water basins 
have an aggregate yield equivalent to the present 



(1950) draft therefrom, or about 18,000 acre-feet per 
season. The potential for additional development of 
ground water in these basins is limited. In localized 
areas in each of the basins excessive pumping has 
lowered ground water elevations below sea level, so 
that sea-water intrusion has become an active threat. 

Because of the paucity of suitable dam and reser- 
voir sites on the greater water-producing streams, and 
prior development of the more feasible sites, oppor- 
tunity for further development of the water resources 
of the North Bay Group is very limited. Marin and 
southern Sonoma Counties are faced with an immi- 
nent water shortage, and certain water service agen- 
cies there are looking to the Coyote Valley Project 
on the East Fork of the Russian River near Ukiah 
as an early available source of supplemental water. 
Solano County is similarly faced with the need of an 
imported water supply for future growth, although 
the problem in that area is not as urgent as in Marin 
and Sonoma Counties. The entire North Bay Group 
will be in need of an imported water supply in the 
near future, and will ultimately require an import 
of more than 1,200,000 acre-feet of supplemental 
water per year. 

Flood problems exist along all the principal streams 
of the North Bay Group. Most of the lands subject to 
inundation lie in the lower reaches of the streams, 
being in large part reclaimed tidal marshes. However, 
flooding also occurs along the upper reaches, where 
agricultural lands and residences on lower-lying lands 
are inundated. Expansion of existing urban areas is 
intensifying this problem. Local public agencies and 
private land owners have built levees, cleared chan- 
nels, and placed revetments to halt bank erosion. How- 
ever, no coordinated plans have been followed, and 
in general works are inadequate to contain floods of 
any appreciable magnitude. 

Local water development works contemplated as 
features of The California Water Plan in the North 
Bay Group comprise reservoirs on Sonoma and Ni- 
casio Creeks, and on the Napa River and its tribu- 
taries. Operation of these reservoirs would provide 
water to meet irrigation, urban, and industrial uses, 
and improve existing stream flow conditions in the 
interests of the fishery and the recreational oppor- 
tunity. In addition, these works could effect some flood 
control. 

Municipal and industrial water supplies could be 
made available to service areas in Marin County from 
Xieasio Reservoir, located on Xieasio Creek about 
3 miles east of the community of Xieasio. This reser- 
voir and associated conveyance facilities are presently 
scheduled for construction by the Marin Municipal 
Water District to supplement its presently developed 
water supplies. Water would he conveyed from the i 
reservoir to the service areas by means of a pipe line 
and booster pumping' plants. 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



55 



Bear Creek Dam and Reservoir, located on Sonoma 
Creek about 2 miles north of Kenwood, if constructed 
could provide domestic water for communities in the 
vicinity immediately downstream from the dam. Oper- 
ation of Bear Creek Reservoir could also provide some 
flood control and enhance summer stream flows for 
recreational purposes. 

Further conservation of the water resources of 
Xapa Valley could be accomplished by dams and reser- 
voirs on Dry and Sulphur Creeks, tributaries to the 
Xapa River, and a pumped diversion of water from 
the Napa River to an off -stream storage reservoir near 
St. Helena. The reservoir formed by Wing Canyon 
Dam would be located on Dry Creek about 3 miles 
southeast of Yountville, and could serve downstream 
urban areas. Sulphur Springs Dam, located on Sul- 
phur Creek about 1.5 miles southwest of St. Helena, 
could similarly serve urban lands in Napa Valley. 
The Spring Valley Project would involve a diversion 
of excess winter flows from the Napa River to a point 
about 2 miles west of St. Helena, and pumping of this 
water through an average lift of 75 feet into Spring 
Valley Reservoir, an off-stream storage unit, located 
about 1,000 feet east of the diversion point. The water 
stored during the winter months woidd be regulated 
to an irrigation demand schedule for release into the 
Napa River for downstream diversions. 

The five reservoirs and associated facilities compris- 
ing the local development work of The California 
Water Plan in the North Bay Group would provide 
29,000 acre-feet of new water per year, which would 
serve an estimated 8,400 acres of irrigated and urban 
; lands in the group. The reservoirs would have an 
aggregate gross storage capacity of some 53,000 acre- 
feet, and would enhance the recreational and sport 
fishing potential of the area by creating new bodies of 
water and by improving summer flows in downstream 
channels. 

It is apparent that the additional seasonal yield of 
29,000 acre-feet to be obtained from further develop- 
ment of local water resources is insignificant compared 
to the estimated total ultimate supplemental water 
requirement of nearly 1,250,000 acre-feet per season 
in the North Bay Group. Even with full development 
of the local yield, there would remain an ultimate 
seasonal supplemental water requirement of 1,217,000 
acre-feet, Provision of this water would be made by 
facilities of the California Aqueduct System, the 
Putah South Canal of the Solano Project, the North 
Bay Aqueduct, the Eel River Diversion, the Cedar 
Roughs Tunnel, and Montezuma Reservoir. These 
works are summarized herein and are described in 
more detail subsequently under the heading "Cali- 
fornia Aqueduct System." 

The Solano Project, presently under construction 
by the United States Bureau of Reclamation, will 
serve water developed in Monticello Reservoir, on 
Putah Creek, to lands in Solano County through the 



Putah South Canal. Studies made by the Department 
of Water Resources in connection with the Salinity 
Control Barrier Investigation have indicated that 
55,000 acre-feet per season of this water will be util- 
ized in the portion of Solano County within the San 
Francisco Bay Area, 

The North Bay Aqueduct would serve large areas 
of low lying lands to the north of Suisun and San 
Pablo Bays. It is contemplated that eventually the 
water would be diverted from Montezuma Reservoir 
on the Sacramento West Side Canal of the California 
Aqueduct System, located near Fairfield. However, 
initially the water would be diverted from Lindsay 
Slough in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. From 
Lindsay Slough the water would be conveyed in a 
westerly and southwesterly direction past Fairfield 
and Cordelia, to a small terminal reservoir about 2 
miles northeast of Novato. An ultimate seasonal deliv- 
ery of about 308,000 acre-feet of water to the North 
Bay Group is contemplated, distributed as follows: 
Marin and Sonoma Counties, 156,000 acre-feet; Napa 
Valley, 28,000 acre-feet; and Solano County, 124,000 
acre-feet. Delivery of this water would be accom- 
plished by releases along the route of the aqueduct, 

The Eel River Diversion contemplates a delivery 
of about 422,000 acre-feet of water per season to Marin 
and southern Sonoma Counties to meet the remaining 
ultimate supplemental water requirements in that 
area. The water would be conveyed from the Eel River 
by means of a tunnel from Willis Ridge Reservoir 
into Potter Valley, thence down the Russian River 
to a rediversion near Geyserville. From this point the 
water would be conveyed southerly about 40 miles by 
canal and pipe line to Stemple Reservoir, located on 
Stemple Creek about 3 miles southwest of Cotati. 
Stemple Reservoir would regulate the continuous di- 
version to the variable monthly demand schedule in 
the service area. 

In Napa Valley, there would still remain a supple- 
mental water requirement of about 224,000 acre-feet 
per season under ultimate conditions, in addition to 
the contemplated delivery of 28,000 acre-feet per sea- 
son by the North Bay Aqueduct. This requirement 
could be met by a diversion of Eel River water, as 
described later in this chapter under the California 
Aqueduct System, from Monticello Reservoir on 
Putah Creek, and its conveyance westerly by a tunnel 
through Cedar Roughs Ridge, where it would be re- 
leased into Conn Creek for regulation in Lake Hen- 
nessey. 

Water to meet the remainder of the ultimate sup- 
plemental requirements in Solano County, over and 
above deliveries by the Putah South Canal and the 
North Bay Aqueduct, would be provided by diver- 
sion from Montezuma Reservoir at the terminus of 
the Sacramento West Side Canal near Fairfield. 
Although diversions could be made from any desired 
point along the Sacramento West Side Canal, which 




San Francisco Bay Area— Napa Valley Grape Harvest 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



57 



.vould pass through Solano County, such diversions 
Ivould have to be made at a constant rate so as not to 
;acrifice the delivery potential of the canal, and local 
lltorage would be required to regulate the constant 
Ipiversions to the varying monthly demands in the 
Ljrvice area. 

In summary, facilities of the California Aqueduct 
flystem would ultimately deliver some 1,220,000 acre- 
eet of water per season to service areas in the North 
Bay Group, distributed as follows : Solano Project, 
55,000 acre-feet; North Bay Aqueduct, 308,000 acre- 
feet ; Eel River Diversion, 422,000 acre-feet ; Cedar 
Roughs Tunnel, 224,000 acre-feet ; and Montezuma 
Reservoir, 208,000 acre-feet. These deliveries, with the 
28.000 acre-feet of water per season secured by fur- 
ther local development, would fully satisfy the ulti- 
mate water requirements of all lands considered sus- 
ceptible of water service in the North Bay Group. 

Southeast Bay Group. The Southeast Bay Group 
comprises the portions of Contra Costa, Alameda, and 
Santa Clara Counties within the San Francisco Bay 
drainage, being bounded by San Pablo and Suisun 
Bays on the north, the San Joaquin Valley drainage 
divide on the east, San Francisco Bay and San Mateo 
county line on the west, and the Santa Cruz Moun- 
tains and Morgan Hill Divide on the south. The 
group is occupied by a highly developed urban and 
industrial economy. Irrigated agriculture also plays 
a significant role in the economy, particularly in 
| Santa Clara Valley. 

j The high degree of development attained in the 
Southeast Bay Group has been made possible, in large 
ipart, by exploitation of the extensive ground water 
storage in alluvial fill areas, notably the Santa Clara 
and Livermore Valleys, and southern Alameda 
iCounty along the east shore of the bay. More than 
100,000 acres of irrigated lands in north Santa Clara 
Valley are presently (1955) served from wells. The 
principal surface water development works consist 
of Calaveras Reservoir on Calaveras Creek, and in- 
stallations on Alameda Creek at and above Sunol, 
operated by the City of San Francisco for local water 
service and export to the Peninsula; the Upper and 
Lower San Leandro, San Pablo, and Lafayette Reser- 
voirs operated by the East Bay Municipal Utility 
District both for conservation of local water resources 
and for terminal storage for the Mokelumne Aque- 
duct; and reservoirs on Coyote, Arroyo Calero, Ala- 
mitos, Guadalupe, and Los Gatos Creeks, operated 
conjunctively with ground water storage by the Santa 
Clara Valley Water Conservation District. 

Artificial recharge of ground water basins is prac- 
ticed both in Alameda and Santa Clara Counties. 
The Alameda County Water District is utilizing 
abandoned gravel pits for spreading surplus flows in 
Alameda Creek, thus supplementing natural stream 
channel percolation in the Niles Cone area. The Santa 



Clara Valley Water Conservation District operates 
percolation ponds and natural stream channels in con- 
junction with surface reservoirs which control re- 
leases to rates within the percolation capacity of these 
works. 

Water is presently imported to the Southeast Bay 
Group through the Contra Costa Canal, constructed 
by the United States Bureau of Reclamation; the 
Mokelumne Aqueduct of the East Bay Municipal 
Utility District; and the Hetch Hetchy Aqueduct of 
the City of San Francisco, which now serves supple- 
mental water to the City of Hayward, the Alameda 
County Water District, other areas in southern Ala- 
meda County, and the portion of northern Santa 
Clara County included in the Milpitas-Sunnyvale- 
Palo Alto area. 

The Contra Costa Canal diverts water from Rock 
Slough in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, and 
serves lands along the northern portion of Contra 
Costa County extending generally from Oakley on 
the east to Martinez on the west. The present capacity 
of the system is estimated to be about 85,000 acre- 
feet per season to the Bay area. It is estimated that 
this delivery could be increased ultimately to 146,000 
acre-feet per season. 

The East Bay Municipal Utility District serves 
lands in western Contra Costa and northwestern Ala- 
meda Counties. The Mokelumne Aqueduct furnishes 
the principal water supply for the service area of the 
district. Although the present capacity of the system 
is limited to 162,500 acre-feet of water per season, the 
district has secured permits, and plans to ultimately 
import some 364,000 acre-feet per season, which quan- 
tity will meet the ultimate requirements of its service 
area. Construction of additional local reservoir storage 
is contemplated by the district, for the joint purposes 
of providing terminal storage for the Mokelumne 
Aqueduct, and developing local water resources. These 
planned local works comprise Pinole Reservoir on 
Pinole Creek, Briones Reservoir on Bear Creek, both 
in western Contra Costa County, and enlargement of 
the existing Upper San Leandro Reservoir. 

As a result of heavy long sustained drafts on 
ground water resources in the Southeast Bay Group, 
and the continuing trend toward increasing munici- 
pal, industrial and irrigation demands, the ground 
water basins of Livermore Valley, Santa Clara Val- 
ley, and southern Alameda County are seriously over- 
drawn at the present time. Ground water pumping 
levels in the vicinity of San Francisco Bay are sub- 
stantially below sea level in the latter two areas, with 
the resultant threat of destruction of the ground 
water resources by intrusion of sea water from be- 
neath the bay. In fact, sea water has already intruded 
into the upper aquifer in southern Alameda County, 
rendering the water unsuitable for use, and has en- 
tered the lower aquifer, largely through abandoned 



58 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



or defective wells. Overdrafts on ground water in 
these areas presently (1955) aggregate an estimated 
41,000 acre-feet per season. 

In addition to ground water overdrafts, the surface 
water supplies of the Southeast Bay Group are in- 
herently deficient, and the group depends primarily 
on imported water supplies to meet present require- 
ments. Under ultimate conditions, some 825,000 acre- 
feet per season of supplemental water will be required, 
in addition to the delivery of water through present 
import facilities to the full extent of existing or 
claimed rights. 

The Southeast Bay Group is presently faced with 
a two-fold flood problem : tidal flooding of lands adja- 
cent of San Francisco Bay, and storm water flooding 
by streams flowing across the coastal plain. Lands 
adjacent to the bay have been reclaimed by dikes, 
with tidal gates across stream outlets which hold back 
the tides but limit outflow to the bay and cause pond- 
ing of surface runoff on the valley floor behind them. 
A number of streams have thus been completely cut 
off from direct access to the bay. Flood problems other 
than those directly related to tidal influence occur 
principally in the Walnut Creek watershed in Contra 
Costa County, along Alameda and San Lorenzo 
Creeks in Alameda County, and on the flood plains of 
streams tributary to San Francisco Bay in Santa 
Clara County. These streams flow through some of 
the most rapidly developing urban areas in the San 
Francisco Bay Area, the problem being intensified in 
recent years by encroachment of urban and industrial 
development on the flood plains. 

The principal flood problems of the Southeast Bay 
Group are within the boundaries of the three county 
flood control districts in the group. These districts 
are actively engaged in planning and constructing 
works for the alleviation of flood conditions, taking 
cognizance of the probable urban nature of develop- 
ment under ultimate conditions in their respective 
areas. When completed, these flood control works 
should provide adequate flood protection. 

Opportunity for further development of local 
water resources toward meeting ultimate water re- 
quirements in the Southeast Bay Group is very lim- 
ited. In fact, full practicable development could not 
meet the present supplemental water requirement, 
assuming existing imports were continued in their 
present quantities. The objectives of The California 
Water Plan in the group are, therefore, development 
of the remaining local water resources within the 
limits of feasibility, and importation of water through 
facilities of the California Aqueduct System in 
amounts sufficient to meet the ultimate water require- 
ments of all lands considered susceptible of water 
service. The utility of the ground water resources 
would be preserved by maintaining a proper balance 
between ground water replen islimeiit and the pump- 
ing draft from the basins. 



Local water development works contemplated as 
features of The California Water Plan in the South- 
east Bay Group consist of reservoirs on the Alameda 
Creek system in Alameda County; and a reservoir on 
San Francisquito Creek, a Avell field, and a percolation 
canal to augment ground water replenishment, all in 
the Santa Clara Valley. 

Sanatorium Dam and Reservoir, located on Arroyo 
del Valle about 5 miles south of Livermore, and 
Mocho Dam and Reservoir on Arroyo Mocho, 5 miles 
southeast of Livermore, could, if operated in con- 
junction with downstream ground water storage in 
Livermore Valley, develop a new seasonal yield of 
about 9,300 acre-feet for use in the valley. In order 
to develop this yield, the use of considerable cyclic 
ground water storage capacity would be required. 
Such operation would involve the detention of runoff 
in surface storage only for the time required for 
regulation of releases to rates which could be absorbed 
in downstream channels for replenishment of ground 
water storage. 

In addition to its local function in developing the 
waters of Arroyo del Valle, Sanatorium Reservoir 
could provide regulation for water imported to Ala- 
meda County through the South Bay Aqueduct, de- 
scribed subsequently. A portion of the available stor- 
age could be allocated to development of local runoff, 
and the remainder could serve to regulate the im- 
ported waters. 

La Costa Dam and Reservoir on San Antonio 
Creek about 3 miles above its confluence with Ala- 
meda Creek, when constructed would control the 
waters of La Costa, Indian, and San Antonio Creeks. 
This reservoir could be operated effectively in con- 
junction with ground water storage capacity in the 
Niles Cone area, and the conserved water could pro- 
vide a portion of the present supplemental require- 
ments in that area. However, the City of San 
Francisco proposes to construct La Costa Dam and 
Reservoir, under claim of water rights on Alameda 
Creek and tributaries, as an integral portion of the 
water supply operated by San Francisco ; and, under 
such circumstances, the reservoir would not be oper- 
ated conjunctively with the Niles Cone ground water 
basin. 

Prospective local water resource developments in 
the Santa Clara Valley consist of a dam and reservoir 
on San Francisquito Creek, a well field for the salvage 
of ground water adjacent to Coyote Creek, and a di- 
version canal from Calero Reservoir to Los Gatos 
Creek to augment ground water replenishment. 

Little Francis Dam and Reservoir would be located 
(in San Francisquito Creek about 5 miles upstream 
from U. S. Highway 101 in San Mateo County. The 
Coyote Valley well field would be located near the 
north end of Coyote Valley, and could provide an 
urban water supply for the City of San Jose by sal- 




Calaveras Reservoir on Calaveras Creek Provides Water for San Francisco Metropolitan Area 



60 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



vaging ground water which presently wastes to San 
Francisco Bay because of existing high ground water 
levels. The well field would consist of a series of deep 
wells spaced about a quarter of a mile apart in a line 
adjacent and parallel to Coyote Creek. 

The Calero Diversion would extend northwesterly 
from the existing Calero Reservoir on Arroyo Calero, 
to Los Gatos Creek, intercepting flows from Alamitos 
and Guadalupe Creeks, and conveying these waters 
in open canal for a distance of about 9 miles to Guada- 
lupe Creek and then in pipe line an additional 6 miles 
to Los Gatos Creek. The waters would be discharged 
into Los Gatos Creek for percolation in the channel 
of that creek. 

The total seasonal new yield developed by the fore- 
going works in the Santa Clara Valley would aggre- 
gate about 12,900 acre-feet. However, it should be 
mentioned that the Santa Clara Valley Water Con- 
servation District is presently proposing a program, 
including recharge of ground water basins, to im- 
prove and expand its existing system for conservation 
of water that would otherwise waste to San Francisco 
Bay. This program includes enlargement and exten- 
sion of the present distribution system, and construc- 
tion of dams and reservoirs on Penitencia, Guadalupe, 
Silver, and Calabazas Creeks. The district estimates 
that these four reservoirs, with a combined storage 
capacity of 17,500 acre-feet, would develop a new 
yield of about 10,000 acre-feet per season when oper- 
ated in conjunction with ground water storage. 

The seasonal yield of the new local water develop- 
ment works in the Southeast Bay Group contemplated 
under The California Water Plan would aggregate 
only 34,000 acre-feet, including the proposed develop- 
ments of the East Bay Municipal Utility District on 
Pinole, Bear, and San Leandro Creeks. These works 
could only partially offset the present supplemental 
water requirements in the group, even though they 
represent essentially the full practicable development 
of local water resources. This fact points up the real 
necessity for the early development of an imported 
water supply. 

In addition to the yield from the foregoing local 
developments, there would remain a total ultimate 
supplemental water requirement of some 1,148,000 
acre-feet per season in the Southeast Bay Group. Of 
this total, the following supplies could be made avail- 
able by existing agencies: (1) an additional 201,- 
000 acre-feet per season could be imported by the 
East Bay Municipal Utility District for service within 
the district, (2) an additional 61,000 acre-feet per 
season could be delivered to Contra Costa County by 
the Contra Costa Canal of the Central Valley Project, 
and (3) the City of San Francisco states that an 
additional 10!). 000 acre-feet per season could be de- 
livered to tlie Santa Clara Valley and an additional 
12."), 000 acre-reef to the southern Alameda County 



and Livermore units by the Hetch Hetehy Aqueduct 
of the City of San Francisco. The remainder neces- 
sary would be provided by the Kirker Pass Aqueduct 
and the South Bay Aqueduct, both features of the 
California Aqueduct System. 

The Kirker Pass Aqueduct contemplates the de- 
livery of 164,000 acre-feet per season to lands in 
Contra Costa County not considered susceptible to 
service by facilities of the Contra Costa Canal and 
the East Bay Municipal Utility District. The aque- 
duct would convey water from the Antioch Crossing 
of the Delta Division of the California Aqueduct Sys- 
tem in a general southwesterly direction about 21 
miles to Lime Ridge Reservoir, about 2 miles west 
of Clayton. The Kirker Pass Aqueduct would provide 
the balance of the ultimate supplemental water re- 
quirement in Contra Costa County. 

The South Bay Aqueduct would provide water in 
amounts sufficient to meet the remainder of the sup- 
plemental water requirements of Alameda County 
and Santa Clara Valley under ultimate conditions. As 
contemplated, the aqueduct would be constructed inj 
two stages. The initial stage would comprise the 
Alameda-Contra Costa-Santa Clara-San Benito Coun-i 
ties Branch of the authorized Feather River Project 
Aqueduct, presently under intensive study by the 
Department of Water Resources for possible early 
construction. Deliveries of water by the Alameda- 
Contra Costa-Santa Clara-San Benito Counties Branch 
would be supplemented at a future time by construc- 
tion of additional diversion and conveyance works 
which would parallel the facilities of the initial stage. 
The total contemplated deliveries under ultimate con- 
ditions would be about 627,000 acre-feet per season, 
distributed as follows: Livermore Valley, 187,000 
acre-feet; southern Alameda County coastal plain, i 
198,000 acre-feet; and Santa Clara' Valley, 242,0001 
acre-feet. 

Regulation of water delivered by the initial stage of 
the South Bay Aqueduct would be provided in Air- 
point Reservoir, about 2 miles east of Mission San Jose, 
and Evergreen Reservoir located about 6 miles south- 
east of San Jose, or alternatives thereto. These res- 
ervoirs would regulate the constant or uniform 
delivery to the variable monthly demands in the 
Southeast Bay Group. In this connection, available 
data indicate that the use of Airpoint Reservoir might 
be questionable from the geologic standpoint, due to 
possible excessive leakage. 

Construction of the South Bay Aqueduct to the 
ultimate stage contemplates the use of a portion of the 
storage space in Sanatorium Reservoir on Arroyo del 
Valle. However, it is now apparent that the ridges on 
either side of the reservoir are capped with gravel 
which arc probably permeable. Thus, storage in the 
reservoir would probably be limited due to the possi- 
bility of leakage at higher water stages. 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



(il 



Delivery of water to southern Contra Costa County 
and the northern portion of Livermore Valley could 
be accomplished by an alternative route of the South 
Bay Aqueduct. This alternative would consist of a 
diversion of water at the outlet portal of Brushy Peak 
Tunnel, and the conveyance along the northerly edge 
of Livermore Valley to a regulatory storage reservoir 
in Doolan Canyon, as shown on Sheet 10 of Plate 5. 
A reservoir at this site would be strategically located 
with respect to serving lands in Contra Costa County 
not within feasible reach of any existing water serv- 
ice agency. Studies of this alternative route have been 
of only a preliminary nature. 

In summary, the objectives of The California 
Water Plan in the Southeast Bay Group would be 
met by local water developments which would pro- 
vide 34,000 acre-feet per season; an increase in de- 
livery capacity of existing import facilities, amount- 
ing to 357,000 acre-feet per season, and imports 
through facilities of the California Aqueduct System, 
in the amount of 791,000 acre-feet per season, dis- 
tributed as follows: Kirker Pass Aqueduct, 164,000 
acre-feet ; and South Bay Aqueduct, 627,000 acre-feet. 
Together, the foregoing deliveries would fully satisfy 
the ultimate water requirements of all land considered 
susceptible of water service in the Southeast Bay 
Group. 

Sanatorium, La Costa, and Little Francis Reser- 
voirs would provide a measure of incidental flood 
control. However, the bulk of the required flood con- 
trol works in the Southeast Bay Group are planned 
for construction by the three county flood control 
agencies in the area. Benefits to recreation and fish 
life would probably be slight because of operation 
primarily for water conservation. 

Peninsula Group. The Peninsula Group comprises 
the City and County of San Francisco and nearly all 
of San Mateo County. San Francisco County occupies 
only the northern tip of the peninsula, forming an 
approximate square about 7 miles on each side. A 
major topographic feature of the peninsula is a moun- 
tain range lying north and south, forming its back- 
bone. The City of San Francisco and adjacent com- 
munities in the northern portion of the bay side of 
San Mateo County constitute one of the most highly 
developed urban areas in the United States. The major 
segment of the economy is based upon industrial de- 
velopment, primarily manufacturing and food proc- 
essing. 

The Peninsula Group is drained principally by 
streams on the western slope which discharge into the 
Pacific Ocean. There are no undeveloped streams of 
any significance draining the eastern slope into the 
bay. with the exception of San Francisquito Creek, 
which forms the southerly boundary of the group. 

The high degree of urban development attained in 
the Peninsula Group has been made possible, for the 



most part, by water supplies imported from foreign 
watersheds. Development of local water resources had 
been virtually completed prior to 1900, with the con- 
struction of Pilarcitos, San Andreas, and Upper and 
Lower Crystal Springs Reservoirs by the Spring Val- 
ley Water Company, predecessor to the San Francisco 
Water Department. Alameda Creek in the Southeast 
Bay Group was first developed for a water supply for 
San Francisco and the peninsula around 1900, and 
was fully developed and outgrown by the early 1930 's. 

The need for imports of water from distant sources 
on a large scale Avas foreseen by the City of San 
Francisco sufficiently in advance that Lake Eleanor 
and Hetch Hetchy Reservoir on the Tuolumne River 
watershed and the Hetch Hetchy Aqueduct were com- 
pleted by the time the peninsula and Alameda Creek 
systems became insufficient to meet the water require- 
ments. Water was first delivered from Hetch Hetchy 
Reservoir and Lake Eleanor in Yosemite National 
Park to Crystal Springs Reservoir on the peninsula 
through the Hetch Hetchy Aqueduct in 1934. 

Other than possible minor localized water problems 
along the coast in San Mateo County, there are no 
water shortage problems in the Peninsula Group. 
Moreover, the City and County of San Francisco plan 
to import sufficient water through the Hetch Hetchy 
Aqueduct to meet the ultimate water requirements of 
San Francisco, the bay side of San Mateo County, 
and the coastal side of the county south nearly to 
Half Moon Bay. 

Present flood problems in the Peninsula Group oc- 
cur principally on the bay side of the peninsula, and 
are of a localized nature due to the comparatively 
small drainage areas of the uncontrolled streams. 
However, during intense storms these streams pre- 
sent serious flood threats to the highly developed 
urban areas which are rapidly extending along the 
bay shore over the entire length of the peninsula. 
Encroachment of these developments on the channels 
and flood plains has restricted channel capacities and 
has made maintenance difficult, as well as subjecting 
high-value property to possible inundation. Flood 
plains of streams on the coastal side of the peninsula 
are utilized mainly for agricultural pursuits, and 
flood damage has not been great. However, predic- 
tions of future land use patterns indicate a predomi- 
nantly urban culture under conditions of ultimate 
development, and future flood problems will become 
greatly magnified. 

The objectives of The California Water Plan in 
the Peninsula Group would be met by local develop- 
ment works on Pescadero and Butano Creeks to serve 
the coastal portion of San Mateo County south of 
Half Moon Bay, and by increased imports by the 
City and County of San Francisco to serve the re- 
mainder of the group. 

Waters of the Pescadero Creek system would be de- 
veloped by two dams, one on Pescadero Creek, about 



62 THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 

1.5 miles east of Pescadero, and another on Butano capacity of 227,500 acre-feet, of which 199,000 acre- 

Creek about 1 mile southeast of Pescadero and just feet would be devoted to local water conservation, 

above the confluence of Butano and Pescadero Creeks. These works could provide a measure of incidental 

Pescadero Dam would be limited in height to avoid flood control, although there would be no primary 

inundation of any portion of Memorial Park with its flood control operation. Maintenance of minimum 

beautiful grove of virgin redwoods. Water conserved pools in proposed reservoirs, although small, would 

by Butano Point Reservoir would be augmented by a create conditions favorable to the warmwater fishery, 

gravity diversion through a pipe line from Pescadero Moreover, recreational opportunities could be in- 

Reservoir. The water supply made available by these creased by construction and operation of these reser- j 

reservoirs could be conveyed in a pressure pipe from voirs. 

Butano Point Dam northerly along the coast to the Data on the general features and capital costs of the 

vicinity of Half Moon Bay. A pumping plant located local development works contemplated as features of 

at the downstream toe of the dam would lift the water The California Water Plan in the San Francisco Bay 

to an elevation of about 400 feet at a summit about Area are presented in Table 10. The locations and 

6 miles north of the dam. From this point the water layouts of all of these facilities are delineated on 

would flow by gravity to the vicinity of Half Moon Sheets 7, 8, and 10 of Plate 5. 
Bay. Releases would be made to service areas along , 

the conduit route. Cen ' ra/ Coasfa ' Area 

m . _, ^ . , , , , The Central Coastal Area is primarilv an agricul- 

The Pescadero Creek development would make ^^ { gituated between the heayil lated 

available a seasonal supply of 40,000 acre-feet, winch gan FranciscQ Bay and Log An leg metropolitan 
quantity could meet the ultimate water requirements areag _ milfi icultural industria l, and population 
of the forecast exclusively urban-tvpe land use in the ., . ,, ■, , , , -j 
,, „ ,, . -5, o -n • growth in the area, m general, lias not been as rapid 
areas south of the service area of the San Francisco ° . ., . S~. , , -, . ,, , 
m _ , _. . .,,,.. or extensive as that which has occurred in these ad- 
Water Department. In addition, considerable inci- ... , . , ,. , ,. . 
,.,.,,,, , . ,, t. v ■ i 1 -, joining regions, certain localized portions have 
dental flood control would be accomplished, and , . ° , ,. , ' , -. , , , , -, 
_ , , , , , i mi i i achieved a high degree ot development where ade- 

Ti^non" &sher / ™f d * e e + nhance f The + 1 bala ^ Ce quate water supplies are available. 

ot 196,000 acre-feet of ultimate supplemental water t -+j • i* j • a j • j * • e 

. ' , ,, ~. . t ri ,i , Irrigated agriculture and associated industries for 

requirements in the Peninsula Group would be met ,, . ° „ . ,. , ... . ,, 

, . ~ , . . , ,, , ,, TT , , the processing of agricultural products comprise the 

by service of water imported through the Hetch . . ,. ., . ,, V, , , ~ f . . 

T ; , , . , , , ,, r... ,,-? ~c major economic activitv in the Central Coastal Area, 

Hetchy Aqueduct by the City and County of San J ,. , . . ., „ _r.. ,, , x , _ . J 

. ^ J J J particularly m the fertile valleys, such as the Pajaro ' 

and Salinas Valleys, where underlying ground water 

Summary of San Francisco Bay Area. Objectives is readily available. Other industries of lesser im- 

of The California Water Plan in the San Francisco portance consist of oil refineries, lumber mills, and 

Bay Area would be met by further development of fishing. 

local water resources, by increases in deliveries of Water supplies in the Central Coastal Area are i 

existing import projects operated by local water serv- presently obtained principally from ground water i 

ice areas, and by imports through facilities of the sources. Although these water supplies are physically 

California Aqueduct System. Further development meeting present requirements, most of the ground 

of the meager and presently highly developed local water basins are highly developed, and in some cases 

water resources is limited. Of the total ultimate sup- are overdrawn. Such conditions have developed in 

plemental water requirements of 2,111,000 acre-feet the Pajaro and southern Santa Clara Valleys, the 

per season, only 103,000 acre-feet would be provided Hollister area, and the Salinas, Santa • Maria, and 

by increased development of local water resources, Cuyama River Valleys. As a result of these overdraft 

and the remaining 2,008,000 acre-feet would be de- conditions, degradation of quality of ground water 

livered by the facilities of the California Aqueduct supplies, resulting from sea-water intrusion, has oc- 

System indicated in the following tabulation: curred in the Monterey coastal area of the Salinas 

Solano Project __ 55,000 acre-feet and Pajaro Valleys, and perennial lowering of ground 

North Ray Aqueduct 308,000 acre-feet water levels is manifested in the San Benito, Pajaro, 

Eel River Diversion __ 422,000 aere-fe-t and lower Salinas Valleys. The overdraft on the 

Cedar Roughs Tunnel 224,000 acre-feet . " 

Montezuma Reservoir __ 208,000 acre-feet ground water resources in the Central Coastal Area 

Kirker Pass Aqueduct 164,000 acre-feet is presentlv (1955) estimated to aggregate some 65,- 

South Bil >' A ■"" H " 627 ' 000 aere - fw1 000 acre-feet per season. 

The foregoing developments would make available There are at the present time eight surface storage 
sufficient water to meet the ultimate requirements of developments in the Central Coastal Area, with an 
the highly developed Hi-ban economy of the San Fran- aggregate capacity of about 626,000 acre-feet and an 
cisco Bay Area. The prospective local developments estimated safe seasonal yield of about 315,000 acre- 
would include 10 storage reservoirs with an aggregate feet. The largest of these developments is Naeimienli 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



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64 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



Reservoir on the Nacimiento River, constructed to a 
storage capacity of 350,000 acre-feet by the Monterey 
County Flood Control and Water Conservation Dis- 
trict. It is planned that this reservoir will be oper- 
ated in conjunction with ground water storage in the 
Salinas Valley. Among other significant develop- 
ments in the Central Coastal Area are Cachuma Res- 
ervoir on the Santa Ynez River, recently constructed 
by the United States Bureau of Reclamation, and Va- 
quero Reservoir on the Cuyama River, presently un- 
der construction by the same agency. Vaquero Reser- 
voir will be operated in conjunction with ground 
water storage in the Santa Maria Valley. 

The present (1955) water requirement in the 
Central Coastal Area, amounting to about 630,000 
acre-feet per season, will ultimately increase to about 
2,246,000 acre-feet per season. The present require- 
ment for supplemental water will ultimately be in- 
creased from the present (1955) total of 65,000 acre- 
feet per season to about 1,681,000 acre-feet per sea- 
son. Ground water resources of the area could meet 
little more than the present supplemental water re- 
quirements, even if developed to their full potential. 
It is evident, therefore, that the future development 
to meet ultimate requirements must rely upon local 
surface storage works, and upon imports through 
facilities of the California Aqueduct System. 

In addition to the serious water supply problems 
in the Central Coastal Area, there exists a problem of 
the opposite nature — the periodic occurrence of 
major floods which have caused extensive damage to 
agricultural lands and urban development. Flood 
damage has been experienced along the lower reaches 
of the San Benito, Salinas, San Lorenzo, and Pajaro 
Rivers; Soquel Creek; the Santa Maria and Santa 
Ynez Rivers ; and Arroyo Grande Creek. 

The channels of the streams in the area have gen- 
erally steep gradients and storms produce relatively 
high precipitation intensities. Resultant flood flows in 
these 'streams are characterized by very high intensi- 
ties of relatively short duration. On San Lorenzo 
River and Soquel Creek, the recent flood of December, 
1955, is considered to be the most damaging flood that 
ever occurred. Continuing development of urban and 
suburban areas will increase the flood damage poten- 
tial adjacent to all the foregoing streams. 

The objectives of The California Water Plan in the 
Central Coastal Area are twofold: first, the control 
and development of local water resources to the maxi- 
mum practicable extent to satisfy increasing needs 
Eor irrigation, urban, industrial, and recreational pur- 
poses, to provide flood control, and to enhance the 
fishery wherever feasible; and second, the importa- 
tion of water through facilities of the California 
Aqueducl System to satisfy fully the ultimate re- 
quirements of all lands considered susceptible of 
water service. 



Local development works contemplated as features 
of The California Water Plan in the Central Coastal 
Area are considered under nine geographical sub- 
divisions. These are designated and are hereinafter 
referred to as the "Santa Cruz-Pajaro Group," "San 
Benito Group," "Monterey-Carmel Group," "Sa- 
linas River Group," "Carrizo Plain," "San Luis 
Obispo Group," "Santa Maria Valley," "Cuyama 
Valley, ' ' and ' ' Santa Barbara Group ' ' ; and their loca-1 
tions are shown on Plate 3. Suggested plans for local 
water supply development are presented individually 
for each of these divisions. Possible methods for im-j 
portation of supplemental water will be described 
in the ensuing section entitled "California Aqueduct 
System." 

The layout of the projected, water development 
works in the Central Coastal Area is delineated on 
Sheets 10, 13, 16, 17, and 20 of Plate 5. Physical 
features and costs of all the local works are pre- 
sented in Table 11, which follows this discussion under 
the heading "Summary of Central Coastal Area." 

Santa Cruz-Pajaro Group. The Santa Cruz-Pa- 
jaro Group embraces nearly all of Santa Cruz County, 
the southerly tip of San Mateo County adjacent to 
the Pacific Ocean, and the Pajaro Valley, portions of 
which lie in Monterey and San Benito Counties. The 
area totals some 500 square miles, of which 425 square 
miles comprise mountains and foothills. The moun- 
tains are generally well covered with timber, includ- 
ing extensive growths of redwood. 

About three-fourths of all the water developed in 
the Santa Cruz-Pajaro Group is presently supplied: 
by water pumped from underlying ground water; 
basins. Lands utilizing ground water are generally 
served by individually owned wells and pumps. Sur- 
face diversions are made from numerous streams 
rising in the Santa Cruz Mountains, principally for 
urban and recreational uses. The largest surface di- 
versions are made by the Cities of Santa Cruz and 
Watsonville. The City of Santa Cruz diverts water 
from Liddell, Laguna, and Majors Creeks, and from 
the San Lorenzo River ; while the City of Watsonville 
diverts from Corralitos Creek and Brown Valley 
Creek in the Pajaro Valley. 

Although the Santa Cruz-Pajaro Group has ample 
water resources to meet present and probable ulti- 
mate water requirements, except in Pajaro Valley, 
the area is presently faced with serious water prob- 
lems. Heavy irrigation season pumping draft from the 
confined ground water aquifers in the Pajaro Valley 
has resulted in the intrusion of sea water into the 
lower portion of the aquifers near Monterey Bay. The 
overdraft is estimated (1953) to be about 4,000 acre- 
feet per season. The City of Santa Cruz, which de- 
pends almost entirely upon surface diversions, is faced 
with the threat of a deficiency of available supplies 
during the late summer months of low runoff, because 







Central Coastal Area— Point Lobos 



66 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



of the lack of adequate storage facilities. Recurrence 
of a very dry year, such as 1931, would undoubtedly 
force late summer water rationing throughout the 
Santa Cruz area. 

Another major water problem in the Santa Cruz- 
Pajaro Group is manifested in periodic floods, result- 
ing from high rainfall intensities, particularly on the 
Santa Cruz Mountains. The recurring threat of flood- 
ing along the lower reaches of San Lorenzo and 
Pajaro Rivers and Soquel and Branciforte Creeks is 
great, as was demonstrated by the flood of December, 
1955. As an example, the San Lorenzo River at Big 
Trees reached a peak discharge of 30,000 second-feet 
during that flood. The previous high for this stream 
was 24,000 second-feet in February of 1940. 

With the exception of Pajaro Valley, the ultimate 
water requirements in the Santa Cruz-Pajaro Group 
could be met by development of local water resources. 
Fulfillment of the objectives of The California Water 
Plan in the Pajaro Valley would require an import 
of water through the facilities of the California Aque- 
duct System. 

Agricultural and urban water requirements of 
lands along the coastal strip north of the City of 
Santa Cruz could be met by development of Scott 
Creek. Water of Scott Creek would be conserved in 
Archibald Reservoir, located about 3 miles north of 
the town of Davenport. 

The probable ultimate supplemental water require- 
ments of the area tributary to Monterey Bay between 
Meder Creek, immediately west of the City of Santa 
Cruz, and the Pajaro drainage area, could be pro- 
vided by storage reservoirs on Bear, Zayante, Soquel, 
and Aptos Creeks, on the upper reaches of the San 
Lorenzo River and Soquel drainage basins, and a 
pumped diversion from the San Lorenzo River near 
the City of Santa Cruz to an off -stream storage reser- 
voir on Doyle Gulch. 

Bear Creek Dam and Reservoir would be located 
on Bear Creek 4 miles west of the town of Boulder 
Creek. The reservoir would provide water for urban 
and recreational uses along the upper reaches of the 
San Lorenzo River drainage area. Zayante Creek Dam 
and Reservoir on Zayante Creek, about 4 miles east 
of the town of Felton, would develop water for use 
along Zayante Creek and the San Lorenzo River be- 
tween Zayante Dam and the City of Santa Cruz. 

The City of Santa Cruz and surrounding areas 
near Soquel and Capitola could be served by a 
pumped diversion of winter runoff of the San Lorenzo 
River at Santa Cruz, and conveyance of the water by 
pumping facilities and pipe line to an off-stream stor- 
age reservoir on Doyle Gulch about 3 miles east of 
Santa Cruz. Water could he delivered to the service 
areas directly from the diversion works during the 
winter mouths, and by releases from Doyle Culch 



Reservoir through the conveyance facilities by grav- 
ity during the summer months. 

Glenwood Dam and Reservoir would be located on 
the West Branch of Soquel Creek, about 6 miles north 
of the town of Soquel. The reservoir would develop 
water for use along the down stream channel, and 
along the coast generally east of Capitola. A similar 
development on Soquel Creek, about 6 miles north- 
west of the town of Soquel, would provide water for 
use along Soquel Creek and on the coastal area in the 
vicinity of Soquel and Capitola. 

Aptos Creek Dam and Reservoir would be located 
on Aptos Creek about 1 mile north of the town of 
Aptos. The reservoir could provide urban and agri- 
cultural water supplies in the vicinity of the town 
of Aptos. 

The foregoing works could meet the ultimate sup- 
plemental water requirements in all of Santa Cruz 
County, with exception of Pajaro Valley. In addition, 
operation of these reservoirs would sustain summer 
flows in the upper reaches of the San Lorenzo River 
and Soquel Creek, thus enhancing stream fishing and 
recreation. Although a measure of flood protection 
would be provided by these developments, such pro- 
tection would be inadequate for the lower reaches of 
the San Lorenzo River and Soquel Creeks because 
of insufficient storage for full control. In this connec- 
tion, flood control on the San Lorenzo River by means 
of reservoir storage is not feasible of accomplishment 
because of the lack of storage sites anywhere on the 
river. However, the Corps of Engineers, U. S. Army, 
is preparing to construct an authorized project for 
levee and channel improvement on the lower San 
Lorenzo River, which will relieve the present flood 
threat in the City of Santa Cruz and vicinity. 

The ultimate supplemental water requirement in 
the Pajaro Valley could be met by a diversion of 
surplus winter flows from the Pajaro River and con- 
veyance of the diverted water to an off -stream storage 
reservoir in Corn Cob Canyon, and by import through 
the South Bay Aqueduct of the California Aqueduct 
System. Surplus flows in the Pajaro River would be 
diverted during the winter months and conveyed by 
canal to the vicinity of Watsonville Reservoir, in 
Corn Cob Canyon, about 1 mile southeast of Watson- 
ville Junction. The water would be pumped into the 
reservoir and would he released through the same 
facilities during the irrigation season for use along 
the lower Pajaro River, in the area where the present 
ground water overdraft exists. 

In addition to the new yield developed by the 
Pajaro diversion, an additional amount of about 
15,000 acre-feet of water per season would be required 
to satisfy fully the ultimate supplemental require- 
ments in Pajaro Valley. This quantity of water would 
be conveyed to Paeheeo Creek by facilities of the South 
Bay Aqueduct and released into that creek, where it 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



67 



Lvould flow by gravity down the Pajaro River to be 
t rvailable for rediversion in the Pajaro Valley. 

With respect to flooding along the lower Pajaro 
River, there are no storage sites on the main stream, 
land no upstream storage development offers sufficient 
wrotection. As in the case of the San Lorenzo River, 
■hannel improvement and levee construction affords 
lie most satisfactory solution to flood problems. The 
&>rps of Engineers, U. S. Army, has improved the 
ower Pajaro River, and has plans for further channel 
Improvement. 

. In summary, prospective local development works 
by which the objectives of The California Water Plan 
Kn the Santa Cruz-Pajaro Group would be accom- 
plished comprise eight dams and reservoirs and two 
Diversion features. Together these works would de- 
Ivelop a seasonal new yield of 48,000 acre-feet which 
■would provide for the ultimate water needs in all but 
■the Pajaro Valley, where an additional amount of 
[about 15,000 acre-feet per season would be imported 
by facilities of the California Aqueduct System. Thus, 
[about 63,000 acre-feet per season would be developed 
for use in the Santa Cruz-Pajaro Group, which 
i amount would fully meet the ultimate requirements 
[of all the lands considered susceptible of w r ater serv- 
ice. In addition to the conservation accomplishments, 
pthe prospective local developments in conjunction 
with downstream channel improvement would provide 
flood control on the San Lorenzo River and Soquel 
[Creek, and would enhance recreation and stream fish- 
ing in those streams by maintenance of improved 
[summer flow's. 

San Benito Group. The San Benito Group gen- 
erally comprises those lands lying in Santa Clara and 
[San Benito Counties which make up the drainage 
basin of the Pajaro River above Chittenden. Its area 
Totals about 1,190 square miles, of which some 950 
square miles comprise mountain and foothills and the 
remainder is classified as valley and mesa lands. 
! The present (1954) irrigated acreage in the San 
^Benito Group approximates 70,000 acres, of which 
Kabout 40,000 acres are located in the Hollister area 
and the remainder is found in south Santa Clara 
Valley. The relatively high degree of development has 
been achieved by exploitation of the extensive ground 
water storage in alluvial fill areas, notably the south 
I Santa Clara Valley and the Hollister area. The de- 
velopment of the ground water basins has been aided 
by the facilities operated by local water service agen- 
flcies for ground water recharge by controlled releases 
|from surface storage reservoirs. 

The principal storage works in the San Benito 
Group consist of the recently completed Chesbro Dam 
on Llagas Creek and Uvas Creek Dam on ITvas Creek, 
Lboth projects developed by the South Santa Clara 
Valley Water Conservation District; Paicines Reser- 
voir, an off -stream storage site for water diverted 



from the San Benito River, constructed by the Hollis- 
ter Irrigation District to serve irrigated lands during 
winter and spring months when water is available; 
and the North Fork Reservoir on the North Fork of 
Pacheco Creek, owned and operated by the Paeheco 
Pass Water District for controlled percolation in Pa- 
checo Creek. The combined storage capacity of these 
reservoirs is about 28,000 acre-feet, and their yield, 
obtained by operation in conjunction with ground 
water storage, is about 22,000 acre-feet per year. 

As a result of the sustained drafts on ground water 
resources in the San Benito Group and the continually 
increasing irrigation demands, the ground water basin 
underlying the Hollister area is overdrawn at the 
present time. The present (1954) seasonal overdraft 
in this area is estimated to be about 8,000 acre-feet. 
To meet fully the ultimate requirements of the group, 
supplemental w r ater supplies totaling 132,000 acre-feet 
per season would be required in addition to the pres- 
ently developed supplies. The quality of the ground 
water underlying about 5,000 acres skirting the 
foothills easterly of Hollister is somewhat adversely 
affected by a relatively high boron content. 

Recurrent flooding is a threat to the intensively cul- 
tivated lands along the Pajaro River where the flood 
plains of Llagas and Carnadero Creeks merge with 
the bottom land lake area, extending westward from 
San Felipe Lake to the vicinity of Sargent. This area 
is flooded by discharge of tributaries to Tequisquito 
Slough, as well as Llagas and Carnadero Creeks. In 
addition, the banks of the San Benito River are sub- 
ject to severe erosion during periods of high runoff 
such as that which occurred during the December, 
1955, flood. 

The opportunity for further development of local 
water resources of the San Benito Group is very 
limited. Therefore, accomplishment of the objectives 
of The California Water Plan in that group must rely 
primarily on the importation of supplemental water 
from areas of surplus elsewhere in the State. However, 
further development of local water resources could 
provide sufficient water to meet the ultimate water 
requirement in the south Santa Clara Valley and to 
overcome the present deficiency in the Hollister area. 

Enlargement of the existing Uvas Creek Reservoir 
from its present capacity of 10,000 acre-feet to a 
capacity of 34,000 acre-feet could, if operated in con- 
junction with the downstream ground water basin in 
south Santa Clara Valley, provide sufficient water to 
meet the ultimate supplemental water requirement of 
the valley. Diversion facilities have been provided so 
that when releases from this reservoir exceed perco- 
lation capacity of the downstream channel in Uvas 
Creek, excess flows would be diverted into the absorp- 
tive Llagas Creek channel. 

Water supplies for the Hollister area could be made 
available by four dams and reservoirs on tributaries to 



68 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



the Pajaro River, consisting of a reservoir on Paeheco 
Creek, two reservoirs on the San Benito River, and a 
diversion dam from Tres Pinos Creek. 

Harper Canyon Dam and Reservoir would be lo- 
cated on Paeheco Creek about 11 miles northeast of 
Hollister. Initially, the reservoir could be operated 
entirely for conservation, with releases being made 
for augmenting stream channel percolation in Paeheco 
Creek. However, under ultimate operation, the reser- 
voir could be enlarged to provide sufficient additional 
storage for regulation of deliveries through the South 
Bay Aqueduct to the variable monthly demands in the 
Hollister area. 

San Benito Dam and Reservoir, located on the San 
Benito River about 6 miles downstream from the town 
of San Benito, would develop an irrigation supply for 
lands along the river between the dam and the town 
of Paicines. Cienega Dam and Reservoir, located about 
1 mile east of the town of Paicines, would augment 
the ground water supplies in the Hollister area by 
releases to the downstream channels. Yield developed 
by Cienega Reservoir could be augmented by a diver- 
sion from Tres Pinos Creek of surplus flows in excess 
of the percolation capacity of that creek. The diversion 
dam on Tres Pinos Creek would be located about 2 
miles southeast of the town of Paicines, and the water 
would be conveyed about 1 mile by canal to Cienega 
Reservoir. 

In summary, the prospective local development 
works in the San Benito Group would provide a total 
seasonal new yield of 20,700 acre-feet, of which 6,400 
acre-feet would be provided in south Santa Clara 
Valley and 14,300 acre-feet in the Hollister area. A 
measure of flood control would be provided by opera- 
tion of these works, although no planned operation 
for that purpose is contemplated. The Corps of Engi- 
neers is investigating the control of floods in the area 
by channel improvement and/or reservoir control. 
Water supplies in the amount of 113,000 acre-feet per 
season would be delivered through facilities of the 
California Aqueduct System in order to satisfy fully 
the ultimate water requirements of lauds in the San 
Benito Group. 

Monterey-Carmel Group. The Monterey-Carmel 
Group embraces the Carmel River Basin and the area 
tributary to the Pacific Ocean immediately to the 
south, extending to the Monterey-San Luis Obispo 
county line. Its area totals about 610 square miles, of 
which nearly 600 square miles comprise mountains 
and foothills. The Carmel River Basin contains the 
majority of the irrigable lands, most of which arc in 
the Carmel Valley, and the Monterey Peninsula, a 
widely known resort area. 

[rrigated lands in the Carmel Valley and the urban 
and suburban areas on the Monterey Peninsula make 
up the total present (1950) water requirement of about 
10.400 acre-feet per year in the Monterey-Carmel 



Group. The only existing major surface water supply 
developments in the group consist of Los Padres and 
San Clemente Reservoirs on the Carmel River, owned ' 
and operated by the California Water and Telephone 
Company. The remainder of the water service is gen- \ 
erally supplied by individuals who utilize ground 
water or who divert directly from the many small ' 
streams emanating from the Santa Lucia Range. 

The Monterey-Carmel Group has ample water re- . 
sources to meet present and probable ultimate require- , 
ments, water now wasting to the ocean substantially 
exceeding the latter requirement. The ultimate supple- , 
mental water requirement of the group is estimated to , 
be about 37,500 acre-feet per season. As contemplated • 
under The California Water Plan, this requirement < 
would be furnished by increasing the present yield,' 
of the ground water basin in Carmel Valley by greater 
ground water utilization, and by a surface storage de- >) I 
velopment on the Carmel River, which would also have; 
some recreational values. 

Development of the Carmel River could be com- )| 
pleted by construction of a dam at the Klondike sitew 
about 15 miles upstream from Carmel Bay. Klondike i 
Reservoir would inundate the present San Clemente; |; 
Dam and the filtration plant below the dam. The res-( 
ervoir would be operated in conjunction with the* 
present Los Padres Reservoir and filter plant, releas- 
ing water into existing facilities for urban and in- 
dustrial distribution on the Monterey Peninsula. In 
addition, 2,200 acre-feet of water per season would be 
released directly to the Carmel River for agricultural 
use along the river below the dam. 

The present ground water yield of 2.300 acre-feeti 
per season in the Carmel Valley ground water basin 
could be increased to 4,600 acre-feet as the acreage: 
of overlying irrigated lands increases in the future 
The increased yield would be developed by greater 
extraction from the ground water basin, thus provid- 
ing a greater seasonal and cyclic storage depletion 
during dry periods, which would create additional 
storage for conservation of water supplies which 
would otherwise waste to the ocean during ensuing 
wet periods. 

The ultimate supplemental water requirements of 
about 8,000 acre-feet per season in the coastal por- 
tion of the Monterey-Carmel Group south of the 
Carmel River could be provided by direct diversions 
from the high-producing streams of the area. Avail 
able data indicate that the minimum summer flows in' 
the streams of that area, particularly the Sur andj 
Little Sur Rivers, would always be adequate to mee* 
the peak monthly demands for water in their im 
mediate areas, including sufficient flow for mainte- 
nance of fish life. Thus, the diversion of water undei 
ultimate conditions should not impair the present high 
recreational, fishery, and wildlife value of the area 
Should the necessity occur, small headwater reservoirs 
could be constructed for maintenance of stream flow 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



69 



The 8,000 acre-feet of water per season available 
Erom direct diversion from the coastal streams, along 
with the 27,200 acre-feet developed by Klondike Res- 
jrvoir and 2,300 acre-feet secured by greater utiliza- 
ion of ground water in the Carmel Valley, would 
oeet the ultimate supplemental water requirement of 
B?,500 acre-feet in the Monterey-Carmel Group. 

Salinas River Group. The Salinas River Group 
?mbraces the total area of some 4,330 square miles 
irained by the Salinas River and its tributaries. From 
the southern coastal portion of Monterey Bay, just 
'lorth of the Monterey Peninsula, this group extends 
generally southeasterly for a distance of 150 miles 
through major portions of Monterey and San Luis 
Obispo Counties and a small part of San Benito 
bounty. The topography is generally mountainous and 
rally, but is split longitudinally for a distance of 
learly 100 miles along its major axis from Monterey 
Bay to Wunpost by the floor of the Salinas Valley 
and the meander of the Salinas River. 
| Described by early visitors as the ' ' Salinas Desert, ' ' 
:he Salinas Valley has developed to the point where 
B0 per cent of the lands susceptible of irrigation are 
bresently irrigated from underlying ground water re- 
sources. The major economy of the valley is based 
lipon its agricultural development and allied indus- 
tries which process and package agricultural products. 
I Development of agriculture in the Salinas Valley 
has been possible due to the availability of water in 
large quantities and of excellent quality. Underlying 
ilmost the entire valley floor is an extensive ground 
water basin which, until recently, has economically 
rielded sufficient water to satisfy all agricultural, in- 
dustrial, and domestic water requirements. 
' Present (1954) water requirements in the Salinas 
River Group are estimated to be about 267,000 acre- 
feet per season, nearly all of which are supplied by 
tramping from underlying ground water storage, 
particularly in the Salinas Valley north of San Lucas. 
Net seasonal pumping draft from the extensive 
ground water basin underlying that valley presently 
averages 225,000 acre-feet. 

Nacimiento Dam and Reservoir, recently con- 
structed by the Monterey County Flood Control and 
Water Conservation District, and Salinas Reservoir 
ure the only major existing surface water develop- 
ments in the Salinas River Group. Nacimiento Res- 
•rvoir, located on the Nacimiento River about 12 
miles upstream from its confluence with the Salinas 
River, has a storage capacity of 350,000 acre-feet, of 
which 150,000 acre-feet is to be reserved for control 
jf floods on the Nacimiento and Salinas Rivers. The 
listriet plans to operate the conservation storage to 
■etain winter flood flows for release during the ensuing 
months to recharge ground water basins underlying 
he Salinas River. Salinas Reservoir, with a capacity 
>t 26,000 acre-feet, was built by the Corps of Engi- 



neers, U. S. Army, in 1942 for water supply for Cam]) 
San Luis Obispo. It is now used for the municipal 
supply of the City of San Luis Obispo. 

Although the safe yield of the ground water re- 
sources of the Salinas River Group exceeds the total 
pumping extraction on an over-all basis, serious 
overdrafts prevail in the vicinity of Monterey Bay 
and along the easterly fringe of the valley floor from 
Salinas southeast to the vicinity of Gonzales. The 
problem of overdraft in the vicinity of Monterey Bay 
is typical of many coastal basins where ground water 
occurs in confined aquifers, or water-bearing zones, 
which are open to the ocean at their lower end. The 
present (1954) overdraft on the confined aquifer in 
the vicinity of Monterey Bay is estimated to be 20,- 
000 acre-feet per season. Sea water has already 
intruded for a distance of about 3 miles and has neces- 
sitated the abandonment of pumping from the in- 
truded aquifer in an area of some 5,000 acres. The 
deficiency along the eastern fringe of Salinas Valley 
is due to the inherent deficiency in natural water sup- 
plies in that area, and presently (1954) amounts to 
8,000 acre-feet per season. The probable ultimate 
supplemental water requirements of the potential 
service areas in the Salinas River Group are estimated 
at 483,000 acre-feet per season, which substantially 
exceeds the developable local water resources. 

In addition to the water conservation problem in 
the Salinas River Group, the periodic occurrence of 
floods causes damage to agricultural lands and utili- 
ties on the Salinas River flood plain below Wunpost. 
Operation of the 150,000 acre-feet of flood control 
storage space in Nacimiento Reservoir will greatly re- 
duce flood hazards and flood damages. However, at- 
tainment of the required degree of flood protection for 
the highly developed economy of the lower Salinas 
Valley will ultimately necessitate a control structure 
and channel improvements on the main stem of the 
Salinas River below its major tributaries. 

Objectives of The California Water Plan in the 
Salinas River Group could be accomplished by both 
local development works and by imports through 
facilities of the California Aqueduct System. The 
local development phase would consist of eight storage 
reservoirs and three conveyance conduits. The reser- 
voirs would be operated coordinately and in conjunc- 
tion with downstream ground water storage to attain 
the optimum degree of local water resource develop- 
ment, and to correct the present problem of sea-water 
intrusion into the confined aquifer in the vicinity of 
Monterey Bay. Such operation would necessitate the 
limiting of draft in the confined aquifers to the safe 
yield rate, and the delivery of a supplemental surface 
supply to meet the balance of the water requirements 
of overlying areas. It would also require the rearrange- 
ment of the present pattern of pumping draft in the 
forebay area, or zone of unconfined ground water, and 



JO 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



the increased utilization of underground storage, 
thus creating greater space for recharge by water 
which would otherwise waste to the ocean. It is esti- 
mated that the safe ground water yield could be so 
increased by some 50,000 acre-feet per season under 
ultimate development, in addition to the yield of sur- 
face storage facilities. 

The contemplated local development works in the 
Salinas River Group would provide surface water 
service to the lower and a portion of the upper 
Salinas Basin by releases and direct conveyance to 
service areas. Reservoir releases would also be made 
for control of downstream ground water levels to 
effect their efficient operation. The prospective sur- 
face storage reservoirs include single units on Santa 
Rita and Jack Creeks, the Arroyo Seco, and the Sa- 
linas River, and two units each on the Nacimiento 
and San Antonio Rivers. 

Santa Rita Dam and Reservoir would be located on 
Santa Rita Creek about 3 miles upstream from its 
confluence with Paso Robles Creek. Water developed 
by the reservoir could be released into Santa Rita 
Creek for diversion downstream to supply urban and 
irrigation demands in and around the communities of 
Atascadero and Templeton along the upper Salinas 
River. Jack Creek Reservoir on Jack Creek, about 2 
miles upstream from its confluence with Paso Robles 
Creek, would supplement the yield developed in Santa 
Rita Reservoir by similar downstream releases. 

Development of the Nacimiento River would be 
completed by San Miguelito and Jarrett Shut-in 
Reservoirs. San Miguelito Reservoir would be formed 
by a dam about 34 miles upstream from the existing 
Nacimiento Dam. Jarrett Shut-in Reservoir would be 
located about 8 miles downstream from the San 
Miguelito site. Both reservoirs would be operated co- 
ordinately to conserve the flows of Nacimiento River 
in excess of the amounts controlled by Nacimiento 
Reservoir. The yields developed by these reservoirs 
would be released downstream through Nacimiento 
Reservoir, and diverted from the Nacimiento River 
and conveyed to areas of use in the Nacimiento- 
Shandon Conduit. 

This Nacimiento-Shandon Conduit would convey 
the water easterly from the Nacimiento River, in pres- 
sure conduit, to a wye east of San Miguel. The main 
conduit would continue easterly to Shandon Terminal 
Reservoir about 1 mile southeast of the town of Shan- 
don. Water would be pumped into the reservoir at an 
elevation of about 1,190 feet. 

The Creston Lateral would extend from the wye 
near S;m Miguel in a general southeasterly direction, 
terminating in the Creston Terminal Reservoir about 
a mile south of Creston. The foregoing facilities would 
deliver new urban and irrigation water to valley and 
foothill lands along the cast side of the upper Salinas 
Valley and to the City of Paso Robles. 



Two storage developments on the San Antonio 
River would complete development of its water re-( 
sources. Milpitas Dam and Reservoir would be located 
about 40 miles upstream from the confluence of San, 
Antonio and Salinas Rivers. Pleyto Dam and Reser- 
voir would be located at the lower end of Lockwood 
Valley, about 10 miles upstream from the confluence 
of San Antonio and Salinas Rivers. Water from these, 
reservoirs would serve Lockwood and Hames Valleys. 

Runoff of the Arroyo Seco would be controlled by 
Greenfield Dam and Reservoir about 5 miles south- 
west of Greenfield. A portion of the yield of Green-, 
field Reservoir would be released into the stream 
channel to support pumping withdrawals from; 
ground water storage underlying the Arroyo Seco. 
and Salinas River channel. However, the major por-, 
tion of the new water yield would be diverted and, 
delivered through the Greenfield-Monterey conduit tt 
areas along the west side of Salinas Valley, particu, 
larly the area between Salinas and Monterey Bay. 

The runoff in the main stem of the Salinas Rivei| n 
could be controlled by San Lucas Dam and Resen m 
voir, located about 3 miles downstream from Saj} « 
Lucas and 4 miles upstream from King City. San ^ 
Lucas Reservoir, which has been authorized anq | 
adopted by the Legislature, would be operated both Q f, 
for conservation and flood control, with 150,000 acre! 
feet of storage reserved for control of flood flows orL t 



the Salinas River and its tributaries. 



.': 



With San Lucas Reservoir in operation, the tota, \ n 
new seasonal yield of the surface storage devel 
opments contemplated on the Salinas River systen 
would approximate 102,000 acre-feet. An additional 
yield of 18,000 acre-feet per season could be obtainec 
by transferring the 150,000 acre-feet of flood contro; 
storage space in Nacimiento Reservoir downstrean 7, 
to San Lucas Reservoir, at such time as the lattej 
reservoir would become operational, and by operating 
the additional storage space in Nacimiento Reservoh C: 
for conservation. Transfer of the flood control spac» I 
from Nacimiento to San Lucas Reservoir would be 
logical move because of the high degree of control 
the drainage area of the basin at the San Lucas site im 
In addition to its efficacy in the control of floods! 
San Lucas Reservoir would be necessary for captur 
and reregulation of the substantial return flows whicli 
would result from irrigation of large areas of land, ^ 
in the upper Salinas Basin under ultimate condition!' 

The waters conserved by San Lucas Reservoir, antly, 
portions of the yields of the future reservoirs on th 
Nacimiento and San Antonio Rivers would be utilizei 
to eliminate present overdraft conditions and to mee 
future increases in water requirements in the Salina 
Valley. Water would be made available to the lowe 
portion of the valley north of Gonzales, where over 
draft conditions prevail, by a surface diversion frorj 
the Salinas River and conveyance in the San Lucasj 
East Side Conduit. This conduit would originate a 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



le San Lucas Dam and be constructed along- the west 
de of the Salinas River, crossing- the river in a 
phon near Soledad, and continuing along- the cast 
de of the river to a terminus about 3 miles north of 
ic City of Salinas. The conduit would also provide 
ater service for foothill lands on the east side of the 
alley by means of takeouts and pump lifts along the 
mduit route. 

In summary, the local development works contem- 
lated in the Salinas River Group would make avail- 
blc 12(1.0011 acre-feet of supplemental water per 
?asou by operation of eight conservation reservoirs 
dth a total storage capacity of 1,130,000 acre-feet, 
hese reservoirs woidd be operated coordinately and 
i conjunction with downstream ground water basins 
> facilitate the development of an additional sea- 
>nal yield of 50,000 acre-feet from increased utili- 
ation of ground water storage. Thus, a total yield of 
dditional water in the aggregate amount of 170,000 
cre-feet per season would be made available to meet 

portion of the estimated ultimate water require- 

ents of lauds in the Salinas River Group. However, 
s previously stated, the ultimate supplemental water 
equirements within the group are estimated to be 
83,000 acre-feet per season. Therefore, additional 
rater in the net amount of 313,000 acre-feet per 
on, requiring a gross delivery of 335,000 acre- 
eet. would be supplied from the Central Coastal 
Lqueduct. a feature of the California Aqueduct 
■stem. 

In addition to the foregoing water conservation 
ccomplishments of the contemplated local develop- 
lent works, a large measure of flood control would 
e provided by operation of flood control storage in 
an Lucas Reservoir, and by incidental flood flow re- 
liction from operation of 755,000 acre-feet of con- 
ervation storage in the seven other reservoirs. 

Carrizo Plain. The Carrizo Plain is a large arid 
alley of internal drainage, located between the Tem- 
lor and Caliente Ranges adjacent to the upper Salinas 
nd Cuyama Valleys. The valley floor lies at an eleva- 
lon of about 2.000 feet above sea level. Mean seasonal 
recipitation varies from about 8 inches on the valley 
loor to 10 inches in the surrounding mountains, 
tunoff in streams tributary to the Carrizo Plain is 
^significant in amount and is largely disposed of 
taturally through evaporation from Soda Lake, a 
latural sump located near the center of the plain. 

At the present time a dry-farmed economy exists 

hich probably will continue for many years in the 
uture. A large portion of the potentially irrigable 
ands is utilized for dry-farm production of a high- 
[uality Baart wheat for which the flour milling indus- 
ry pays premium prices. The remainder of the area 
3 devoted to cattle grazing, with small acreage of 

rigated pasture to supplement the natural forage. 



Small amounts of water are presently pumped from 
ground water storage underlying the Carrizo Plain ; 
but the supplies are very meager, and no opportunity 
exists for further development of local water supplies. 
If irrigation in this area were to expand, water to 
satisfy the needs therefor would have to be imported 
from outside sources. The cost of such water would 
be high. The possible ultimate seasonal water require- 
ments, amounting to 245,000 acre-feet, could be pro- 
vided through facilities of the Carrizo-Cuyama Aque- 
duct, a feature of the California Aqueduct System. 

San Luis Obispo Group. The San Luis Obispo 
Group consists generally of that portion of San Luis 
Obispo County lying on the western slopes of the 
Santa Lucia Range. A small portion of the group 
extends northward along the coast into Monterey 
County. The area consists of mountain and foothill 
lands interlain by numerous small stream valleys and 
the more extensive valley and coastal plain area of 
Arroyo Grande Creek. 

Present (1953) developed water supply in the San 
Luis Obispo Group totals about 16,000 acre-feet per 
season, the majority of which is obtained by pumping 
from underlying ground water storage. "Water sup- 
plies for the City of San Luis Obispo, however, are 
presently obtained largely by importation from Sa- 
linas Reservoir on the upper Salinas River near Santa 
Margarita, as described in the foregoing section deal- 
ing with the Salinas River Group. There are no local 
surface storage developments in the San Luis Obispo 
Group. 

The present net draft on ground water in the San 
Luis Obispo Group, amounting to nearly 14,000 acre- 
feet per season, is obtained without any overdraft 
problem. It is estimated that pumping draft could 
be increased to some 28,000 acre-feet per season with- 
out exceeding the safe yield of local ground water 
resources. The largest ground water basin in the 
group underlies the lower valley and coastal plain 
of Arroyo Grande Creek. Numerous small ground 
water basins underlie or are adjacent to the lower 
reaches of the coastal streams. 

The objectives of The California Water Plan in the 
San Luis Obispo Group would be met mainly by 
further development of local water resources. How- 
ever, full satisfaction of ultimate water requirements, 
amounting to an estimated 156,000 acre-feet per sea- 
son, would necessitate a delivery of some imported 
water through facilities of the California Aqueduct 
System. 

Most of the favorable local water development sites 
are located on the streams in the northern portion 
of the group, whereas the majority of potential wa- 
ter service areas are located in the southern portion. 
particularly in the vicinity of Arroyo Grande, the 
coastal plain, and the City of San Luis Obispo. Con- 





Nacimiento Reservoir on Nacimiento River Provides Water for Agricultural Uses in the Salinas Valley 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



7:: 



templated water development works would consist of 
an integrated system of reservoirs, comprising two 
dams on San Carporforo Creek; single dams on 
Anoyo de la Cruz, San Simeon Creek, Santa Rosa 
Creek, and Old Creek, all connected by a coastal con- 
duit conveying the developed water suppl}- southward 
to areas of use; and a reservoir on Arroyo Grande 
Creek. 

Waters of San Carporforo Creek would be controlled 
by dams and reservoirs at the Bald Top and Ragged 
Point sites, located about 5 miles and 2 miles, respec- 
tively, above the mouth of that creek. Bald Top 
Reservoir would be operated coordinately with the 
downstream Ragged Point Reservoir, both facilities 
releasing water for conveyance in the coastal conduit. 

Yellow Hill Reservoir, located on Arroyo de la Cruz 
about 1.6 miles upstream from its mouth, San Simeon 
Reservoir on San Simeon Creek about 3 miles north 
of the town of Cambria, and Santa Rosa Reservoir 
on Santa Rosa Creek about 5 miles east of Cambria 
would augment the southward delivery of water in 
the coastal conduit. 

Water to supply future needs of the City of San 
Luis Obispo and vicinity could be provided by con- 
struction of Whale Rock Dam and Reservoir on Old 
Creek about a mile east of the town of Cayucos. This 
project was recommended in October, 1955, for con- 
struction in the immediate future, under a program 
of staged development. The Whale Rock Project is 
contemplated as a joint venture of the State and the 
City of San Luis Obispo. The Legislature is presently 
considering an appropriation of funds to finance the 
State's interest in the project as a water supply for 
the California Polytechnic Institute and the Califor- 
nia Men's Colony. The City of San Luis Obispo has 
recently authorized the issue of bonds to finance the 
local cost of the project. 

In order to deliver the water to the areas of need, 
the Cambria Conduit would be constructed from San 
Carporforo Creek on the north to a terminal point in 
the vicinity of the City of San Luis Obispo. The Cam- 
bria Conduit would proceed along the coast, intercept- 
ing waters released from the reservoirs on San Car- 
porforo Creek, Arroyo de la Cruz, and San Simeon, 
Santa Rosa, and Old Creeks. It would leave the coast 
near the mouth of Morro Creek, proceeding up Las 
I teos Valley where the water would be lifted over the 
low divide into San Lans Valley, and the conduit 
would finally terminate at Indian Knob Terminal Res- 
ervoir on a small tributary of San Luis Obispo Creek 
about 5 miles south of San Luis Obispo. 

Water requirements of the service areas along Ar- 
royo Grande Creek could be met by Lopez Reservoir. 
on Arroyo Grande Creek about 7 miles upstream from 
the City of Arroyo Grande. Water would be provided 
by gravity releases from the reservoir. Lopez Reser- 



voir would be operated to provide water for additional 
development in the Arroyo Grande area, both by eon 
junctive operation with downstream "found water 
storage and by diversion of controlled reservoir re- 
leases either from the stream or from a conveyance 
conduit. Moreover, Lopez Reservoir would provide a 
substantial degree of incidental downstream flood con- 
trol, although it would not entirely eliminate the 
problem. 

In summary, the local development phase of The 
California Water Plan for the San Luis Obispo Group 
would comprise seven dams and reservoirs and a con- 
duit for conveying portions of the yields of these res- 
ervoirs to the areas of use. These reservoirs, with 
aggregate capacity of 315,000 acre-feet, would, to- 
gether with increased ground water utilization, pro- 
vide a safe seasonal yield of 111,500 acre-feet, which 
would meet a substantial portion of the ultimate water 
requirements of the group. However, in order to sat- 
isfy fully the ultimate requirements, an additional 
net amount of some 26,000 acre-feet of water per sea- 
son, requiring a gross delivery of 30,000 acre-feet, 
would have to be imported through the Central Coastal 
Aqueduct of the California Aqueduct System. 

Santa Maria Valley. The Santa Maria Valley 
comprises the drainage area of the Santa Maria River, 
excluding the drainage area of the Cuyama River 
above Vaquero Dam, and embraces portions of San 
Luis Obispo and Santa Barbara. Counties. The valley 
includes the intensively developed agricultural area 
on the coastal plain, centered around the City of 
Santa Maria; the adjoining Nipomo Mesa; and tribu- 
tary mountain and hill areas. 

Essentially all developed water in the Santa Maria 
Valley is now obtained from the ground water basin 
underlying the coastal plain. Water is used princi- 
pally for agricultural purposes on the floor of Santa 
Maria Valley and the adjacent Nipomo Mesa. Until 
recently there have been no major surface storage de- 
velopments on the Santa Maria River or its tribu- 
taries. However, the Santa Maria Project, comprising 
a 214,000 acre-foot reservoir at the Vaquero site on 
the Cuyama River, and channel improvements along 
the Santa Maria River and Bradley Canyon, are now 
under construction by the Bureau of Reclamation and 
the Corps of Engineers, respectively. Proposed oper- 
ation of Vaquero Reservoir contemplates the reserva 
tion of 89,000 acre-feet of storage for control of 
floods, and the balance of the reservoir storage capac- 
ity for water conservation. Water retained in the 
conservation storage pool will be released to the Santa 
Maria River at rates within the percolation capacity 
of the channel. 

It has been estimated by the Bureau of Reclama- 
tion that recharge to ground water by operation of 
Vaquero Reservoir will be increased by an average 



u 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



amount of 18,500 acre-feet per season. In addition, 
the flood control accomplishments of the reservoir 
will be augmented by the construction of levees along 
Bradley Canyon and along Santa Maria River down- 
stream therefrom to confine large flood flows within 
the leveed channel. 

For many years, pumping extraction from the 
ground water resources of Santa Maria Valley has 
exceeded replenishment, resulting in perennial over- 
draft. Although the large amount of ground water 
storage capacity has so far made possible the mainte- 
nance of overdraft without lowering of water levels 
below sea level, continuation of overdraft conditions 
would inevitably result in such lowering, with the re- 
sultant threat of sea-water intrusion. It is estimated 
that the present (1950) seasonal net draft on the 
ground water basin is about 91,000 acre-feet and that 
the safe seasonal yield of the basin is only 54,000 
acre-feet. It should be noted that the new yield de- 
veloped by Vaquero Reservoir will not entirely elimi- 
nate the present ground water overdraft in Santa 
Maria Valley. 

The water requirements of Santa Maria Valley are 
forecast to be about 227,000 acre-feet per season under 
ultimate development. Taking credit for the new yield 
of the ground water basin operated in conjunction 
with Vaquero Reservoir, there will ultimately be a 
demand for supplemental water in the amount of 
about 154,000 aere-feet per season. 

It is estimated that waste of water to the ocean 
after completion of Vaquero Reservoir will be about 
15,000 acre-feet per season on the average. There ex- 
ists a possibility of saving part of this wasted water by 
construction of Round Corral Reservoir on the Sisquoc 
River. However, it is considered that the yield de- 
veloped at this site would be extremely costly, and, 
in addition, it is questionable whether sufficient ground 
water storage would be available for operation in con- 
junction with storage at the Round Corral site. There- 
fore, no further local water supply developments in 
the Santa Maria Valley are considered to be practi- 
cable. 

It is concluded that the accomplishment of the ob- 
jectives of The California Water Plan in the Santa 
Maria Valley will be contingent on ultimate gross 
import of about 180,000 acre-feet per season from the 
Central Coastal and Carrizo-Cuyama Aqueducts of 
the California Aqueduct System. This would provide 
a net .seasonal supply of about 154,000 acre-feet. Pro- 
vision of supplemental water in this amount would 
fully satisfy the ultimate water requirements of all 
lands considered susceptible of water service in the 
Santa Maria Valley. 

Cuyama Valley. The Cuyama Valley consists of 
the drainage area of the Cnyania River above Vaquero 

Dam, and embraces portions of San Luis Obi.spo, 



Santa Barbara, Ventura, and Kern Counties. The floor 
of Cuyama Valley lies at an elevation of about 2,000 to 
2,500 feet above sea level along the upper reaches 
of the Cuyama River. Below the lower end of the 
valley the river flows in a relatively narrow canyon 
through a rugged mountain area. 

Mean seasonal natural runoff from the entire Cu- 
yama Valley drainage area is estimated to be only 
22,500 acre-feet, most of which originates in the moun- 
tainous area at the lower end of the valley. Runoff is 
directly responsive to precipitation, and the greatest 
portion occurs immediately after rain during the 
winter months. Runoff varies greatly from season to 
season, there being essentially no flow during some 
years. 

Irrigated lands are located principally on the floor 
of the Cuyama Valley. In addition, there are small 
irrigable areas lying along the Cuyama River and 
its major tributaries. At the present time water is 
used almost entirely for agricultural purposes, and 
it is believed that this will still be true under ultimate 
conditions of development. 

Essentially all water utilized within the Cuyama 
Valley is obtained by pumping from the ground water 
basii i underlying the valley floor. Available data indi- 
cate that present net draft on the ground water basin 
exceeds replenishment, and that ground water levels 
are experiencing a perennial lowering. No existing 
service storage developments are in the valley. 

As has been indicated, water resources of the Cu- 
yama Valley are relatively meager. With the exception 
of infrequent peak flood flows, essentially all of the 
stream flow originating in the mountain area of the 
upper end of the valley percolates to the ground water 
basin underlying the valley. The relatively large 
amount of ground water storage capacity in this basin 
is adequate to conserve this percolating water for 
pumped withdrawals by overlying landowners. It is 
therefore not considered practicable to give considera- 
tion to plans for further local water supply develop- 
ments in the upper valley. Moreover, the runoff orig- 
inating in the mountain areas at the lower end of 
the valley passes down the canyon of the Cuyama 
River and will be almost entirely controlled by con- 
junctive operation of Vaquero Reservoir and the 
Santa Maria ground water basin, as previously de- 
scribed. 

As is the case with the Said a Maria Valley, it is 
concluded that accomplishment of the objectives of 
The California Water Plan in the Cuyama Valley 
would be contingent upon an import from areas of 
surplus elsewhere in the State. The cost of such Avater 
would be high. Provision of supplemental water sup- 
plies in the amount of 53,000 acre-feet per season 
would satisfy fully the requirements of all lands con- 
sidered susceptible of water service in the Cuyama 
Valley, However, because of the very limited oppor- 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



75 



t unity for re-use of applied water in the valley, a 
gross seasonal delivery of 80,000 aere-feet would be 
required. This delivery would be provided through 
facilities of the Carrizo-Cuyama Aqueduct. The excess 
water, amounting to 27,000 acre-feet per season, would 
be available for re-use in the downstream Santa Maria 
Valley. 

Santa Barbara Group. The Santa Barbara Group 
consists of the area lying south of the southerly bound- 
ary of the Santa Maria River watershed and westerly 
of the boundary of the South Coastal Area. Included 
are the watersheds of San Antonio Creek and the 
Santa Ynez River, as well as many minor streams. 
The group is situated almost entirely within Santa 
Barbara County with the exception of a small area 
of Ventura County along the easterly edge. 

Presently developed irrigated areas in the Santa 
Barbara Group are located near the City of Santa 
Barbara, on the Lompoc Plain at the mouth of the 
Santa Ynez River, and in the narrow valley along the 
Santa Ynez River inland from the Lompoc Plain. 
The principal urban areas are the City of Santa Bar- 
bara and the City of Lompoc and suburban areas 
adjacent thereto. The City of Santa Barbara receives 
its water supply principally from surface storage fa- 
cilities. However, surrounding areas obtain water from 
small local ground water basins. 

The present (1950) seasonal water requirement of 
lands in the Santa Barbara Group is estimated to be 
about 93,000 acre-feet. Of this total requirement, 
about 62,000 acre-feet is developed from underlying 
ground water resources and the remainder is supplied 
by surface storage developments. Although the ground 
water basins are physically meeting the present draft 
thereon, certain small local ground water basins in 
the vicinity of Santa Barbara are presently experi- 
encing an aggregate overdraft of about 2,300 acre- 
feet per season. 

The principal ground water basins in the Santa 
Barbara Group are located on the coastal plain at the 
mouth of San Antonio Creek, and in the rolling hill 
area inland from the Lompoc Plain and north of the 
Santa Ynez River. Smaller ground water basins are 
situated along the Santa Ynez River and on the Lom- 
poc Plain. The presently developed ground water yield 
aggregates about 60,000 acre-feet per season. 

At the present time, there are three surface stor- 
age developments of significant size on the upper 
reaches of the Santa Ynez River, namely: Jameson 
Lake, with a storage capacity of 6,700 acre-feet; 
Gibraltar Reservoir, with a capacity of 14,500 acre- 
leel : and Cachuma Reservoir, a United States Bureau 
of Reclamation project, with a capacity of 210,000 
aere-feet. Water conserved by these reservoirs i.s con- 
veyed by tunnels through the Santa Ynez Mountains 
for use in and adjacent to Santa Barbara. 



The probable ultimate mean seasonal water require- 
ment of lands in the Santa Barbara Group is esti- 
mated to be about 343,000 acre-feet. Considering the 
developed yield of ground water and existing surface 
storage works, the requirement for supplemental 
water may ultimately amount to about 229,000 aere- 
feet per season. 

Plans for further development of local water re- 
sources of the Santa Barbara Group are limited to 
the further control of the Santa Ynez River. Because 
of the relatively small amount of w T ater available for 
further development, the objectives of The California 
Water Plan in the group would necessarily be accom- 
plished by an import of water from areas of surplus 
in other parts of the State. 

Camuesa Dam and Reservoir on the Santa Ynez 
River upstream from Gibraltar Dam, and Salsipuedes 
Dam and Reservoir on Salsipuedes Creek about 2.5 
miles upstream from the confluence with the Santa 
Ynez River would jointly develop about 11,200 acre- 
feet per season of additional local water supplies. 
Water conserved by Camuesa Reservoir woidd be re- 
leased into the channel of the Santa Ynez River, 
passing through the existing Cachuma Reservoir, for 
diversion to lands adjacent to the river downstream 
therefrom. Water from Salsipuedes Reservoir would 
be released into the stream channel to recharge the 
ground water basin underlying the Lompoc Plain, to 
be pumped therefrom ; or it could be conveyed directly 
from the dam to the Lompoc area by pipe line. 

It should be noted that all or a portion of the yield 
developed by Camuesa Reservoir could be conveyed 
through existing tunnels to the area south of the 
Santa Ynez Mountains. On the other hand, it would 
be possible to use all or a portion of the yield of the 
presently constructed reservoirs in the Santa Ynez 
watershed. However, the changes in the distribution of 
the local waters would not affect the total quantity 
of imported water reqtiired within the Santa Bar- 
bara Group, but would merely redistribute this im- 
port requirement between the various areas of the 
group. 

As an alternative to Camuesa Reservoir, considera- 
tion was also given to possible developments on the 
Santa Ynez River at the Hot Springs site and at the 
Santa Rosa site. However, it was found that a devel- 
opment at either site would be much more costly than 
at the Camuesa site, and that a development at the 
Santa Rosa site would flood the majority of the irri- 
gable lands on the floor of Santa Ynez Valley. 

The foregoing local water development works would 
control the runoff of the Santa Ynez River to the 
maximum degree considered practicable, developing 
11,200 acre-feet per season of new yield for use in 
the area. The remainder of the supplemental water 
requirements under ultimate conditions, amounting 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



to about 240,000 acre-feet per season, would be im- 
ported through facilities of the Central Coastal Aque- 
duct, a feature of the California Aqueduct System. A 
gross seasonal delivery of 255,000 acre-feet would be 
necessary to meet this requirement. 

Although no consideration was given to possible 
improvement of channels or reservation of reservoir 
storage for the purpose of flood control, operation of 
Camuesa and Salsipuedes Reservoirs, with total ca- 
pacities of 156,000 acre-feet, could provide some re- 
duction of peak flows in the Santa Ynez River as a 
result of temporary surcharge storage above the spill- 
way lip, and by the probable availability of some un- 
used storage space during most years because of the 
large reservoir capacity on that stream. Operation of 
the foregoing reservoirs would also provide a measure 
of enhancement of fishery resources and recreational 
opportunities. 

Summary of Central Coastal Area. The Central 
Coastal Area is an area of inherent water deficiency, 
because the yield obtainable from local water resources 
developed to their maximum practicable extent would 
be substantially less than the probable ultimate water 
requirements of the area. Objectives of The Califor- 
nia Water Plan in the Central Coastal Area would 
be accomplished by further development of local 
water resources and by imports through facilities of 
the California Aqueduct System. Of the total ultimate 
supplemental water requirement of some 1,680,000 
acre-feet per season, only 468,000 acre-feet would be 
provided by increased development of local water re- 
sources. 

The prospective local developments in the Central 
Coastal Area would consist of 30 storage reservoirs 
with an aggregate active capacity of 1,800,000 acre- 
feet, of which 1,650,000 acre-feet would be devoted to 
water conservation, and 150,000 acre-feet of storage 
would be reserved in San Lucas Reservoir for control 
of floods. In addition, surface reservoirs would be 
operated in conjunction with downstream ground 
water storage, to develop the optimum yield from 
local water resources wherever available. Certain of 
these reservoirs could be operated for flood control 
in addition to conservation, while the others would 
provide a measure of incidental flood control. Opera- 
tion of these reservoirs would considerably enhance 
the recreational potential and warmwater fishery. 

Supplemental water in the net seasonal amount, of 
aboul 1,160,000 acre-feet to meet tlie ultimate require- 
ments of all lands considered susceptible of water 
service in the Central Coastal Area would be provided 
through facilities of the California Aqueduct System. 
This would require an aggregate gross delivery of 
1,213,000 acre-feel per season, as shown in the follow- 
ing tabulation : 



Delivery, in j 

Aqueduct facility Group acre-feet 

South Bay Aqueduct— Santa Cruz-Monterey 15,000 

n . . n . , San Benito 113,000 

Central Coastal 

Aqueduct Salinas River 335,000 

San Luis Obispo 30,000 

Santa Maria Valley 140,000* 

Santa Barbara 255,000 

Carrizo-Cuyama 

Aqueduct Carrizo Plain 245,000 

Cuyama Valley 80,000 



Total 1,213,000 

* An additional 27.000 acre-feet would be available from return flow from Cuyama 
Valley. 

Data on the general features and costs of the local 
development works investigated as features of The 
California Water Plan in the Central Coastal Area 
are presented in Table 11. The locations and layouts 
of all of these facilities are delineated on Sheets 10, 
13, 16, 17, and 20 of Plate 5. 

South Coastal Area 

The South Coastal Area comprises the drainage 
areas of those streams discharging into the Pacific 
Ocean between the southeastern boundary of the 
Rincon Creek watershed near the Santa Barbara- 
Ventura county line on the north, and the Mexican 
border on the south. All of Orange County, major 
portions of the Counties of Los Angeles, Riverside, 
San Bernardino, San Diego, and Ventura, and small 
areas in the Counties of Kern and Santa Barbara are 
included within the boundaries of the area. 

The South Coastal Area contains over one-half of 
the State's population, with about seven per cent of 
its area, but receives less than two per cent of the 
total runoff of the State. Because of its desirable 
climate, and other factors such as strategic location 
for military and industrial installations, this area has 
experienced a growth in population and industry dur- 
ing the past half century which is unparalleled in the 
history of the United States. This rapid growth has 
accelerated during the past decade and as yet has 
shown no indication of levelling off. The population 
of the entire area in 1955 was about 7,000,000. It is 
estimated that within the next century the State will 
attain a population of over 40,000,000, of which about 
45 per cent will be located within the South Coastal 
Area. 

The principal population centers in the South 
Coastal Area are the Cities of Los Angeles and San 
Diego, both surrounded by densely populated metro- 
politan areas. These cities owe their phenomenal 
growth and present large population not only to the 
influx of retired folks and tourists attracted by the 
climate, but to the migration of Large numbers of 
workers attracted by the industrial and commercial 
growth which the area has experienced. It has been 
estimated that the Los Angeles and Orange Counties 
area ranks third among the industrial areas in the 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



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THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



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THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



nation, and that nearly one-third of the two million 
persons employed in the two counties are engaged in 
manufacturing enterprises. 

There are many military reservations in the South 
Coa.stal Area, the largest of which are under the juris- 
diction of the Department of the Navy. The head- 
quarters of the Eleventh Naval District with training, 
air. and repair facilities, is located at San Diego, and 
is a very important element in the economy of that 
area. Other Department of Navy facilities in the 
South Coastal Area include several Marine bases, the 
largest of which is Camp Pendleton, and two major 
bases in Ventura County. Army and Air Force estab- 
lishments are distributed throughout the area, the 
principal base being March Air Force Base in River- 
side County. 

Concurrently with, but not always paralleling, the 
population expansion in the South Coastal Area has 
been the growth of irrigated agriculture. The mild 
climate allows the production of citrus, avocados, 
fruits, and nuts, all of which are high-value crops. 
The phenomenal expansion of population, agriculture, 
and industry has created ever increasing demands for 
water. Local water supplies have been obtained to a 
great extent through exploitation of the large ground 
water reservoirs. However, these local water supplies 
are limited and are far from sufficient to support the 
existing development. In 1950, about one-fourth of 
the total water used represented overdraft on ground 
water storage, and one-fourth was water imported 
from sources outside the area. 

The South Coastal Area has a long history of irri- 
gated agriculture dating back to the days of the 
missions in the eighteenth century. Intensive devel- 
opment of irrigated agriculture began in the late 
nineteenth century and has progressed rapidly to 
recent times. In 1950, it was estimated that the net 
irrigated area totaled some 617,000 acres, nearly one- 
half being devoted to the production of citrus, avo- 
cados, and other specialty crops. 

During the past half century, there has been an 
increasing expansion in the area occupied by urban 
and industrial developments, with the gross urban 
area estimated to have been 548,000 acres in 1950. 
Urbanization has been greatly accelerated in the past 
few years. This development has taken place largely 
on agricultural lands immediately adjacent to exist- 
ing urban areas, and it is considered probable that 
future urbanization will generally be at the expense 
of present agricultural areas. The area that will be 
ultimately occupied by urban and industrial develop- 
ment is estimated to be 1,611,000 acres. 

Increase in the area of irrigated lands probably 
will be dependent in large part upon the availability 
of an imported water supply, and will occur both by 
application of water to presently dry-farmed areas 
and by bringing under cultivation lands not presently 



farmed due to lack of adequate water supplies. It is 
estimated in State Water Resources Board Bulletin 
No. 2 that a gross area of 1,156,000 acres will be de- 
voted to irrigated agriculture under conditions of 
ultimate development. 

The climate of the South Coastal Area is character- 
ized by relatively mild temperatures and light pre- 
cipitation in the coastal areas, and by somewhat wider 
temperature variation and heavier precipitation in 
the inland areas. Precipitation on the area generally 
varies from as little as 10 inches along the coast to 
over 40 inches in some of the higher mountain areas. 

At present, water supplies in the South Coa.stal 
Area are obtained principally by pumping from 
underlying ground water basins, by storage in and 
diversion from surface reservoirs, and by importation 
from the Colorado River and from the Owens River 
and Mono Basin. Although a large quantity of water 
is obtained by individual pumping, most of the lands 
requiring water are served by a multitude of water 
companies or public agencies, with service areas vary- 
ing from a few acres to many square miles in extent. 

The Metropolitan Water District of Southern Cali- 
fornia has a right, presently under litigation, to 
1,212,000 acre-feet of Colorado River water annually, 
of which amount about 400,000 acre-feet was delivered 
in fiscal year 1956. Operating at full capacity, the 
Owens-Mono Aqueduct of the City of Los Angeles 
presently delivers about 320,000 acre-feet annually 
into the area. Water requirements in the South Coastal 
Area under probable ultimate conditions of develop- 
ment are estimated to total 5,552,000 acre-feet per 
season. With the Colorado River and Los Angeles 
Aqueducts operating at full capacity, there will re- 
main about 3,000,000 acre-feet of water per season 
which must be obtained from further development of 
local water resources, or from importation through fa- 
cilities of the California Aqueduct System. Plans for 
further development of local water supplies subse- 
quently presented herein would increase the safe 
seasonal local yield by only about 149,000 acre-feet, 
which appears to be the maximum practicable amount 
of additional conservation, leaving in excess of 2,800,- 
000 acre-feet of water per season which must be im- 
ported from northern California. 

Although the South Coastal Area is classified as an 
arid region, the tributary watersheds occasionally 
receive precipitation in torrential amounts which 
produce extremely high intensities of flood runoff in 
the streams draining the area. These floods have re- 
sulted in large financial losses in property damage 
due to inundation, erosion, and deposition of debris. 
as well as loss of life. Intensive development of urban 
areas adjacent to the flood channels has greatly in- 
creased the flood damage hazard in most of the area. 

The most comprehensive system of flood control 
works in the area is that of the Los Angeles and San 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



8] 



Gabriel Rivers and Ballona Creek project now under 
construction by the Corps of Engineers, U. S. Army, 
in cooperation with the Los Angeles County Flood 
Control District, with financial participation by the 
State of California. Flood control works of lesser mag- 
nitude have been constructed on streams throughout 
the remainder of the area, and additional small flood 
control works will probably become necessary in the 
future as a result of intensive urbanization of the 
area. However, these works would consist mainly of 
channel improvement measures which are not con- 
sidered to be within the scope of The California "Water 
Plan. The additional reservoir developments described 
hereinafter, with the exception of the enlarged Hodges 
Reservoir on San Dieguito River, include no specific 
storage reserves for flood control purposes. 

Plans for accomplishment of the objectives of The 
California Water Plan for the South Coastal Area 
envision the development of additional yield from 
local water resources to the maximum practicable de- 
gree by capture of waters presently wasting to the 
ocean, and construction of works adequate to convey 
and regulate sufficient additional imported water to 
provide fully for water requirements which will exist 
under probable ultimate conditions of development. 
In the formulation of plans, consideration was given 
to coordination of their construction and operation 
with existing water supply developments in the area, 
both surface and underground, to the maximum prac- 
ticable extent. 

Inasmuch as a high degree of conservation of run- 
off from most streams in the South Coastal Area has 
already been effected by surface storage developments 
and by artificially recharged underground storage, 
further conservation of the infrequent waste to the 
ocean by means of surface reservoirs will necessitate 
very large storage capacities with respect to the mag- 
nitude of the conserved supplies, with attendant long 
carry-over periods. Developments will be quite costly, 
and the additional yield quite small with respect to 
ultimate water requirements. The desirability of con- 
structing a local conservation development at a given 
time, or the question of whether such developments 
should be undertaken at all, will be matters for local 
decision, and will be based upon many factoids, in- 
cluding the financial capacity of the constructing 
agency, the amount of water required at the time 
construction is contemplated, the availability of a 
firm supply of imported water at that time, and the 
unit cost of imported water as compared to the unit 
eost of yield from a local water resource development. 
However, because of the small quantities of water 
involved, future deviation in the plans for local water 
resource development considered herein would have 
little material effect upon the over-all plan. 

It must be realized that there are numerous factors 
which, under constant change, tend to alter ground 



water recharge and the safe yield of ground water 
basins. Urbanization, with accompanying increase in 
impervious areas, produces two opposite phenomena. 
On the one hand consumptive use of precipitation is 
greatly reduced, increasing the water supply avail- 
able for conservation, while on the other hand run- 
off is increased, which, with increased storm drain 
facilities, may reduce recharge opportunity. Im- 
pervious channel lining for flood control purposes 
decreases the opportunity for recharge of under- 
ground basins from flood waters, while construction 
of spreading grounds tends to compensate for this 
effect. The effect of operation of flood control reser- 
voirs on the regimen of stream flow can generally in- 
crease the opportunity for percolation of flood flows. 

Artificial recharge of ground water basins in con- 
junction with the operation of both flood control and 
conservation reservoirs is presently accomplished or 
is planned where practicable. For purposes of this 
bulletin it is assumed that this practice will result in 
the maintenance of the present safe yields of the 
ground water basins. Because, as stated, waste to the 
ocean now occurs infrequently, the amounts by which 
the present safe yields might be increased through 
artificial recharge will be relatively small. 

For purposes of analysis, the South Coastal Area 
has been subdivided into three groups; namely the 
Ventura Group, the Los Angeles-Santa Ana Group, 
and the San Diego Group. The location of these 
groups is shown on Plate 3. In the following sections, 
plans are presented for the development of local water 
supplies in each of these groups. 

Ventura Group. The Ventura Group consists of 
the drainage areas of streams flowing into the ocean 
between the northerly boundary of the South Coastal 
Area and Topanga Creek, including the Ventura and 
Santa Clara Rivers, Calleguas Creek, and several 
smaller creeks. The largest part of the area compris- 
ing the group is occupied by mountains and hills. The 
mountains northerly of the Santa Clara River are 
quite rugged and reach elevations in excess of 8,000 
feet. The majority of the valley lands are on the 
coastal plain near the mouths of the Santa Clara 
River and Calleguas Creek, with smaller valley areas 
located inland along these streams and the Ventura 
River. 

The 1950 federal census reported the population of 
Ventura County to be 114,647, and by January, 1957, 
the population had increased to an estimated 159,300. 
In 1950, the populations of major cities in the county 
included: Oxnard, 21567; Ventura, 16534; and Santa 
Paula, 11,049. The oil industry is the leading industrj 
in the county. Other principal industries include agri- 
culture and the associated processing and packing of 
vegetables and citrus fruits and the processing of 
sugar beets. 



82 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



At the present time the Santa Clara River Valley, 
the coastal plain, and portions of the Ventura River 
and Calleguas Creek drainage areas are extensively 
developed to irrigated agriculture. Land use surveys 
conducted in Ventura County during 1949-50 showed 
that there were in excess of 109,000 acres of irrigated 
land. Principal crops were citrus with about 43,000 
acres, beans with about 33,000 acres, and walnuts with 
slightly less than 18,000 acres. 

The mild climate typical of the South Coastal Area 
prevails in the Ventura Group, with proximity to 
the ocean providing a moderating effect throughout 
most of the developed area. In excess of 80 per cent 
of the mean seasonal precipitation occurs during the 
months of December through March. Killing frosts in 
the Ventura County area are extremely rare, and con- 
sequently, portions of this region are producing as 
many as three crops per year. 

With the exception of small amounts of direct sur- 
face diversion, the presently utilized water supplies 
in the Ventura Group are obtained by pumping from 
several major ground water basins which underlie most 
of the developed area. It is estimated that the total 
usable ground water storage capacity in these basins 
is over 1,000,000 acre-feet, of which about 400,000 
a<rc-feet has been utilized to date. Off-stream spread- 
ing works have been operated by the Santa Clara 
Water Conservation District and its successor, the 
United Water Conservation District, since about 1927. 
During the wet year 1951-52 about 11,800 acre-feet of 
water was diverted from Piru Creek and percolated 
in the Piru spreading grounds. During the same 
year about 25,400 acre-feet of water diverted from the 
Santa Clara River was spread in the Saticoy grounds. 
Diversion capacities were 75 second-feet and 145 sec- 
ond-feet, respectively. During 1955, the capacity of 
the conduit leading to the Saticoy spreading grounds 
was increased to 375 second-feet, and a 42-inch diam- 
eter conduit with a capacity of about 150 second-feet 
was extended to the El Rio spreading ground a short 
distance downstream. Presently developed safe yield 
from ground water and from relatively small diver- 
sions of unregulated surface flow is estimated to be 
about 126,000 acre-feet per season. 

There are presently only two major surface storage 
reservoirs in the area. Matilija Reservoir on Matilija 
< !reek, a tributary of the Ventura River, is owned and 
operated by the Ventura County Flood Control Dis- 
trict. It has a storage capacity of about 7,000 acre- 
feet, and an estimated safe yield of about 1,400 
.in' feel per season. Santa Felicia Reservoir on Piru 
Creek, a tributary of the Santa Clara River, was re- 
cently completed by tin' United Water Conservation 
District. Storage rapacity is about 100,000 acre-feet, 
and it is estimated that the reservoir will increase 
the sale yield available from the Santa Clara River 
system by about 15,000 acre-feet per season if convey- 



ance facilities, hereinafter described, are constructed 
to carry water from the reservoir to the coastal plain 
to alleviate present ground water overdraft therein. 

Work was recently started on construction of the 
Ventura River Project by the United States Bureau 
of Reclamation. This project will provide a new yield 
of about 27,000 acre-feet per season, which is more 
than sufficient to provide for the present supplemental 
water requirement of 4,000 acre-feet per season in the 
area included within the Ventura River Municipal 
Water District, the local contracting agency, and 
would satisfy all but about 3,000 acre-feet of the 
probable ultimate seasonal water requirements therein. 
The project includes a reservoir of 250,000 acre-foot 
capacity at the Casitas site on Coyote Creek, a tribu- 
tary of the Ventura River. In addition to storage of 
flows of Coyote Creek, the reservoir would store flows 
diverted from the main stem of the Ventura River 
by means of Robles Diversion Dam and a 500 second- 
foot conduit to Casitas Reservoir. 

It was estimated in State Water Resources Board 
Bulletin No. 12 that draft on ground water in the 
coastal plain of Ventura County in 1951 exceeded the 
safe yield by 59,000 acre-feet per season. It is esti- 
mated that, with full realization of the safe yield of 
the recently completed Santa Felicia Reservoir, this 
overdraft would be reduced to about 44,000 acre-feet 
per season. This overdraft may be attributed to two 
factors : inadequate cyclic carry-over storage capacity 
in the ground water forebay area, and a lack of suffi- 
cient carrying capacity in the pressure aquifers under- 
lying the coastal plain to transmit enough water to 
prevent the pressure surface elevations from dropping 
below sea level during periods of heavy pumping 
draft, thus creating conditions conducive to the intru- 
sion of sea water. 

In the uppermost reaches of the Santa Clara River 
in Los Angeles County, there is a substantial area of 
irrigable land partly underlain by ground water 
basins. These basins are presently being pumped but 
show no evidence of overdraft. However, irrigation of 
all the lands in the valley will require importation 
of water, as natural recharge to the basin is limited. 

In the Piru, Fillmore, and Santa Paula Basins, ly- 
ing along the Santa Clara River between the Los 
Angeles County boundary and the coastal plain of 
Ventura County, there is no present overdraft, nor 
is it anticipated that there will be one under ultimate 
conditions of development. 

In the inland portion of the Calleguas Creek water- 
shed, it is estimated that usable ground water storage 
capacity totals about 200,000 acre-feet. However, due 
to the generally light precipitation and limited flow 
in tributary streams, mean seasonal recharge is quite 
limited, and there is virtually no opportunity for fur- 
ther conservation of local supplies. In State Water 
Resources Board Bulletin No. 12 it was estimated 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 83 

that, in 1951, there was a ground water overdraft of the reservoirs would percolate before reaching the 
' about 9,000 acre-feet per season in this area, Tempo- eoastal plain during extended periods of drought, 
rary relief could be obtained by importation of water and would not be available for use thereon. Solution 
( from Santa Clara River if water rights problems in- of the problem of sea-water intrusion would require 
volved in diversion of water from that stream were construction of a surface distribution system on the 
I j resolved. Ultimate solution of the water problems in coastal plain area so that, by delivery of surface 
the Calleguas Creek area will, in any event, necessi- water supplies, ground water withdrawals could be 
tate importation of large quantities of water through reduced to amounts within the limits of transmissi- 
facilities of the California Aqueduct System. bility of the underlying aquifers without drawing the 
The area southerly of Calleguas Creek is, in large pressure gradients down below sea level. Such a 
't part, mountainous, and is drained by several creeks system covering a portion of this area is presently 
discharging directly into the ocean, the largest of under construction by the United Water Conserva- 
which is Malibu Creek. Water is obtained primarily tiou District. Solution of the problem would also re- 
by pumping from numerous small ground water f P'ire the pumping of water from the coastal plain 
' basins. Although there are some localized water short- forebay and its operation in conjunction with up- 
ages, it is believed that the present over-all safe yield stream surface and ground water reservoirs, 
is just about in balance with present water require- In addition to the new yield made available to the 
ments. However, further increase in water require- coastal plain from the foregoing surface developments, 
ments will necessitate importation of water from out- it is estimated that an ultimate net increase in ground 
« side sources. water yield in the amount of 26,000 acre-feet per sea- 
Present and probable ultimate seasonal water re- son could be developed by increased extractions of 
' quirements in the Ventura Group are summarized in water from ground water basins along the Santa Clara 
the following tabulation, wherein the safe yield of River upstream from the coastal plain. Under ulti- 
local water supplies for ultimate conditions includes mate conditions of development, and after construc- 
the yields of the additional water supply develop- tion of further local developments as previously dis- 
| ments hereinafter described. cussed, an estimated 238,000 acre-feet per season of 

Acre-feet per season imported water would be needed in the coastal plain, 

P TatL C °^u^e ( n 1 t 95 °L.. __ 199,000 ™ the A Portion of the Santa Clara River watershed in 

Safe yield of local water supplies 142,000 I^os Angeles County, in the upper Calleguas Creek 

■ watershed, in the Malibu Creek drainage area, and 

Supplemental water requirements - 57,000 alon „, fhe ^^ gtrip southerly frQm Calleguas Creek 

P Wa a t b er S^SS?^-- __ 512,000 The California Water Plan envisions conjunctive op- 
Safe yield of local water supplies 229,000 eration of underground and surface storage in the 

Ventura Group. 

Requirement for imported water 283,000 

„ ., e & ■ ,-, Q , ni „ Los Angeles-Santa Ana Group. The Los Angeles- 

Further conservation of runoff m the Santa Clara s •i-.xuo -r-. jo 

.,. ., , „ , , , ... f „j» n Santa Ana Group includes the San Fernando, San 

River could be effected bv construction ot surface . ' . ' 

x -u 4. • 4/u a t> -vi + „ Gabriel, upper Santa Ana, and San Jacinto Vallevs ; 
. storage on maior tributaries thereof. Possible storage ' f r . « 

, , e , . , , rr . nrir . e , , the coastal plain ot Los Angeles and Orange Coun- 

I developments include a 50,000 acre-foot reservoir at ,. , , *; , . s , , .„ % , J, , 

., t,/ „ . tj- n i -innnnn, ? + ties ; and tributary mountain and hill areas. Included 

the Blue Point site on Pirn Creek, a 100,000 acre-foot ' , . • „ T 

, ,, m ., '„ , -, are the drainage areas ot the Los Angeles, San 

reservoir at the Topatopa site on Sespe Creek, and a n , . , , Q ° . T> . te 

immft . x ■ i. .t r\ u o • Gabriel, and Santa Ana Rivers, as well as several 

100.1)00 acre-foot reservoir at the Cold Spring site on . ' ,. , . . ' ._ 

I „ ' _. , mi o, L ™ -r,- n \ -T -xi minor streams discharging into the Pacific Ocean be- 

Sespe Creek. The Santa Clara River Conduit, with a , Q , ,.- . -, XT x -o i » i 

'. " . x „ ._„ , „ , ', tween Santa Monica and Newport Beach. About 

maximum eapacitv ot 120 second-feet, could be con- , ,- » ., , , . . , , „ , 

, . ., . ,. « i. -n t • t> ■ x one-halt ot the total area is occupied bv valley and 

Bxucted from the existing Santa Felicia Reservoir to a , , „ -, , m, , -, , , . 

,..,,. ? , „ , mesa lands. The tributarv mountain area separating 

distribution svstem serving the pressure area of the ,,. „ , T ,' , ^ , , -. 

,.,,.%„ i •, » xi • thls group from the Lahontan and Colorado Desert 

eoastal plain. Water releasee from the reservoirs on . , • ., -> -, , , 

* . ,,,-,. , o i Areas is quite rugged and reaches elevations m excess 

Sespe Creek would be diverted from the stream chan- of 1()0()() feef A rf 1|j]ls rf ]my(M . ^.^ 

; nel downstream from Topatopa Dam, and conveyed ,. ates thp 11]]aml va]1( , ys from ^ f . oasta] in 

into the Santa Clara River Conduit at its crossing of 

Sespe Creek for delivery to the coastal plain. The loea- The Los Angeles-Santa Ana Croup contains one of 

tions of the foregoing facilities are shown on Sheet 21 tne most populous urban regions in the nation. Popu- 

of Plate 5. lation within the group in 1955 was about 6,000.000, 

Conveyance of waters from the reservoirs in a con- ° 1 ' approximately 45 percent of the total for the State. 

duit would increase the amount of water available to In excess of 2,000,000 people now reside within the 

the coastal plain. If the stream channel were used for City of Los Angeles. In addition, there is extensive 

conveyance, a large portion of the water released from agricultural development. Tn 1950. nearly 70 percenl 



84 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



of the irrigated lands in the South Coastal Area were 
located within the Los Angeles-Santa Ana Group. 

Water supplies required by the foregoing urban and 
agricultural development were first obtained by direct 
surface diversions and some small surface storage de- 
velopments. Continuation of the development resulted 
in intensive utilization of the large ground water 
basins underlying the valley and coastal plain 
lands. Of the total underground storage capacity, 
about 7,000,000 acre-feet of capacity is considered 
usable, on the basis of those factors of basin configura- 
tion, economic pumping lift, and others, as described 
in the appendix on ground water. The utilization of 
about 4,500,000 acre-feet of this storage historically 
has resulted in the development of a safe yield from 
the local water supplies of 780,000 acre-feet per season. 

In the light of the great importance of ground 
water basins to the economy of the Los Angeles-Santa 
Ana Group, many steps have been undertaken to 
assure the fullest practicable utilization of these 
basins. Percolation in natural stream channels is 
augmented by spreading operations during periods 
of flood. At the present time there are 70 artificial 
recharge projects in the Los Angeles-Santa Ana 
Group, with a capacity sufficient to spread a con- 
tinuous flow of about 17,000 second-feet. An addi- 
tional 55 artificial recharge projects, with capacity of 
about 4,000 second-feet, are proposed for construction 
by various local agencies in the group. It is estimated 
that over 1,000,000 acre-feet of water have been spread 
since 1900 in the upper Santa Ana Valley alone. The 
Los Angeles County Flood Control District is con- 
structing spreading works throughout pervious areas 
of the county to enhance natural percolation, and to 
attempt, insofar as possible, to replace losses in perco- 
lation capacity resulting from lining of stream chan- 
nels for flood control purposes. The district is also 
presently engaged in injecting Colorado River Avater 
into confined aquifers in the Manhattan Beach area of 
the West Coast Basin to create a pressure ridge along 
a portion of the coast line, in an effort to repel sea 
water. Additional Colorado River water is spread in 
the forebay areas of the Los Angeles and Orange 
Counties coastal plains. 

In addition to providing the equalizing storage 
capacity necessary to regulate the erratic natural 
inflow, the ground water basins provide a natural 
distribution system. A considerable part of the water 
used tor agricultural lands is obtained from ground 
water by individual effort, and the use of ground 
water basins eliminates much of the cost which would 

otherwise be incurred in the construction of -essary 

dist ribul ion facilities. 

Urbanized areas in the Los Angeles-Santa Ana 
Group are served water by surface distribution sys- 
tems of a number of agencies, the largest of which is 
the Department of Water and Power of the City of 



Los Angeles. However, even in some of these urbanized 
areas supplied in part from ground water storage, 
ground water basins function as a means of convey- 
ance of water to convenient points of delivery to the 
numerous water service agencies. 

Water has been imported to the South Coastal Area 
from the Owens River and Mono Basin via the Los 
Angeles Aqueduct by the City of Los Angeles since 
1916, and from the Colorado River via the Colorado 
River Aqueduct by The Metropolitan Water District 
of Southern California since 1941. The Department of 
Water and Power of the City of Los Angeles reports 
that about 319,000 acre-feet per season can be im- 
ported from the Owens River and Mono Basin through 
the Los Angeles Aqueduct and that the full capacity 
of this facility is presently being utilized. 

The Metropolitan Water District of Southern Cali- 
fornia has rights to the waters of the Colorado River 
for service in both the Los Angeles-Santa Ana and 
San Diego Groups in the amount of 1,212,000 acre- 
feet per season, although this is presently under liti- 
gation. It is estimated that due to conveyance and 
regulation losses, only 1,140,000 acre-feet would be 
actually available to meet requirements in the South 
Coastal Area. During 1956, the capacity of the Colo- 
rado River Aqueduct was increased to 1,000 second- 
feet, or about 700,000 acre-feet per season. Plans are 
under way to complete the aqueduct to its full capac- 
ity of about 1,600 second-feet by the year 1960. Repre- 
sentatives of The Metropolitan Water District of 
Southern California estimate that the full conveyance 
capacity of this facility will be utilized by the year 
1975. 

In 1950, draft upon ground water storage in the 
Los Angeles-Santa Ana Group exceeded replenish- 
ment by an estimated average amount of 307,000 acre- 
feet per season. The most serious manifestations of this 
overdraft are exhibited in the coastal plain area where, 
in addition to an actual insufficiency of recharge, the 
confined aquifers which underlie a large portion of the 
coastal plain are of inadequate capacity to convey 
required water supplies from areas of recharge to 
points of extraction without creation of conditions 
conducive to the intrusion of sea water. Montebello 
Forebay, the free ground water area which supplies a 
large part of the coastal plain pressure area, was es- 
sentially full in the early 1940 's, while ground water 
levels coastward thereof were below sea level. At the 
present time, water levels over the major part of the 
coastal plain are below sea level, and as a result, sea 
water has invaded actively pumped aquifers along 
much of the coast line. 

In addition to the foregoing, there are also over- 
drafts in certain of the interior groundwater basins. 
Increased use of water in the interior valleys, although 
not necessarily causing overdraft therein, will tend to 
diminish the natural supply to the coastal basins. 




South Coastal Area— Garvey Terminal Reservoir (top) and F. E. Weymouth Softening and Filtration Plant 
in the Los Angeles Metropolitan Area 



86 THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 

thereby tending to increase overdraft in the coastal m the Los Angeles-Santa Ana Group are summarized 

areas. in the following tabulation. In 1949-50, a total of 

As a result of these overdraft conditions, ground about 400,000 acre-feet of water was imported, and 

water rights have been adjudicated in the Raymond about 307,000 acre-feet represented ground water 

Basin Area in San Gabriel Valley and are in process overdraft. 

of adjudication in the West Coast Basin, which OC- Present conditions (1950) Acre-feet per season 

eupies the westerly portion of the : coastal plaKEs- Wate^— _ 1,483000 

tractions from ground water of the Raymond Basin 

Area were limited to the safe yield thereof by terms of Requirement for imported water__, "07,000 

the judgment rendered by the Trial Court in 1944, Probable ultimate conditions 

confirmed by the Supreme Court in 1949. The Supe- Water requirement 3,5: J >.">,oou 

rior Court has retained jurisdiction in each of these Safe yield of local su PP lies___ 776,000 
cases. In the West Coast Basin, most of the parties to Requirement for imported water (in- 
litigation have by agreement limited their ground eluding importation from Owens- 
water extractions' pending final settlement. In both Mono and Colorado River Basins) 2,759.000 

areas the court appointed the Department of Water it i s considered that the present degree of conser- 
Resources as Watermaster to administer provisions of ration of local surface runoff in the Los Angeles-Santa 
the court decree in the case of Raymond Basin Area Ana Group is very near to the maximum that is prac- 
and provisions of the current stipulated agreement ticable. Therefore, no plans for additional local water 
in the West Coast Basin. In each instance, use of supply developments are hereinafter presented. How- 
imported water has substantially increased since com- eve r, a future recreational development at Lake Elsi- 
mencement of watermaster service. Further litigation, nore j s contemplated by stabilizing and maintaining 
such as that now pending in other portions of the adequate lake levels. 

group, and subsequent adjudication of rights to ex- It j s possible that a small amount of additional 

tract ground water would save these basins from pos- wa ter eould and wi n be developed from local water 

sible eventual exhaustion and, in some cases, destruc- supplies by construction of additional artificial ground 

tion. As a consequence, the use of imported water water recharge works and improved methods of 

would be greatly accelerated. ground water storage operation. However, the 

Serious consideration must be given to the problem amounts of water that could be so obtained are rela- 

of salt balance in the underground reservoirs which tively insignificant as compared with the probable 

are so extremely important to the Los Angeles-Santa ultimate water requirements of the area. 

Ana Group if they are to be preserved for the regu- j n reC ent years there have been increasing cliscus- 

lation, distribution, and re-use of native and imported s j on an( j s t u dy of methods of reclaiming water of 

waters. The problems of salt balance have been pre- suitable quality for irrigation and other uses from 

viously discussed in Chapter II. the sewage flows presently being discharged into the 

Although there are indications of possible present ocean from the Los Angeles and San Diego metro- 
adverse salt balances in several basins in the group, it politan areas. In connection with statutory responsi- 
is believed that, except for certain localized conditions, bilities of the Department of Water Resources, the 
serious problems will not result under the present level possibility of reclamation of water from sewage has 
of development. In the future, anticipated large expor- been studied. The objective of this study was to de- 
lations of sewage directly to the ocean should prevent termine the quantities of water that could be re- 
occurrence of adverse salt balance in the San Gabriel claimed, the costs thereof, and potential markets for 
and San Fernando Valleys. Similarly, the coastal plain the reclaimed supply. In certain areas, particularly 
area is provided with necessary outflow in the form the upper Santa Ana Valley, involuntary reclama- 
of the relatively large extractions from the confined tion is occurring by land disposal of sewage treatment 
aquifers, the unconsumed residuum of which is largely plant effluent from interior communities and from 
prevented from returning to the pumped zone. How- cesspools of suburban dwellings. The trend, however, 
ever, in the upper Santa Ana Valley, a very serious j s toward construction of large-scale sewerage systems 
situation could develop if careful attention is not with ocean disposal because of aesthetic and public 
given to the problem of salt balance in operation of health considerations. 

the ground water basins and in the disposal of waters. Conclusions of the sewage reclamation studies to 

As hereinafter discussed, salt balance considerations date are generally that: (1) in the order of :>00,000 

also influenced the planning of importation facilities acre-feel of sewage is discharged annually to the ocean] 

w ith respect to the effect on water quality of imported f,. om t \ n > | jOS Angeles metropolitan area and this quan- 

water supplies from various sources considered. tity will increase substantially with continued urban 

Present and probable ultimate wafer requirements, growth; (2) the total quantity of sewage should not be* 

safe local yield, and requirements for imported water all classed as "waste,'" since it is serving a beneficial 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



87 



Lirpose in providing necessary outflow of ground 
ater extracted for municipal and industrial pur- 
i, thereby removing undesirable salts from the 
iderlying ground water basin; (3) the mineral 
iekup inherent in urban and industrial use of water 
akes the use of reclaimed water for ground water 
'charge limited in scope because of the possibility 
producing an unfavorable salt balance in the 
*ound water basin; (4) by its very nature sewage 
• water reclaimed therefrom accumulates in greatest 
lantity at the coast at an elevation very near sea 
vel, requiring expensive conveyance and pumping 
cilities to make it available for use for ground 
ater recharge or for industrial uses in the Los 
ngeles area or farther inland; (5) the effect upon 
lblic health of use of water reclaimed from sewage 
r agricultural or urban purposes cannot be fully 
aluated at this time and, because of aesthetic and 
lblic health considerations, the market for reclaimed 
rwage waters may be limited to comparatively small 
jhantities for certain industrial purposes, at least in 
lie near future; and (6) continuing study and peri- 
lic evaluation should be given to the feasibility of 
fee of this possible source of water supply, with regard 
| changes in technological methods and varying con- 
ations by land use and water supply development 
pat the future may bring. At the present time it does 
,ot appear that reclamation of water from sewage 
rill affect to a significant degree the demand of the 
los Angeles-Santa Ana Group for imported water. 

San Diego Group. The San Diego Group includes 
ie drainage areas of those streams flowing into the 
Jaeific Ocean between Newport Beach and the Mexi- 
|kn border. Included are the Santa Margarita, San 
luis Rey, San Dieguito, San Diego, Sweetwater, Otay, 
lid Tia Juana Rivers, as well as many minor streams. 
Ibout 85 per cent of the area is classified as moun- 
lins and foothills. However, much of the hill area 
tear the coast is gently rolling and suitable for agri- 
jiltural or urban developments. With the exception 
E the Temecula-Murrieta area in the upper Santa 
largarita River watershed, valley lands are found in 
Mattered small coastal and inland valleys along the 
iajor streams, and on coastal mesas near San Diego 

Included in the San Diego Group are the densely 
opulated San Diego metropolitan area surrounding 
an Diego and Mission Bays and the less populous 
at rapidly growing communities of Escondido. 
'ceanside. Carlsbad, Fallbrook, and Rainbow. It is 
stimated that the population of San Diego County 
tcreased from about 550,000 in 1950 to more than 
50,000 in January, 1957. About 700,000 of these 
wple reside in the San Diego metropolitan area. 

Aircraft manufacture and fishing are major in- 
ostries in the area. The capital investment in plant 
ml equipment for these industries has almost doubled 



since 1950. In addition, the headquarters of the 
Eleventh Naval District including training, repair, 
air, supply, and radio facilities, are located in the 
San Diego metropolitan area, and Camp Pendleton, 
the largest Marine Corps base in the nation, is lo- 
cated near Oceanside. 

Agriculture, principally the raising of subtropical 
fruits, has expanded rapidly in San Diego County 
during recent years. Although the citrus industry in 
the South Coastal Area has declined in importance in 
recent years, the raising of avocados and specialty 
crops has expanded rapidly. These latter crops have a 
very high monetary return. 

The climate in the San Diego Group is generally 
mild near the coast, with relatively light precipita- 
tion. Proceeding inland, temperature variations be- 
come wider and precipitation becomes heavier as 
elevation increases. Mean seasonal precipitation is ap- 
proximately 10 inches near the coast and in excess of 
40 inches at the highest inland elevations of the 
tributary watersheds. 

Water supplies in the San Diego Group are ob- 
tained from numerous small ground water basins, 
from 12 major and several lesser surface storage de- 
velopments, and from importations through the two- 
barreled San Diego Aqueduct. The ground water ba- 
sins in the area have relatively small capacity and 
limited recharge. Ground water rights in the Tia 
Juana Basin are under adjudication, and the basin 
has been under watermaster service since 1947. Court 
proceedings have been instituted to adjudicate ground 
water rights in the San Luis Rey River Basin. 

In the years 1941, 1942 and 1943 the United 'States 
acquired most of the Rancho Santa Margarita by con- 
demnation and purchase. To these acquisitions it 
added, by executive order, some public domain lands 
and established thereupon the United States Naval 
Ammunition Depot at Fallbrook, the United States 
Naval Hospital, and Camp Joseph II. Pendleton. 
Since that time a controversy has arisen between the 
United States and other water users with regard to 
the respective right of each to make use of the waters 
of the Santa Margarita River, which flows through 
and empties into the ocean on this land held by the 
United States. 

Congress in 1954 undertook to resolve the contro- 
versy through legislation. The solution decided upon 
was the authorization of $22,636,000 for the De Luz 
Dam on the Santa Margarita River, to be constructed 
and operated by the Secretary of the Interior acting 
pursuant to federal reclamation law. The act ap- 
parently contemplates a solution of the controversy 
only as between the Department of the Navy and the 
Fallbrook Public Utility District. The district must 
agree, under the terms of the act, that it will not 
assert against the United States any prior appropria- 
tive right it may have to water in excess of the quan- 
tity which may be delivered to it under the terms of 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



the act. Sixty per cent of the water impounded by 
De Luz Dam is allotted by the act to the Secretary 
of the Navy and forty per cent to the Fallbrook 
Public Utility District. Storage may not begin, how- 
ever, until Camp Pendleton and the adjoining naval 
installations have received all the water to which the 
United States would be entitled under the laws of 
California had the dam not been built. The Secretary 
of the Navy is required to comply with water right 
acquisition procedures under the laws of California 
when he is satisfied, with the advice of the United 
States Attorney General, that such action will not 
adversely affect rights of the United States under 
California law. The act provides that water rights are 
to be determined by the laws of California, 

The Executive Branch of the Federal Government 
sought to resolve the controversy through the prosecu- 
tion of judicial proceedings. In January, 1951, the 
United States brought an action against some three 
thousand defendants to quiet title to water rights 
claimed to be appurtenant to the lands acquired by 
the United States. After granting the motion of the 
State of California to intervene in the proceedings. 
United States v. Fallbrook Public Utility District, 101 
Fed. Supp. 298 (1951), defining issues affecting Fall- 
brook, Santa Margarita Mutual Water Company and 
the State, United States v. Fallbrook Public Utility 
District, et al., 108 Fed. Supp. 72 (1952), and order- 
ing a separate trial as against the State and Santa 
Margarita Mutual Water Company, with their acqui- 
escence, at the same time rendering a decision later 
described as superfluous and in the nature of pro- 
posed findings, United States v. Fallbrook Public 
Utility District et al., 109 Fed. Supp. 28 (1952), the 
United States District Court adjudged, that the Santa 
Margarita Mutual Water Company and the State of 
California and each of them "are forever barred from 
any and all claim of right, title, or interest in and to 
those rights to the use of water" which the court found 
vested in the United States. Declaration of Judgment 
No. 16. United States v. Fallbrook Public Utility Dis- 
trict, e1 al., 110 Fed. Supp. 767, 788 (1953). The 
Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit reversed the 
judgment of the District Court, finding error in the 
breadth of the judgment entered against the State and 
the Santa Margarita .Mutual Water Company. People 
of tin State of California v. United States, 235 Fed. 
2d. 647. The Court of Appeals declared that many of 
the declarations, findings and conclusions contained in 
the judgmenl of the District Court wen- premature 
;iimI not well founded in the record before it. The 
action, which includes the entire Santa Margarita 
River watershed, was described as being in the nature 
o!' ;i plenary suit to settle the correlative rights of 
everyone interested in the water. The standard pro- 
cedure in such a case, the Courl declared, is to enter a 
decree setting up all the rights as of the same date. 



The ease has been remanded to the District Court with 
a direction that no judgment be entered until the; 
entire suit can be disposed of at the same time. 

Due to the limited storage capacity of ground waterl 
basins in the San Diego Group, surface development', 
plays a much more important role than in other por-ti 
tions of the South Coastal Area. Of the 148,000 acre-* 
feet per season of presently developed net safe yield.* 
an amount of 73,000 acre-feet, or about one-half, is 
obtained from surface reservoirs with an aggregate' 
storage capacity of over 700,000 acre-feet, The re-- 
maining yield of 75,000 acre-feet is obtained by pump- 
ing from ground water or by diversion of unregiuated 
stream flow. 

The foregoing safe yield of local surface water* 
supplies is obtained from surface storage reservoirs!! 
constructed on all of the major streams in southern* 
San Diego County, including: Morena and Barrett 
Reservoirs on Cottonwood Creek and Lower Otay 
Reservoir on Otay River; Loveland and Sweetwateri 
Reservoirs on Sweetwater River; San Vicente, Cuya- 
maca, and El Capitan Reservoirs on the San Diego 
River system ; Lake Hodges and Sutherland Reservoir 
on the San Dieguito River; and in the northern pari 
of the county, Lake Henshaw on San Luis Rey River 
and Vail Reservoir on Temecula Creek, a tributary oi 
Santa Margarita River. 

The San Diego Group has been supplied with im- 
ported Colorado River water through the existing 
San Diego Aqueduct since November, 1947. During 
the season of 1955-56, the flow in this aqueduct aver 
aged about 195 second-feet and totaled about 140, 00C 
acre-feet which is estimated to be equal to its maxl 
mum conveyance capacity. It is noted that this amount 
of imported water is substantially in excess of thi 
annual amount of Colorado River water which thi 
San Diego County Water Authority estimates as its, 
entitlement. 

The Department of Water Resources recently com- 
pleted an investigation of alternative routes for ar 
additional aqueduct to San Diego County, and recom 
mended construction of conveyance facilities to b< 
located generally parallel to the existing line but 
passing generally from immediately adjacent to ' 
miles west of it, The recommended facility would com 
prise about 30 miles of canal with a capacity of 1,00( 
second-feet, estimated to be necessary to provide fo> 
future water requirements in the service area unti 
about the year 2000, and 73 miles of pipe line with i 
capacity varying from 432 to 98 second-feet, Th 
pipe line capacity would supply the additional im 
ported water requirements forecast for the year 1980 
and represents one-half the capacity estimated to b 
required in the year 2000. It is contemplated that thi 
aqueduct would convey Colorado River water unti 
Feather River Project water becomes available. 






THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



The Metropolitan Water District of Southern Cali- 
irnia and the San Diego County Water Authority 
ive announced that they intend to undertake financ- 
and construction of an aqueduct along the align- 
ent recommended by the Department of Water Re- 
mrces. The district has stated that the upper portion 
: the aqueduct will be constructed to a capacity of 
)0 second-feet, or one-half that recommended by the 
apartment. The capacity of the portion of the pipe 
ne section to be constructed by the authority has not 
>t been decided. 

The sum of the potential safe yield of the existing 
cal water supply developments and the conveyance 
ipacity of the existing San Diego Aqueduct exceeds 
Le present water requirement in the San Diego 
roup. However, because the full capacity of the ex- 
ting San Diego Aqueduct was not available or was 
at utilized at all times during the current and recent 
ries of years of low runoff, storage reserves in local 
ater supply developments have been overdrawn and 
le nominal safe yields of these developments cannot 

\\ be realized prior to the occurrence of flood years, 
he area is now experiencing a rapid growth with at- 
ndant increase in use of water, and additional im- 

rted water will be needed as soon as construction 
! the proposed new aqueduct facilities can be com- 
et ed. 

The opportunity exists for development of some ad- 
tional local water supplies but the amounts of these 
ipplies are small when compared to the estimated 
iture water requirements of the San Diego Group, 

that it will be necessary to import large quantities 
' water in the future through facilities of the Cali- 
Jrnia Aqueduct System. The following tabulation 
resents the present and probable ultimate need for 

ported water in the group, giving consideration to 
le eventual development of local water supplies to 
le maximum extent practicable : 

Present conditions < 1950 i Acre-feet per season 

Water requirement 225,000 

Safe yield of local water .supplies 148,000 



Requirement for imported water 77,000 

Probable ultimate conditions 

Water requirement 1,505.000 

._ 210.000 



Safe yield of local water supplies- 
Requirement for imported water. 



1.2'.)5,0(t(l 



Conservation of the waters of the streams in the 
an Diego Group to the maximum practicable extent 
mid be accomplished by construction of a 1-13,000 
3re-foot reservoir at the De Luz site and a 65,000 
;re-foot reservoir at the Fallbrook site, both on Santa 
'argarita River; a 145,000 acre-foot reservoir at the 
lonserate site on San Luis Rey River; a reservoir 
t 310,000 acre-foot capacity at the Hodges site in 
eu of the existing 34,000 acre-foot reservoir; a reser- 
>ir of 174.000 acre-foot capacity at the San Vicente 



site in lieu of the existing 1)0,000 acre-fool reservoir; 
and a 100,000 acre-foot reservoir at the Daley site on 
Jamul Creek, a tributary of Otay River, including 
enlargement of the existing Dnlznra Conduit to bring 
additional spill waters to the Otay River Basin from 
Cottonwood Creek, along with controlled releases from 
the existing storage reservoirs there. 

By construction of the foregoing facilities, it would 
be possible to increase the safe yield of local water 
supplies of the San Diego Group by about 62,000 acre- 
feet per season. However, as previously shown, there 
would still be a demand for imported water of almost 
1,300,000 acre-feet under ultimate conditions of de- 
velopment. This supplemental water could be supplied 
from the Southern California Division of the Cali- 
fornia Aqueduct System, discussed later in this 
chapter. 

It should be noted that alternative reservoir devel- 
opments might be selected in lieu of these reservoir 
projects just enumerated. These alternative projects 
include : construction of a 188,000 acre-foot reservoir 
at the De Luz site on Santa Margarita River with no 
development at the Fallbrook site; construction of a 
163,000 acre-foot reservoir at the Pamo site on the San 
Dieguito River, rather than enlarging Hodges Reser- 
voir ; and construction of a 163,000 acre-foot reservoir 
at the Bonsall site on San Luis Rey River in place 
of Monserate Reservoir. These alternative possibilities 
would produce safe yields essentially equal to those 
that could be obtained from the previously stated 
projects, but their capital and annual costs, on the 
basis of preliminary estimates, are close enough to 
those for the projects shown in Table 12, that further 
studies should be conducted prior to construction of 
any of the developments involved. The Department 
of Water Resources, in cooperation with the City of 
San Diego, is currently conducting an investigation 
of the San Dieguito River for the purpose of selecting 
the best project for further storage on that stream. 

Summary of South Coastal Area. The South 

Coastal Area is extremely deficient in native water 
resources, being dependent to a major extent upon 
imported water supplies. Under ultimate conditions 
nearly 80 per cent of the forecast total water require- 
ments in the area will have to be imported from 
other regions through existing works and through 
facilities of the California Aqueduct System. With 
import of water through the Los Angeles and Colo- 
rado River Aqueducts to the full extent of existing 
and claimed rights, amounting to some 1, 530, 000 acre- 
feet per season, there would remain a supplemental 
requirement of 3,027,000 acre-feet per season in the 
South Coastal Area under ultimate development. 

Under The California Water Plan, local water re- 
sources in Hie South Coastal Area would be developed 
to their fullest practicable extent. However, the yield 



JK 






yb 



■II^MBUHl^HnMHi 

South Coastal Area— Morris Dam on San Gabriel River (top), and Sepulveda Flood Control Reservoir on Los Angeles River 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



HI 



hich could be secured by sucb development would 
jgregate only 149.000 acre-feet per season, or 5 per 
>nt of the total ultimate supplemental water require- 
lents of the area. The balance of the supplemental 
quirements, amounting to 2,878,000 acre-feet per 
sason, would be provided by importation through 
icilities of the Southern California Division of the 
alifornia Aqueduct System. 

Increased yield of local water resources would be 
ieomplished by construction of nine reservoirs with 
rsrregate active storage capacity of 1,020,000 acre-feet. 
hese reservoirs would be operated in conjunction 
ith ground water storage, wherever practicable, to 
:cure optimum development of both surface and 
nderground resources. Artificial ground water re- 
large. presently practiced quite extensively, would 
e substantially increased, not only for spreading of 
teal runoff and reservoir releases, but for recharge 
ith imported water supplies as well. 
Adequate flood protection would be provided under 
he California Water Plan in the South Coastal Area 
■ existing and planned flood control works of the 
;veral flood control agencies in the area, and by the 
ine new local reservoirs hereinbefore described. In 
Idition, the recreation potential would be developed 
i the maximum feasible extent at existing and future 
■servoirs. Because of the scarcity and value of water 
i this area, little or no opportunity is expected for 
le release of water in stream channels for fishery 
3 velopment. However, the reservoirs would provide 
iportunities to develop a warmwater fishery. 
Data on the general features and costs of the local 
^velopment works contemplated as features of The 
alifornia Water Plan in the South Coastal Area are 
resented in Table 12. The locations and layouts of 
11 of these facilities are delineated on Sheets 20, 21, 
1, and 26 of Plate 5. 

entral Valley Area— Sacramento River Basin 
The Sacramento River Basin is second only to the 
orth Coastal Area as a region endowed with water 
lpplies far in excess of its ultimate requirements, 
recipitation occurs principally in the late fall, 
inter, and early spring months, but melt from the 
lowpack in the high Sierra Nevada tends to extend 
le runoff period of the major streams. Some of the 
reams in the northern part of the basin have their 
turce in perennial springs of considerable magni- 
ide, and flow at a fairly constant rate the year 
•and. The runoff of others draining from the Coast 
ange and from the lower elevations of the Sierra 
evada closely follows the precipitation. Like the 
orth Coastal Area, a considerable variation occurs 
i the amount of runoff from year to year, and long 
fought periods have been experienced. Warm winter 
lins sometimes extend to the higher elevations of the 



Sierra Nevada and, as exemplified by tin' disaster of 
December, 1955, can result in record floods in the 
Sacramento Valley, especially if snow is present in the 
mountains. 

The present water resource development of the 
Sacramento River Basin is considerable and varied, 
but by no means approaches the feasible potential. 
With the recent completion of Monticello Dam on 
Putah Creek, the basin now has about 10,000,000 
acre-feet of reservoir storage capacity, including 
1,600,000 acre-feet in Monticello Reservoir, 1,000,000 
acre-feet in Folsom Reservoir, 4,500,000 acre-feet in 
Shasta Reservoir, 1,308,000 acre-feet in Lake Al- 
manor, and 319,000 acre-feet in the normal operating 
range of Clear Lake. 

While much of the present water development in 
the Sacramento River Basin has been accomplished 
by private interests and public utilities, the major 
developments are those of the Federal Government. 
The most important and comprehensive of these is 
the Central Valley Project of the United States 
Bureau of Reclamation which closely follows original 
plans of the State of California. The project develops 
surplus waters in the Sacramento River Basin for 
local use and export to the San Joaquin Valley. 
Principal completed features of the project pertinent 
to the Sacramento River Basin are the large multi- 
purpose Shasta and Folsom Reservoirs, and the Sly 
Park Unit serving lands on the divide between the 
American and Cosumnes Rivers. Work has been par- 
tially completed on the Sacramento Canals Unit of 
the project diverting from the Sacramento River at 
Red Bluff to serve lands on the west side of the 
valley. More recently, work has been initiated on the 
Trinity River Division of the project, involving the 
interbasin diversion of some 872,000 acre-feet of 
regulated water per year from the North Coastal 
Area to the Sacramento Valley for local use and ex- 
port, with attendant generation of large amounts of 
hydroelectric power. 

Irrigation in the Sacramento River Basin is cen- 
tered largely on the Sacramento Valley floor and 
along the Pit River, but is also practiced to some 
extent in the mountain areas, generally in places 
where old mining ditches are available for di- 
version and distribution. The vast ground water 
resources of the basin have been used extensively 
only in the Sacramento Valley, where the present 
pumpage is about 1,000,000 acre-feet per season. 
Upon the completion of licensed works on the 
North Fork of the Feather River by the Pacific Gas 
and Electric Company, hydroelectric power will be 
generated at 44 utility-owned and public power plants 
with an aggregate installed capacity of about 
2,000,000 kilowatts. However, only parts of the Pit 
River, the Bear and Yuba Rivers, and the North 
Fork of the Feather River have been intensively de- 



'<!' 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



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THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



93 



doped for power to date. Large power plants are 
cated at the bases of Shasta and Folsom Dams with 
nailer plants located below their afterbays. In addi- 
on to irrigation facilities, works on the valley floor 
iclude the Sacramento River Flood Control Project, 
] extensive system of river levees and by-passes to 
rotect agricultural and urban areas against damag- 
lg floods. Also, storage for flood control is specifically 
tserved in Shasta and Folsom Reservoirs, and is 
rovided to some extent in other reservoirs of the 
isin. However, additional works are required, par- 
cularly reserved storage space in reservoirs, to pro- 
tde well balanced flood protection to all areas of the 
illey. 

Shallow-draft navigation is maintained on the Sac- 
imento River as far upstream as Colusa by releases 
om Shasta Reservoir, but the official head of naviga- 
on is at Red Bluff. A separate deep-water ship 
jjiannel to Sacramento has been authorized for con- 
traction, with some work under way and completed, 
lepulsion of sea water from the channels of the Sac- 
ramento-San Joaquin Delta by release of water from 
Borage is another highly important aspect of pres- 
lt water resource development in the Sacramento 
iver Basin. 
it The runoff of the Sacramento River Basin under 
iatural conditions has been estimated to average 
bme 22,400,000 acre-feet per year. This is exclusive 
r a presently indeterminate but probably substantial 
bantity of water which is known to Aoav from the 
jasin into the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta through 
me alluvium of the Sacramento Valley. It is antici- 
pated that at least a portion of this underflow will 
jrentually be recovered through more intensive utili- 
mtion of ground water in the Sacramento Valley and 
>h* construction of a salinity control barrier at the 
lelta. In addition, change in land use from natural 
) ultimate conditions will decrease the consumptive 
fee of precipitation by native vegetation and will 
lerefore tend to increase the runoff substantially. 
With these factors taken into account, it is estimated 
pat the future runoff of the Sacramento River Basin 
lay he in the order of 24,000,000 acre-feet per year. 
Tlic present gross water requirements of the Sacra- 
lento River Basin are estimated to aggregate about 
,671 i.OOO acre-feet per season. These requirements are 
let principally by direct stream flow diversions, sup- 
lemented by releases from storage and by pumping 
rum ground water. About 30,000 acre-feet of the re- 
uirement is met by imports from the Truckee and 
losumnes River Basins. Additional imports for local 
se and for export will become available in the near 
ature from the Trinity River Division of the Central 
'alley Project. 

Taking into account the availability of return flow 
rom the upland service areas for downstream use, 
nd based on the consideration that certain mountain 



lands classified as irrigable in State Water Resources 
Board Bulletin No. 2 are now considered to be better 
suited to forest use, the ultimate water requirement 
in the Sacramento River Basin has been estimated to 
be 7,430,000 acre-feet per year. Of this total, it is esti- 
mated that approximately 6,290,000 acre-feet will be 
consumed in plant growth and by urban and indus- 
trial users; 470,000 acre-feet will be recoverable as 
return flow at the Delta; and the remainder, 670,000 
acre-feet, represents irrecoverable losses, including 
poor-quality waters and sewage and industrial wastes 
that would be disposed of by a separate waste conduit 
entering the Delta waste-Avay channels below a future 
barrier pool. 

In addition to the major problem of floods in the 
Sacramento Valley and to some extent in the uplands, 
the Sacramento River Basin contains several local 
areas of limited water supply. These are located at 
fairly high altitudes, principally around Goose Lake, 
in the vicinity of Alturas, and in Sierra Valley. In 
other mountain areas, notably in the Sierra Nevada, 
the irrigable lands are often situated on the broad 
ridges separating the main watercourses, and despite 
the abundant flow of these streams, cannot be served 
except by pumping from great canyon depths or 
through long and difficult gravity conduit routes. The 
diversion of water to serve these lands often conflicts 
with otherwise desirable hydroelectric power develop- 
ments. Seepage from the Sacramento River and rising 
saline waters in the Peach Bowl area of Sutter 
County have caused considerable damage on the valley 
floor. Not the least of the water problems of the Sacra- 
mento River Basin is the need to preserve and in 
some instances enhance its recreational potential and 
its highly important recreational and anadromous 
fishery. 

Objectives of The California Water Plan in the 
Sacramento River Basin are fourfold : first, the de- 
velopment of sufficient water supplies to satisfy ulti- 
mate water requirements for all beneficial local pur- 
poses, including irrigation, urban, industrial, fish 
and wildlife, recreational, and navigation; second. 
protection of urban and agricultural areas from dam- 
aging floods; third, the development of the hydro- 
electric power potential of the basin to its feasible 
maximum ; and, fourth, the development of about 
10,000,000 acre-feet of surplus water per season for 
export to water-deficient areas elsewhere in the State. 
Corollary with these objectives is the need to preserve 
the quality of the water to a degree consistent with 
its anticipated use. 

Although this section is concerned primarily with 
developments to meet local requirements, it is pointed 
out that, like Shasta and Folsom Reservoirs, certain 
prospective works of the basin would have important 
export as well as local functions, and. as such, would 
be extremely difficult of classification as either solely 
local or solely export facilities. In general, these dual- 



94 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



function works would consist of large multipurpose 
reservoirs at the foothills of the major streams, and 
certain smaller irrigation or flood control reservoirs 
at the foothill line on the less important streams. 
Although these works are designated and grouped 
together later as features of the Sacramento Division 
of the California Aqueduct System, they are described 
in this section along with those which would pri- 
marily serve local purposes. All works of the basin, 
existing and prospective, are conceived as an inte- 
grated system designed to conserve and regulate the 
native and imported water supplies to an optimum 
degree, to develop the hydroelectric, recreational, and 
fishery potential of these waters, and to provide flood 
protection. 

The works of the Sacramento River Basin are 
considered under 10 separate geographical subdivi- 
sions, as follows : the Goose Lake Unit in the extreme 
northeastern part of the basin; the Pit River Unit 
northeast of Redding; the Mt, Shasta Stream Group 
north of Redding; the Redding Stream Group be- 
tween Red Bluff and Shasta Dam; the West Side 
Stream Group, comprising the mountain and foothill 
area on the west side of the basin south of Red Bluff ; 
the Antelope-Butte Stream Group, comprising the 
mountain and foothill area on the east side of the 
basin between Red Bluff and the Feather River drain- 
age divide; the Feather River Unit; the Yuba-Bear 
River Unit ; the American River Unit ; and the Sacra- 
mento Valley Floor. Following the discussion of works 
in each of these subdivisions, there is a summary state- 
ment with tables showing principal characteristics of 
the various suggested works and their estimated cost. 

Goose Lake Unit. The Goose Lake Unit comprises 
the California portion of the Goose Lake Basin. This 
basin has an area of about 1,100 square miles, of 
which 688 square miles are in Oregon and 412 square 
miles are in California. The streams of the basin 
drain into Goose Lake, a large shallow body of water 
situated in both states at an elevation of about 4,800 
feet. The lake occupies a shallow depression separated 
from its outlet to the North Fork of the Pit River by 
a low divide. Evaporation from the lake surface and 
consumptive use of water from influent streams tend 
to balance the inflow to the extent that there has been 
virtually no outflow during historic times. The lake 
is important as a wild fowl refuge. Its waters are 
brack ish and not suited to domestic or agricultural 
use. About 97 square miles of the Goose Lake Unit 
are mountainous and 315 square miles have been 
classified as valley and mesa land, but this includes 
about 120 square miles of water area when the lake 
is at its highest level. 

Precipitation in the (loose Lake Unit ranges from 
less than 15 inches per season on the flat lands to 
about 24 inches in the Warner Mountains east of the 
lake. The principal streams of the unit drain from 



these mountains, and are, from north to south, Pine, 
Cottonwood, Willow, Lassen, and Davis Creeks. None 
of these streams is more than 15 miles long, but sev 
eral flow perennially. These and the minor streams 
of the unit have an aggregate natural runoff of only 
about 68,000 acre-feet per year on the average. 

The water problems of the Goose Lake Unit relate 
entirely to the limited supplies available for develop, 
ment for consumptive purposes. There are no present 
or future flood problems to deal with and, insofar as 
the streams are concerned, no quality problems. Al- 
though the unique scenic, wildlife, and historical at 
tractions of the area are not widely known, they may 
become more important in the future, but no specia 
water problems are foreseen in their development 

The Goose Lake Unit is sparsely settled, with vir- 
tually no industries except a few small sawmills 
Present water development is limited to direct diver 
sion of natural stream flow, augmented by releases 
from a few small reservoirs aggregating less thai 
4,000 acre-feet of storage capacity. About 24,000 acra 
feet of water per season is developed in this mannei 
to irrigate about 8,500 acres of land along the easl 
shore of the lake, in Fandango Valley, and at ■" 
mouths of small streams draining into the lake fron 
the west. 

Under ultimate conditions it is anticipated that th 
Goose Lake Unit will continue to be sparsely settled 
with only nominal water requirements for urban ust 
and industry. The water service areas, however, maj 
expand to as much as 30,000 acres if satisfactory 
supplemental water supplies for irrigation can be de 
veloped at reasonable cost. Based on prevailing irri 
gation practices in the unit, this would require a tota 
of about 80,000 acre-feet of water per season — ai 
amount 12,000 acre-feet in excess of the natura 
runoff. 

Plans to drain Goose Lake to obtain additiona 
water supplies for local use and export to the Pi 
River Unit have been considered but were found ¥ 
be impracticable in view of the desirability of pre 
serving the lake as a natural wild fowl refuge. Furthe 
complications are added by its interstate location 
Plans to import water from the Oregon tributaries 
the lake are likewise considered to be impracticable be 
cause of future requirements in that state. For thes- 
reasons and because of the limited local water supply 
full irrigation development of the land resources ■ 
the (loose Lake Unit may never be realized. 

Under The California Water Plan it is anticipate* 
that some further development of the remaining wate 
resources of the Goose Lake Unit may be obtainei 
through the construction of additional small resei 
voirs by individual owners, as at present; but an; 
substantial increase in the developed water suppl; 
would depend on possibilities for ground water utilize 
tion. Although little is known concerning the subsui 
face geology of the unit, existing and prospectiv 







Sacramento River Basin— Bear River Canal in the Sierra Nevada, Constructed in 185C 



in; 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



water service areas are believed to be underlain with 
alluvial deposits which may contain water of a quality 
suitable for irrigation. If such ground water basins 
can be delimited and developed for use, including 
recharge through spreading works and deep percola- 
tion of applied water, it is believed that all of the 
potentially irrigable lands of the unit could be irri- 
gated without import. Under these circumstances 
much of the return flow could be recovered for re-use, 
and a supplemental water supply of only about 26,- 
000 acre-feet per season would be required as com- 
pared with 56,000 acre-feet without such re-use. 

Another way of bringing additional land under 
irrigation would be through the use of sprinkler 
methods of water application. With these methods 
there would be very little return flow wasted and 
supplemental water requirements would be nominal. 
General acceptance of these methods would depend 
on the economic conditions prevailing in the future. 

Pit River Unit. The Pit River Unit comprises all 
of the 5,350 square-mile drainage basin of the Pit 
River. About 3,080 square miles of the basin area are 
mountainous, and 2,270 square miles have been classi- 
fied as valley and mesa land. The Pit River forms 
near Alturas with the junction of its North and South 
Forks, and flows westwardly for a distance of about 
170 miles to join the Sacramento River in Shasta 
Reservoir. 

Precipitation in the Pit River Unit averages about 
24 inches at the headwaters in the Warner Mountains, 
15 inches in the middle reaches, and as much as 80 
inches in the Cascade Range, which forms the westerly 
part of the watershed. The mean natural runoff from 
the headwater area above Canby is about 260,000 
acre-feet per year and, for the basin as a whole, 
3,430,000 acre-feet. Stream flow in the upper and 
middle reaches of the basin is sporadic; but, in the 
lower reaches it is remarkably uniform due to the 
fact that the principal tributaries in this area have 
their source in perennial springs of considerable 
magnitude. An average of about 11,000 acre-feet of 
water per season is exported from tributaries of the 
South Fork of the Pit River into Madeline Plains in 
the Lahontan Basin. There are no present imports. 

I 'resent water development of the headwater area 
of the Pit River Unit is quite extensive, with most of 
the 50 or more reservoirs of the unit concentrated in 
this area. These have been constructed by both indi- 
viduals and organized water districts, and range in 
size from ;i few acre-feet to 77.000 acre-feel lor Big 
Sage Reservoir on Rattlesnake Creek near Alturas. 
Together they have an aggregate capacity of about 
150,000 aere-feet. Releases from these reservoirs are 
combined with natural stream flow to irrigate an 
average of about 82,000 acres of land each year in 
tin- upper and middle reaches of the basin. Another 
2:',. 000 acres are irrigated by direct stream How di- 



version in the lower basin area, principa'ly along 
Fall River and in the vicinity of McArthur and 
Pittville. The hydroelectric power potential of the 
lower basin area is partially developed by the Pacific- 
Gas and Electric Company. The company has six 
large plants on Hat Creek and on the Pit River below 
Fall River, with application pending before the Fed- 
eral Power Commission to complete the chain by 
constructing three additional units on the Pit River 
and involving a diversion from the McCloud River. 
Conflicting proposals for development of the latter 
stream are discussed under the Mt. Shasta Stream 
Group. A small locally owned plant develops power 
on Pine Creek near Alturas. 

Despite an abundant water supply for the Pit 
River Unit as a whole, the upper and middle sectors, 
where most of the irrigable land is situated, are areas 
of limited supply. Furthermore, these areas are 1.000 
to 1,500 feet higher than possible major sources oi 
import from Fall River and other productive tribu 
taries of the unit. Except for some flooding in the 
vicinity of Alturas, there are no present flood prob-' 
lems of consequence in the unit, and, with the possible 
exception of Big Valley, none are foreseen for the! 
future. Swampy conditions in the highly developed 
main valley of the South Fork and in the vicinity oi 
McArthur are alleviated to some extent by drainage 
ditches and pumping. These conditions probably act 
count for considerable uneconomic consumption oi 
water. The unit is widely used for fishing and hunt 
ing and, in some areas, for general outdoor recrea 
tion. Lakes and reservoirs are used by wild fowl ai 
nesting places. The preservation and possible en 
hancement of these resources is a prime consideration 
in The California Water Plan. 

Under ultimate conditions it is anticipated tha 
present water service areas in the Pit River Unit wil 
expand to about 324,000 acres, supporting a populal 
tion of about 38,000 people. Taking into account th 
possibilities for re-use of return flow, it is estimate* 
that the ultimate water requirements of the uni 
for consumptive use would be about 478,000 acre-fee 
per season, as compared with a present requiremen 
of 244,000 acre-feet. 

Objectives of The California Water Plan in th 
Pit River Unit would be met insofar as possible b; 
the construction of local works. Plans for water dd 
velopmcnt in the Alturas area, comprising lands i 
the valleys of the North and South Forks and in Hd 
Springs Valley on the main stem of the Pit Riveit 
contemplate the eventual construction of small rese> 
voirs on Parker Creek near its mouth, on South For 
at Jess Valley, on Stony Canyon Creek at Sears Fla 
and on Crooks Canyon Creek by enlargement c 
Bayley Reservoir. Flood protection for Alturas wouli 
probably be accomplished by construction of a lv 
pass channel on the North Fork, together with chaii 






THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



97 



1 improvements on the North and South Forks and 
e main stem of Pit River to relieve unsatisfactory 

«ainage conditions. None of these small works has 
en considered in detail for this report, nor have 
eir costs and accomplishments been firmly estab- 
Jlhed. They are simply suggested for future consid- 
eration. In general, due to the very limited water 
■jpply of the Alturas area, any considerable expan- 
U>n of irrigation would be dependent mainly on water 
Ijpplies obtained from downstream areas. The pos- 
Ipilities for obtaining such supplies are intimately 
Hated to and entirely contingent upon the feasibility 
Id ground water development in Big Valley, which 
■situated on the Pit River below Hot Springs Valley, 
lithough little is now known about the ground water 
■feources of Big Valley, further investigations are 
Hieduled to begin in fiscal year 1957-58. 
I LPlans for water development for Big Valley contem- 
■pte the construction of Allen Camp Reservoir at 
Ife head of the valley on the Pit River, and Round 
Riley Reservoir on Ash Creek with feeder canal from 
■illow Creek, its principal tributary. Ash Creek en- 
H-s Big Valley from the south. It is anticipated that 
le combined yield of Allen Camp and Round Valley 
■servoirs would be in the order of 120,000 acre-feet 
Ktr season. However, should it be found feasible in 
k future to operate these reservoirs in conjunction 
hth possible, but not assured, ground water storage 
fcaeity in Big Valley, the combined yield might ex- 
ftd 200,000 acre-feet per season. In this event, it 
■uld be possible not only to meet the full ultimate 
liter requirements of Big Valley, but to allow 
limped diversions, in the amount of about 50,000 
■re-feet per season, to be made from Allen Camp 
■servoir into Hot Spring Valley. Due to the relatively 
■v cost of storage in Allen Camp Reservoir, it is 
■ieved that it may be feasible in the future to re- 
wve about 40.000 acre-feet of its capacity for flood 
Irtrol. 

•Supplemental water supplies for Dixie Valley, 
Mich is located on the upper reaches of Horse Creek, 
•uld be obtained by pumping from Little Valley 
■servoir to be located downstream. Horse Creek en- 
ws the Pit River from the south below Big Valley. 
■Lands in the Fall River, McArthur, and Pittville 
■as could obtain their supplemental water supplies 
I diversions from Fall River and / or pumping from 
1.11 River Mills Reservoir, which would be formed 
I a dam on the Pit River below Fall River near the 
mm of Fall River Mills. Although it is believed that 
i-aiV dam could be constructed at this site, blanket- 
•i'r of the reservoir area in some places might be re- 
Hired to avoid large loss of conserved water. The 
■servoir would be at the same level as the present 
Icifie Gas and Electric Company diversion dam on 
111 River, and would replace that facility as well as 
■prove the output of an associated power plant by 
piviiliii'j I'oivbay capacity not now available. Because 



of its narrow operating range, the reservoir would 
afford exceptional opportunity for recreational de- 
velopment, especially including an ideal lake fishery. 

Lands in the Burney area and in Goose Valley 
would continue to be served as at present by pumping 
from ground water and by direct stream flow diver- 
sion. Most of the land in these areas is considered 
better suited to continued forest use and recreation 
rather than to future irrigated agriculture. No stor- 
age works are now contemplated except possibly a 
small reservoir on Burney Creek in the general vicin- 
ity of Dry Lake, but there is some question concerning 
the ability of a reservoir in this porous lava area to 
retain water. 

The remaining hydroelectric power resources of the 
Pit River Basin would be developed by the construc- 
tion of Pit River Power Plants Nos. 2, 6, and 7 as has 
been proposed by the Pacific Gas and Electric Com- 
pany, with the water supply for Plants Nos. 6 and 7 
possibly augmented by diversion from the McCloud 
River, if approved by the Federal Power Commission. 
For purposes of this report, however, it was assumed 
that the McCloud River would not be diverted into 
the Pit River. With the existing plants, these plants 
would develop the full power potential of the Pit 
River between Fall River and Shasta Reservoir, in- 
volving a total head of about 2,000 feet. A small de- 
velopment on Hat Creek at Sugar Loaf Mountain is 
also contemplated. This development would utilize the 
natural spring-fed flow of Hat Creek through a drop 
of about 600 feet. 

In summary, prospective works in the Pit River 
Unit would consist of major reservoirs at Allen Camp, 
Round Valley, and Fall River Mills; several minor 
reservoirs at various locations ; channel improvement 
works in the vicinity of Alturas ; and four hydroelec- 
tric power plants. The reservoirs would add more than 
500,000 acre-feet of capacity to the present storage 
system of the basin, including 40,000 acre-feet that 
would be reserved in Allen Camp Reservoir for future 
flood control. Depending on the feasibility of conjunc- 
tive operation with ground water, the reservoirs would 
make supplemental water supplies of from 160,000 
to 240,000 acre-feet per season available for local use. 
The new power plants would have a combined installed 
capacity of about 183,000 kilowatts and would gener- 
ate an average of about 886,000,000 kilowatt-hours 
per year. In addition to the probably excellent recre- 
ational and fishery potential of Fall River Mills Res- 
ervoir, it is anticipated that the other reservoirs may 
afford opportunities for recreational development, and 
there will be some incidental enhancement of stream 
flow for these purposes. 

Mt. Shasta Stream Group. The Mt, Shasta stream 
Group comprises the drainage basin of the McCloud 
River and the area tributary to the main stem of the 
Sacramento River above Shasta Dam. The combined 



98 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



1,300 square-mile drainage area of these streams is 
essentially mountainous and heavily forested. 

Precipitation in the Mt. Shasta Stream Group is the 
heaviest in the entire Sacramento River Basin, vary- 
ing from about 34 inches per season at the City of 
Mt. Shasta to more than 80 inches on the higher peaks 
and ridges. The runoff averages about 2,300,000 acre- 
feet per year, of which the McCloud River contributes 
1,400,000 acre-feet from 685 square miles of water- 
shed area and the Sacramento River provides 900,000 
acre-feet from 618 square miles. 

Except for Shasta Reservoir, which regulates the 
water of the Pit River as well as the streams consid- 
ered herein, there is no present significant develop- 
ment of the water resources of the Mt. Shasta Stream 
Group. Towns, industries, and individuals obtain 
their water supplies from springs and wells. Minor 
diversion of natural stream flow is made for irrigation 
on the gentle lower slopes of Mt. Shasta in the vicinity 
of the towns of Mt. Shasta and McCloud. Shasta Res- 
ervoir, a feature of the Central Valley Project, de- 
velops water for power and irrigation and provides 
flood protection to downstream areas. Releases are 
coordinated with downstream accretions to provide 
for navigation on the Sacramento River below Red 
Bluff and to repulse sea water at the Delta, as well 
as for diversion from the Sacramento River for local 
use and from the Delta for export. Because of its 
export function, Shasta Reservoir is considered to be a 
feature of the California Aqueduct System and is 
further discussed subsequently in that section. 

There are no present water problems of consequence 
in the Mt. Shasta Stream Group. Consumptive water 
requirements are and will continue to be relatively 
small. With the exception of some minor flooding of 
low-lying areas at Dunsmuir, there are no present 
flood problems, nor is there any indication that floods 
will constitute a hazard in the future. Maintenance 
of stream flow for fish, wildlife, and recreation is con- 
sidered to be a fundamental requirement for all water 
development planning in this area. 

The basic plan for development of the water re- 
sources of the Mt. Shasta Stream Group under The 
California Water Plan, as outlined herein, contem- 
plates that the headwater runoff, not required for 
irrigation and stream flow maintenance, would be 
conveyed to and regulated in an off-stream storage 
reservoir on Squaw Valley Creek, principal tributary 
of the McCloud River, and then released through a 
system of works to develop (lie power head to Shasta 
Reservoir. 

Supplemental water supplies for irrigation of lands 
in the vicinity of the City of Mt. Shasta could be 
obtained by pumped diversions from Wagon Valley 
Reservoir. This reservoir would be located on the 
Sacramento River near Mt. Shasta and would also 
conserve water for .stream How maintenance on the 



Sacramento River. After fulfilling these requirement^ 
surplus water would be diverted from Wagon Valle;' 
Reservoir and conveyed eastward by canal and tin 
nel into Willow Reservoir on Squaw Valley Creek 
with return flow from the Mt. Shasta area and the sin 
plus flow of Soda Creek, a tributary of the Sacre 
mento River, intercepted enroute. Water from th' 
McCloud River, in excess of stream flow maintenanc! 
requirements, would be diverted at a point about 
miles southeast of the town of McCloud, and conveyej 
by tunnel to Willow Reservoir, with the surplus flo 1 
of Elk Creek, a minor tributary, intercepted enrouti 
Willow Reservoir would be created by constructing 
dam at the lower end of Squaw Valley, about 7 milt 
south of the town of McCloud. 

From Willow Reservoir the water would be coi 
veyed southward by tunnel to the Willow Powe! 
Plant, discharging into the McCloud River arm cj< 
Chonton Tubas Reservoir. This reservoir would b 
formed by constructing a dam on the McCloud Rivd 
immediately below the mouth of Squaw Valley Creel! 
also known as North Fork of McCloud River. Froi4 
Chonton Tubas Reservoir the water would be coi 
veyed by tunnel to the Chonton Tubas Power Plan! 
discharging into the McCloud River arm of ShasV 
Reservoir. Releases for stream flow maintenani| 
would be made from both reservoirs. 

Under an arrangement proposed by the Pacific (r,\ 
and Electric Company in its application to the Fee 
eral Power Commission for a license to develop tlj 
power resources of the McCloud River, the water fro:J 
Willow Reservoir would be conveyed eastward by tui< 
nel to a power drop at the head of a McCloud Dive.j 
sion Reservoir on the McCloud River north <jj 
Hawkins Creek. From this reservoir the water wouli 
then be conveyed southeastward by tunnel, intercepj 
ing the flow of Hawkins Creek enroute to an In 
Canyon Reservoir on Iron Canyon Creek, a tributai 
of the Pit River. From Iron Canyon Reservoir tl 
water would be conveyed southward by tunnel to 
power drop on the Pit River opposite Pit No. 5 Powil 
Plant of the Pacific Gas and Electric Company. Tl 
remaining head to Shasta Reservoir would then ill 
developed through the proposed additional powjl 
plants of the Pit River power system, discussed in tl ; 
foregoing section dealing with the Pit River Unijl 
Although the application for license shows no impolj 
from the Sacramento River, this feature could easi 
be added. 

An application for power license by the Californj 
i hcum i Power Company proposes to develop the powji 
potential of the McCloud River in six plants betwei 
Bartle and Shasta Reservoir in a stepped arrangj 
merit, each step consisting of a small diversion I 
regulating reservoir on the McCloud River, a conduj 
and a power drop returning the water to the rival 
This is essentially a "run-of-river" type of develo 



! 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



99 



unit, dependent upon the natural spring-fed regula- 
nii of the river for its feasibility. Under this plan, 
,'illow Reservoir would not be constructed, nor would 
ater be imported from the Sacramento River for 
>wvr development, as in the basic plan. 

The Department of Water Resources is currently 
l!),")? 1 giving further study to the proposals of the 
acific Gas and Electric Company and the California 
regon Power Company as to the accomplishments of 
lese proposals in relation to The California Water 
Ian. The department has filed a petition to intervene 
1 any future hearings of the Federal Power Commis- 
si concerning pending applications for license. 

In summary, the basic plan of the Mt. Shasta 
tream Group would comprise three reservoirs and 
\d power plants with associated conduits and diver- 
on facilities. The reservoirs would have a gross 
orage capacity of about 324,000 acre-feet, of which 
1,000 acre-feet would be inactive and 305,000 acre- 
:et would conserve water for local consumptive use, 
ream How maintenance, and power. Because of their 
datively small capacities, the reservoirs would contrib- 
te little to the safe yield of Shasta Reservoir. The 
,'illow and Chonton Tubas Power Plants would have 
combined installed capacity of 208,000 kilowatts and 
on Id generate an average of about 1.1 billion 
.lowatt-hours per year. 

Redding Stream Group. The Redding Stream 
roup is situated directly north of the Sacramento 
alley and includes the stream basins tributary to the 
acmmento River between Red Bluff and Shasta Dam. 
hese tributary streams are Clear Creek and Cotton- 
ood Creek, entering the Sacramento River from the 
est. and Cow Creek with its many tributaries, and 
ear, Battle, and Paynes Creeks flowing from the east. 
he stream group encompasses a total area of about 
610 square miles, comprising rich farm land on the 
illey floor, rolling grass-covered foothills, a gently 
oping volcanic plain in the middle sector of the 
isterly watershed, and rugged mountains at the east- 
•n and western boundaries. About 1,830 square miles 
: the stream group area are mountainous and 780 
liiare miles have been classified as valley and mesa 
nd. 

Precipitation in the Redding Stream Group varies 
mil about 25 inches per season on the valley floor to 
1 inches in the high mountains, generally as a direct 
mction of the elevation. The mean natural runoff of 
i" st ream group is about 2,7-10,000 acre-feet per year. 
Present water requirements for agriculture are met 
ibstantially by direct stream flow diversions, princi- 
illy from the Sacramento River to serve lands in the 
nderson-Cottonwood Irrigation District, and from 
"\v Creek and its tributaries to serve contiguous 
nds. Water supplies for Happy Valley are obtained 
Y long canal diversions from tributaries of Clear 



Creek and the North Fork of Cottonwood Creek, aug- 
mented by releases from Musselbeck (Rainbow Lake) 
Reservoir on the latter stream. The City of Redding 
pumps it Avater supply from the Sacramento River. 
Other communities obtain their water supplies princi- 
pally from wells. Hydroelectric power is developed on 
Cow and Battle Creeks at six small plants of the 
Pacific Gas and Electric Company, utilizing the nat- 
ural spring-fed headwater runoff of these streams, 
with some minor storage regulation. A large block of 
power is developed at the federally owned Keswick 
Power Plant, situated at the Keswick Afterbay Dam 
on the Sacramento River below Shasta Dam. 

Mandatory controlled releases from Shasta Reser- 
voir sometimes cause flooding of urban developments 
which, in recent years and notwithstanding posted 
warnings, have encroached upon the flood plain of the 
Sacramento River in the vicinity of Redding. Other- 
wise, there are no present water problems of con- 
sequence in the Redding Stream Group. Abundant 
water supplies are available for local development to 
meet all future supplemental requirements. The main 
objectives of The California Water Plan in the group 
are to conserve and regulate the runoff of the tribu- 
tary streams to an optimum degree for local and 
downstream use for irrigation, power, fishery, and 
recreation purposes; and to provide flood protection 
for local and downstream areas. 

Plans for development of the water resources of the 
Redding Stream Group contemplate the eventual con- 
struction of eight main foothill reservoirs on tributary 
streams, together with certain related minor storage 
and diversion works, conduits, and one hydroelectric 
power plant. All of these works would be in addition 
to, and, in certain respects, complementary to the 
storage, conduit, and hydroelectric power facilities of 
the California Aqueduct System in the area. 

Storage features of the California Aqueduct System 
in the Redding Stream Group would consist, princi- 
pally, of Kanaka, Saeltzer, and Girvan Reservoirs on 
Clear Creek, and Iron Canyon Reservoir or suitable 
alternative thereto on the Sacramento River. The 
capacity of the latter reservoir under The Calif oimia 
Water Plan would be about 950,000 acre-feet ; whereas 
the authorized Iron Canyon Project of the Corps of 
Engineers, U. S. Army, contemplates a reservoir 
with a capacity of about 500,000 acre-feet. However, 
the difference in normal pool elevations would be only 
about 20 feet. These reservoirs, together with associ- 
ated conduits and power plants, are described later in 
this chapter as features of the Klamath-Trinity and 
Sacramento Divisions of the California Aqueduct 
System. 

Local works on Cottonwood Creek would consist of 
Dippingvat Reservoir on the South Fork ; Rosewood 
Reservoir on Dry Creek, a tributary of the South 
Fork, with diversion from Cold Fork, also a tributary 



100 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



of the South Fork; Fiddlers Reservoir with power 
plant and afterbay on the Middle Fork; and Hulen 
Reservoir on the North Fork. These reservoirs would 
provide water for local use in Cottonwood Valley and 
in the Reeds Creek area west of Red Bluff. They 
would also provide flood protection for the Sacra- 
mento Valley as well as local areas, and improve and 
enhance stream flow to encourage the development of 
anadromous fishery in Cottonwood Creek in conjunc- 
tion with fish ladder provisions at Iron Canyon 
Reservoir. In addition to a small block of power that 
would be developed by the Fiddlers Power Plant, the 
water developed by these reservoirs, and not required 
for local use, would contribute to the supply available 
for use through the Iron Canyon Power Plant of the 
California Aqueduct System. 

As previously stated, the developments on Clear 
Creek are considered to be features of the California 
Aqueduct System in connection with import from the 
North Coastal Area. However, these features, particu- 
larly Kanaka Reservoir, would be effective in con- 
serving and regulating the runoff of Clear Creek. In 
this regard it is anticipated that Kanaka Reservoir 
would eventually assume the conservation and flood 
control functions of Whiskeytown Reservoir, which is 
authorized for federal construction as a feature of the 
Trinity River Division of the Central Valley Project. 
The transfer of these functions would be required 
because Whiskeytown Reservoir, located farther up- 
stream, would be at too high an elevation and of too 
small a capacity to regulate the future imports of the 
Klamath-Trinity Division. Studies indicate that it 
would not be economic at the present time to con- 
struct the larger Kanaka Reservoir rather than 
Whiskeytown Reservoir. As contemplated under The 
California Water Plan, small quantities of the con- 
served waters of Clear Creek would be used locally 
in Happy Valley and other places as required, but the 
bulk of the water supply would flow through the 
aqueduct features for downstream use, including the 
generation of hydroelectric power. 

Developments contemplated on tributaries of Cow 
Creek would consist of: Bella Vista Reservoir on 
Little Cow Creek, with natural water supply aug- 
mented by the diversion of Clover Creek into a small 
Oak Flat Reservoir on Oak Run, with further con- 
veyance by large tunnel into Norton Gulch which 
drains into Little Cow Creek; and Millville Reservoir 
in: South Cow Creek, which would be connected l>v a 
short equalizing tunnel with a small reservoir on Old 
Cow Creek. The inflow to the Millville-Old Cow Creek 
Reservoir combination would be augmented by the 
diversion of the winter flow of Bear Creek through ;i 
natural saddle into South Cow Creek. Part of the 
conserved and regulated waters of Cow Creek would 
he used locally as required, and the remainder would 
flow into Iron Canyon Reservoir for further disposi- 



tion. Flood protection for the Sacramento Valley J 
well as local areas would be provided by the reservoiij 
and they would improve and enhance stream flcl 
for the maintenance of fish life in Cow Creek. 

The regulation of Battle and Paynes Creeks fl 
conservation and flood control could be accomplish! 
by partial conservation of Battle Creek in Bail 
Creek Reservoir, supplemented by off -stream storaj 
in a large Wing Reservoir on Inks Creek. Spills frd 
Battle Creek as well as the winter runoff of PayJ 
Creek would be diverted into Wing Reservoir throul 
large-capacity flood channels. There woidd be J 
local use of the developed water supplies, except fl 
stream flow maintenance for fish life on the low 
reaches of Battle and Paynes Creeks, and all releaJ 
would flow into Iron Canyon Reservoir for furtli 
downstream regulation and use, including power ga 
eration. 

In summary, the local works of the Redding StreJ 
Group would provide 1,325,000 acre-feet of reservl 
storage capacity, of which about 100,000 acre-fl 
would be inactive and 260,000 acre-feet would be I 
served for flood control. Fiddlers Power Plant,! 
local development, would have an installed capac.J 
of about 8,000 kilowatts. Specifically, the local resl 
voirs would provide about 600,000 acre-feet of fil 
water per season from the tributary stream runoff M 
local and downstream use. When considered in c«H 
junction with Kanaka and Iron Canyon Reservoil 
and after taking into account future local consunl 
five requirements within the Redding Stream Groil 
the reservoirs would regulate for downstream use 
average of about 2,150,000 acre-feet of local runil 
per season, of which about 800.000 acre-feet woi 
be a firm supply. The local reservoirs, together w 
Kanaka and Iron Canyon, would contain about 5£l 
000 acre-feet of storage space specifically reserved I 
flood control. This space operated in conjunction wH 
reserved storage space in Shasta Reservoir would! 
highly effective in reducing flood flows in the SaJ 
mento River at Redding and Red Bluff, and at I 
same time would afford local flood protection el 
where within the Redding Stream Group. The lie 
control storage space would be utilized to reffiill 
the flood flows in such a manner as to yield substl 
tial quantities of secondary water for power genel 
tion, ground water recharge, and export, Fiddll 
Power Plant could generate an average of about -I 
000,000 kilowatt-hours per year. 

West Side Stream Group. The West Side Siren 
Group comprises all streams of the Sacramento TJi'r 
Basin draining from the easterly slopes of the C<1 
Range south of Cottonwood Creek. The east I 
boundary of the area between Red Bluff and ArbfH 
is defined approximately by the projected locatiorw 
the Corning and Tehama-Colusa Canals of the I 
reau of Reclamation. These canals comprise featiMj 






Sacramento Valley— Agriculture and Navigation 



102 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



of the Sacramento Canals Unit of the Central Val- 
ley Project. South of Arbnckle the boundary is more 
clearly defined by the natural topography. Capay 
Valley on Cache Creek is considered to be part of the 
Sacramento Valley floor area. The combined drain- 
age area to the base of the foothills is about 4,000 
square miles, of which 3,000 square miles are moun- 
tainous and 1,000 square miles have been classified as 
valley and mesa land. The principal streams of the 
group are, from north to south, Redbank, Elder, 
Thomes, Stony, Cache, and Putah Creeks. 

Precipitation in the West Side Stream Group occurs 
largely as rainfall and varies from about 20 inches 
per season at the eastern foothill boundary to more 
than 80 inches in some places at the summit of the 
Coast Range. The aggregate natural runoff of the 
streams averages about 1,900,000 acre-feet per year. 

East Park and Stony Gorge Reservoirs on Stony 
Creek, Clear Lake on Cache Creek, and Monticello 
Reservoir on Putah Creek, comprise the present 
major water storage facilities within the West Side 
Stream Group. All other reservoirs have an aggregate 
capacity of less than 3,700 acre-feet, of which about 
1,700 acre-feet are contained in Detert Reservoir near 
Middletown on Bucksnort Creek, a tributary of 
Putah Creek. Water conserved in reservoirs on Stony 
Creek and in Clear Lake is used in Sacramento Valley 
floor areas. Water conserved in Monticello Reservoir is 
also used in Sacramento Valley floor areas, but a 
large quantity will shortly be exported to parts of 
Solano County located south and west of the Sacra- 
ment River drainage divide boundaries. Because of 
its large capacity, Monticello Reservoir effectively con- 
trols and regulates the flood flows of Putah Creek. 
Clear Lake on Cache Creek and the reservoirs on 
Stony Creek provide only limited regulation of the 
flood flows of their respective streams. Operation of 
Clear Lake for irrigation and flood control is governed 
by court decree to a considerable extent. 

There are at present about 13,000 acres of land 
under irrigation within the West Side Stream Group. 
This land is irrigated principally by pumping from 
ground water, with some direct diversion of natural 
stream flow and releases from storage. Irrigable lands 
of the stream group aggregate about 270,000 acres, 
with an ultimate water requirement of about 635,000 
acre-feet per season when land that would be inun- 
dated by reservoirs is taken into account. The irriga- 
ble lands occur in parcels of varying size throughout 
the middle and lower reaches of the stream group 
area, with principal concentrations located in the 
vicinity of Middletown and Pope Valley in the Putah 
Creek Basin; around Clear Lake and in Bear Valley 
in the Cache Creek Basin; around East Park Reser 
voir in the Stony Creek Basin ; and in the foothill area 
between Red Bluff and Arlmekle. It is estimated that 
the future population of the stream group may be 
about 26,000 people. 



There is no present water deficiency in the West 
Side Stream Group and no flood problems of conseJ 
quence except around Clear Lake, caused principally' 
by the limited capacity of the outlet channel. Thd 
quality of the water supplies is generally good, bd 
somewhat inferior to the supplies of other parts ol 
the Sacramento River Basin. In the Cache Creel 
Basin below Clear Lake some of the minor tributaries 
have an especially high boron content. 

The objectives of The California Water Plan in th 
West Side Stream Group are to conserve the water! 
for local and downstream use, and to provide flooc 
protection for local and downstream areas. Mainte 
nance of stream flow for recreation is generally noi 
of importance in this area, but the major reservoir 
themselves may develop important recreational oppor 
tunities. In addition, small reservoir impoundments 
designed specifically for recreation and fishing may hi 
desirable in some localities. There is little concen 
with hydroelectric power, except insofar as local watei 
supplies may be combined with imported suppl: 
from the Eel River under the California Aqueduc 
System and used for this purpose. 

Under The California Water Plan it is content 
plated that the waters of Redbank Creek, togethe 
with spill from Dippingvat Reservoir on the Soutl 
Pork of Cottonwood Creek, would be conserved fo 
irrigation and regulated for flood control in Schoen 
field Reservoir on Redbank Creek; and the waters o 
Elder Creek would be conserved for irrigation am 
regulated for flood control in Galatin Reservoir oi 
Elder Creek. These reservoirs would serve lands 
far south as Thomes Creek and would provide partia 
protection for downstream areas against damaging 
floods. 

The waters of Thomes Creek would be partiall; 
conserved in Paskenta Reservoir on Thomes Creel 
with spill diverted through a saddle into Newvill 
Reservoir on the North Fork of Stony Creek fo 
further conservation and regulation for flood control 
Newville Reservoir would also conserve surplus wate 
diverted from Stony Creek below East Park Reser, 
voir and from Grindstone Creek, principal tributar 
of Stony Creek. A small power plant would be in 
stalled at the base of Newville Dam. The remainin; 
waters of Stony Creek would be conserved for irrigfl 
tion and regulated for Hood control in Black Butt 
Reservoir on the main stem of the stream near th 
foothill line. This reservoir has been authorized fo 
construction by the Corps of Engineers, U. S. Arm! 
and is classified as a feature of the Sacramento Divi 
sion of the California Aqueduct System. New wate 
supplies developed by Paskenta, Newville, and Blac! 
Butte Reservoirs would be used along and betwee 
Thomes and Stony Creeks and in the foothill area o 
the stream group as far south as Arbnckle. Secondar; 
water supplies, comprising regulated flood rele 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



L03 



rom Black Butte Reservoir, would be used for ground 
Ivater recharge and export. 

The runoff from some of the minor foothill streams 
jetween the drainage divides of Stony and Cache 
Sreeks could be partially conserved for recreation by 
m instructing small reservoirs at Clark Valley on the 
(•South Fork of Willow Creek. Squaw Flat on Logan 
Creek, High Peak on Hunters Creek, and Golden Gate 
m Funks and Stone Corral Creeks. These small reser- 
voirs could possibly also be used for flood control and 
for terminal storage of pumped diversions from the 
Tehama-Colusa Canal to serve contiguous lands. 

I Irrigation developments in the Clear Lake area of 
Cache Creek would consist of Excelsior Reservoir on 

[Copsey Creek with feeder canal from Seigler Canyon 
Creek, both tributary to the outlet channel of Clear 

ILake. to serve lands near the lake outlet; Boggs and 
Kelseyville Reservoirs on Kelsey Creek, with feeder 
canal from Cold Creek into the latter reservoir, to 

fcerve Big Valley and other lands south of the lake; 
and Pitney Ridge Reservoir on Middle Creek and 
Lakeport Reservoir on Scott Creek, a tributary of 
Middle Creek, to serve lands on the north and west 
sides of the lake. 

J Flood control in the Clear Lake area could be pro- 
vided by conducting spills from Kelseyville and Lake- 

roort Reservoirs into Clear Lake through separate 
fioodway channels; by improving and leveeing the 
channel of Middle Creek ; and by enlarging the outlet 
channel of Clear Lake with downstream flood control 

[storage space provided in Guinda Reservoir at the 
head of Capay Valley, or in alternative reservoirs at 

fBlue Riclge or Wilson Valley. These alternative sites 
ore presently (1957) under detailed investigation. 

Present court decrees governing the operation of 
Clear Lake for flood control would have to be 
rescinded and/or modified before the outlet channel 

(could be enlarged. 

' Firm water supplies developed in Guinda or suita- 
ble alternative reservoir would be used in Capay Val- 

iley and other downstream areas. Secondary supplies, 
comprising regulated flood releases, would be used for 
ground water recharge and export. Because of the 
latter function. Guinda Reservoir, or suitable alterna- 
tive, would be classified as a feature of the Sacra- 
mento Division of the California Aqueduct System. 

[ Other local developments in the Cache Creek Basin 
would consist of Indian Valley Reservoir on the 
North Fork of Cache Creek for conservation and 

iflood control, and pumped diversions from East Park 
Reservoir on Stony Creek to serve irrigable lands in 
Bear Valley. A small reservoir could be constructed 

.on Bear Creek at the lower end of Bear Valley to 
impound water for recreational purposes. 

Local works in the drainage basin of Putah Creek 
would consist of Middletown Reservoir on Putah 
Creek to serve lands in the vicinity of Middletown, 



and Goodings Reservoir on Maxwell Creek, a tribu- 
tary of Pope Creek which flows into Putah Creek, to 
serve lands in Pope Valley by pumped diversions. 
Local inflow to Goodings Reservoir would be aug- 
mented by importations of surplus water from Mid- 
dletown Reservoir and Pope Creek. 

The principal feature of the California Aqueduct 
System on Putah Creek would be Monticello Reser- 
voir of the Eel River Division. No increase in capac- 
ity of Monticello Reservoir is contemplated under 
The California Water Plan, but considerable revision 
in its planned operation may be desirable. In its local 
function this reservoir would serve downstream areas 
and provide flood protection thereto. It would also 
afford opportunities for recreational development. 
With respect to future local development it is perti- 
nent to note that recent permits issued by the State 
Water Rights Board to the United States Bureau of 
Reclamation in furtherance of the Solano Project, 
contain a condition subjecting the permits to deple- 
tion of stream flow above Monticello Reservoir in an 
amount not to exceed 33,000 acre-feet annually by 
future appropriations of water for reasonable bene- 
ficial use within the watershed of Putah Creek above 
said reservoir; provided such future appropriations 
shall be initiated and consummated prior to full 
beneficial use of water within the Solano Project 
service area. This permit term may make it necessary 
that any developments constructed in the area up- 
stream from Monticello Reservoir for conservation 
of local water resources subsequent to the time that 
full beneficial use has been made under the Solano 
Project be based on an exchange of water imported 
from the Eel River or other sources under The Cali- 
fornia Water Plan. 

In summary, the local works of the West Side 
Stream Group would consist of 17 reservoirs together 
with associated diversion dams and a power plant ; 
feeder and service conduits, including pump lifts 
where required ; and leveed stream channel improve- 
ments and floodway channels. The reservoirs would 
have a combined gross storage capacity of 1,920,000 
acre-feet, of which only 154,000 acre-feet would be 
inactive. Operated in conjunction with ground water 
storage in local areas, these reservoirs would insure 
virtually full irrigation development of the land re- 
sources of the stream group and would provide oppor- 
tunities for recreational development. In conjunction 
with features of the California Aqueduct System, 
these reservoirs would regulate water for downstream 
use, including ground water recharge and export. 
Together with Monticello Reservoir and Clear Lake, 
the reservoirs would contain about 400,000 acre-feet 
of storage space specifically reserved for flood control 
and strategically disposed throughout the stream 
group to protect downstream areas. Flood protection 
for the Clear Lake area would be accomplished by 



104 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



enlarging the lake outlet and other appropriate meas- 
ures. The Newville Power Plant at the base of New- 
ville Dam would have an installed capacity of about 
8,500 kilowatts and would generate an average of 
about 33,000,000 kilowatt-hours per year. 

Antelope-Butte Stream Group. The Antelope- 
Butte Stream Group comprises the small stream 
basins of the Sierra Nevada located between the 
Feather River and the Battle and Paynes Creek 
drainage divides. The principal streams of the group, 
from north to south, are Antelope, Mill, Deer, Big 
Chico, and Butte Creeks. These streams, together 
with the smaller streams of the group, drain a moun- 
tainous area of about 1,140 square miles. They are 
distinguished from most other streams of the Sierra 
by their parallel courses and steep descent from the 
headwaters or headwater valleys to the Sacramento 
Valley floor, with few tributaries and little oppor- 
tunity for storage enroute. 

Precipitation varies from about 25 inches per sea- 
son at the western foothills to more than 70 inches at 
the eastern mountain boundary. Much of this precipi- 
tation falls as snow which, along with the porous char- 
acter of the upper watersheds, tends to equalize the 
runoff to some extent. The mean natural runoff of the 
stream group is about 1,180,000 acre-feet per season, 
of which the minor foothill streams contribute about 
210,000 acre-feet. 

The irrigable lands of the Antelope-Butte Stream 
Group are situated mainly on the Paradise Ridge be- 
tween the West Branch of the Feather River and 
Butte Creek. Smaller parcels are located on the broad 
ridges on both sides of Big Chico Creek. A fairly 
large parcel at the headwaters of Antelope Creek is 
considered now as being better suited to continued 
forest use rather than for irrigated agriculture. Lands 
of the Paradise Irrigation District are served from 
Magalia and recently completed Mosquito Junction 
Reservoirs on Little Butte Creek. Mountain meadows 
and downstream areas are irrigated by direct diver- 
sion of stream flow without benefit of storage. Hydro- 
electric power is generated on Butte Creek at the De 
Sabla and Centerville plants of the Pacific Gas and 
Electric Company. These plants utilize the natural 
stream flow of Butte Creek, supplemented by a diver- 
sion from the West Branch of the Feather River. 
There are no other present water developments of 
consequence in the Antelope-Butte Stream Group. All 
of the major streams of the group and several of the 
minor streams provide spawning ground for anadro- 
mous fish. 

There are no serious present water problems within 
the area of the Antelope-Butte Stream Group, but 
the streams often cause damage on contiguous areas 
of the Sacramento Valley floor. Flood problems are 
sometimes aggravated by the abrupt dislodgment of 
logs and debris. 



Under The California Water Plan it is contem- 
plated that the waters of Antelope Creek, together 
with Salt and Little Antelope Creeks on the imme- 
diate north and south, respectively, would be con- 
served through spreading and ground water recharge 
and regulated for flood control in Antelope Basin 
Reservoir. This reservoir would be created in an ex- 
ceedingly permeable area on the valley floor at the 
base of the foothills east of Red Bluff by constructing 
a long earthen dike across the several stream channels 
to form a closed basin. The lands which would be oc- 
cupied by the reservoir are not classified as irrigable 
and could be used for grazing most of the time, as at 
present. 

The waters of Mill and Deer Creeks would be de- 
veloped for power and conserved and regulated, to- 
gether with several adjacent minor foothill streams, 
for irrigation and flood control. The power features 
would consist of Morgan Springs Reservoir at the 
headwaters of Mill Creek, with releases diverted by 
canal to Deer Creek Meadows Reservoir on Deer 
Creek, whence the head would be developed by canal, 
tunnel, and pipe line in a series of four power drops 
to the base of the foothills. Flow from the intermediate 
reaches of Mill Creek below Morgan Springs Dam 
would be diverted into the power system by tunnel 
entering Deer Creek below the first power drop. Ex- 
cept for the headwater reservoirs on Mill and Deer 
Creeks, no structures are planned that, with adequate 
fish ladders, could not be negotiated bv anadromous 
fish. 

The power releases from the terminal plant of the 
system on Brush Creek would be reregulated in Brush 
Basin Reservoir, a feature of the California Aqueduct 
System located east of Vina. Like Antelope Basin, 
this reservoir would also be formed on the valley floor 
at the base of the foothills by constructing a long 
earthen dike to create a closed basin. In this case the 
inundated lands, though not classified as irrigable, 
are not permeable and very little direct ground water 
recharge could be anticipated. The reservoir itself 
would intercept the direct flow of a number of minor 
foothill streams besides Brush Creek; but the flood 
flows of Mill, Toomes, Deer, and Rock Creeks would 
be conveyed to the reservoir for storage and regula- 
tion through large-capacity floodway channels. Low 
diversion dams on these streams would permit the 
passage of anadromous fish; and normal stream flow 
would not be diverted. 

Irrigation supplies for lands on Keefer Ridge, north 
of Big Chico Creek, would be conserved in Butte 
Creek House Reservoir at the headwaters of Butte 
Creek. Water released from this reservoir would be 
diverted downstream at Butte Meadows into Big 
Chico Creek and from Chico Meadows on that stream 
to Keefer Ridge. Supplemental water supplies for 
the Paradise Ridge area and for the area between 
1 > i u Chico and Bntte Creeks would be developed in 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



105 



forizzly Gulch Reservoir on Butte Creek and diverted 
downstream at Carpenter to both areas. Grizzly Gulch 
Reservoir would also be used to maintain stream flow 
•for subsequent downstream diversion for power 
through the De Sabla and Centerville plants of the 
Pacific Gas and Electric Company, as at present. 
Additional water supplies for the Paradise Ridge area 
Would also be developed by enlargement of Magalia 
•Reservoir and by construction of a large Forks of 
Butte Reservoir on Butte Creek. 

j Foothill development of Big Chico and Butte 
Creeks would consist of a small conservation reservoir 
ou Big Chico Creek, which would be used during the 
flood season to divert flood flows through a large tun- 
nel into Butte Creek for storage and regulation in 
Castle Rock Reservoir, a feature of the California 
^Aqueduct System. While no insurmountable interfer- 
ence with the anadromous fishery of these streams 
'would result from construction of the upstream reser- 
voirs, the foothill dams definitely would present seri- 
ous barriers to migration. Remedial measures would 
.include fish hatcheries, development of downstream 
spawning grounds, and possibly fish ladders — at least 
at Big Chico Dam. 

; In summary, prospective works of the Antelope- 
Butte Stream Group would consist of 10 new and en- 
larged reservoirs ; 4 power plants ; a number of small 
.diversion and afterbay dams; and necessary convey- 
tance and service conduits, comprising tunnels, pipe 
lines, and canals. The reservoirs would add about 550,- 
i000 acre-feet of storage capacity to the stream group 
system, of which about 48,000 acre-feet would be in- 
|aetive and 125,000 acre-feet would be reserved in 
Antelope Basin, Brush Basin, and Castle Rock Reser- 
voirs for flood control. The new power plants would 
pave a combined installed capacity of 97,000 kilowatts 
: and would generate an average of about 456,000,000 
■kilowatt-hours per year. Releases would be made for 
stream flow maintenance from all reservoirs in the in- 
terest of fish, wildlife, and recreation. In combination 
'with parallel levees, where needed, floods on Antelope, 
Mill, Deer, Big Chico, and Butte Creeks could be re- 
iduced to future leveed channel capacities. 

* Feather River Unit. The Feather River Unit 
comprises the entire drainage basin of the Feather 
River above Oroville and the adjoining foothill area 

(drained by Little Dry Creek on the north and Honcut 
Creek on the south. The unit has an area of about 
3,740 square miles, of which about 3,000 square miles 

,are mountainous and the remainder comprises valley 

'and mesa lands. The Feather River has three prin- 
Bipa] tributaries which, in order of size and im- 

iportance, are the North, Middle, and South Forks. 
The North Fork has two main tributaries, namely 

[West Branch and East Branch. Irrigable lands of the 

'Feather River Unit are located principally in the 



large headwater valleys of the Feather River Basin 
and in the foothill area south of Oroville. 

Precipitation over the Feather River Unit ranges 
from about 25 inches per season at the western foot- 
hill boundary to as much as 90 inches at the summit 
of Mt. Lassen, but only about 15 inches in Sierra 
Valley. The estimated mean natural runoff of the 
Feather River at Oroville is 4,600,000 acre-feet per 
year. The combined mean natural runoff of Little 
Dry Creek and Honcut Creek amounts to about 80,000 
acre-feet per year. 

The main stem of the North Fork of the Feather 
River has been extensively developed for power by 
the Pacific Gas and Electric Company with storage 
provided principally in Mtn. Meadows, Lake Al- 
manor, Butt Valley, and Bucks Lake Reservoirs. The 
main power system, when completed, will comprise 
nine plants with a combined installed capacity of 
about 686,000 kilowatts, exclusive of Big Bend Plant 
which eventually will be abandoned due to submerg- 
ence by Oroville Reservoir. Separate diversions for 
power are also made by the company from the West 
Branch of the North Fork to serve the small De Sabla 
and Centerville plants on Butte Creek, as described in 
the Antelope-Butte Unit, and to serve the small Lime 
Saddle and Coal Canyon plants of the Feather River 
Unit. 

The mountain valleys of the Feather River are irri- 
gated by direct stream flow diversion, supplemented, 
in the case of Sierra Valley, by a small import of par- 
tially regulated water from the Truckee River Basin. 
Water supplies for the Oroville-Wyandotte Irrigation 
District, comprising lands in the foothill area of the 
unit south of Oroville, are diverted from the South 
Fork of the Feather River through the Palermo Canal ; 
from Lost Creek Reservoir on Lost Creek, a tributary 
of the South Fork, through the Forbestown Ditch ; 
and directly from North Honcut Creek with minor 
storage in Lake Wyandotte. Foothill lands northwest 
of Oroville are served from the Lime Saddle-Coal Can- 
yon Power Canal. Valley floor lands are served by di- 
rect diversions from the Feather River. Communities 
of the unit obtain their water supplies from wells, 
springs, and streams. 

Present water requirements of the Feather River 
Unit amount to about 189,000 acre-feet per season for 
water service areas aggregating about 92,000 acres. In 
the future, it is estimated that the water service areas 
will expand to about 218,000 acres with an ultimate 
water requirement of about 547,000 acre-feet per sea- 
son when opportunities for re-use of developed water 
are taken into account. 

Except for Sierra Valley and the community of 
Portola, there are no present major problems of water 
deficiency within the Feather River Unit. Floods on 
the Feather River do not constitute a major problem 
in upstream areas, but in the Sacramento Valley floor 



106 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



they are the main, concern and, in the past, have caused 
great damage and loss of life. 

The objectives of The California "Water Plan within 
the Feather River Unit are to develop and regulate 
the water supplies to an optimum degree for local use 
and export, flood control, power, recreation, and 
stream flow maintenance for fish and wildlife. Recrea- 
tion and stream flow maintenance for the enhancement 
of fish is considered especially important to the econ- 
omy of the basin, with particular values attached to 
the streams of the upper Indian Creek area, the Mid- 
dle Fork Canyon system, and the Lake Almanor area. 

Under the California Water Plan it is assumed that 
the present undeveloped power potential of the North 
Fork of the Feather River between Lake Almanor 
and Belden will be developed in the near future by 
tunneling for three drops, as planned by the Pacific 
Gas and Electric Company. The remaining unde- 
veloped water resources of the North Fork, comprising 
principally the East Branch of the North Fork, would 
be developed by projects on Indian and Spanish 
Creeks, main tributaries of the East Branch. The 
waters of Indian Creek would be conserved and regu- 
lated for irrigation, power, recreation, and stream 
flow maintenance for fish and wildlife, in five head- 
water reservoirs above Indian Valley, namely, Genesee 
and Antelope Valley on Indian Creek ; Squaw Queen 
and Dixie Refuge on Last Chance Creek, an important 
tributary of Indian Creek ; and Abbey Bridge on Red 
Clover Creek, also an important tributary of Indian 
Creek. The plan also contemplates that Dixie Creek, 
a tributary of Red Clover Creek, would be diverted 
by canal into Squaw Queen Creek, a tributary of Last 
Chance Creek, for storage and regulation in Squaw 
Queen Reservoir. 

Water released from Antelope Valley and Abbey 
Bridge Reservoirs for stream flow maintenance would 
flow into Genesee Reservoir for further disposition. 
Water released from Dixie Refuge Reservoir for 
stream flow maintenance, together with water diverted 
from Dixie Creek, would enter Squaw Queen Reser- 
voir, whence the flow would be diverted by tunnel to 
develop the power head to Genesee Reservoir. Releases 
from Genesee Reservoir would be used for irrigation 
in Indian Valley, for stream flow maintenance in 
Indian Creek and in the main stem of the East 
Branch, and for power. The power head below Genesee 
Reservoir would be developed by tunnel in a single 
drop between a forebay above Indian Falls on Indian 
Creek and an afterbay on the East Branch below 
the mouth of Indian Creek. 

The works on Spanish Creek would consist of a 
large Meadow Valley Reservoir with feeder tunnels 
from Bear Creek, a tributary of the Middle Fork of 
the Feather River, and from Nelson Point Reservoir 
on the Middle Fork of the Feather River. Water re- 
leased from Meadow Valley Reservoir would be used 



for irrigation and urban purposes in American Valley 
for stream flow maintenance on Spanish Creek, and 
for power with the head between the reservoir and 
Rich Bar on the North Fork of the Feather River 
developed by tunnel in a single drop. 

On the Middle Fork of the Feather River, water 
supplies for Sierra Valley would be conserved in 
three reservoirs on separate headwater tributaries, 
namely Grizzly Valley on Big Grizzly Creek, French- 
man on Little Last Chance Creek, and Sheep Camp on 
Craycroft Creek, with minor streams intercepted by 
feeder canal and pumped into the latter reservoir. 
These reservoirs could also be used to a limited extent 
for stream flow maintenance on the Middle Fork. 
Additional supplies, if needed, could be obtained by 
gravity diversion from Squaw Queen Reservoir to 
Abbey Bridge Reservoir, and thence by pumping 
from Abbey Bridge Reservoir through a tunnel into 
Grizzly Valley Reservoir, in which event development 
of the power head to the floor of Sierra Valley might 
be warranted. The head could be developed by pipe 
line with an afterbay below the power plant on Big 
Grizzly Creek to reregulate the power releases to an 
irrigation and stream flow maintenance demand sched- 
ule. Other less favorable opportunities for reservoir 
development of additional water supplies for Sierra 
Valley exist at Clover Valley on Smithneck Creek 
near Loyalton, and at Randolph on Cold Stream near 
Sierraville. Finally, additional supplies might be ob- 
tained from ground water sources if well development 
should prove to be feasible. 

Supplemental water supplies for Portola and other 
communities along the main stem of the upper Middle 
Fork could be made available from the improved 
stream flow of Middle Fork but the local development 
of minor spring-fed streams would probably be more 
desirable. 

Development on the Middle Fork of the Feather 
River below Sierra Valley would consist of Nelson 
Point Reservoir to conserve water for stream flow 
maintenance and for power by diversion to Meadow 
Valley Reservoir, as previously noted. Below Nelson 
Point Dam at Hartman Bar the remaining flow of the 
Middle Fork, in excess of stream flow maintenance 
requirements, could be diverted by tunnel to Swayne 
Reservoir on French Creek, a tributary of the North 
Fork, with the flow of Little North Fork, a tributary 
of the Middle Fork, intercepted enroute. From 
Swayne Reservoir the water would be released 
through penstocks to a power plant on the North Fork 
arm of Oroville Reservoir. 

Under an alternative arrangement proposed by the 
Riehvale Irrigation District, the headwaters of the 
Middle Fork would be conserved and regulated im 
Frenchman and Grizzly Valley Reservoirs above 
Sierra Valley, in Gold Lake Reservoir on Frazier 
(reek, in Clio Reservoir on the Middle Fork above 



lev 










3e»-. 



Genesee Valley in Feather River Basi 




V *- 

** 









Sacramento Valley— Foothill Hay Production 









108 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



Blairsden, and in Nelson Point Reservoir, for power 
development along the Middle Fork and for irrigation 
of district lands on the Sacramento Valley floor. "Wa- 
ter conserved in the upstream reservoirs would flow 
down the stream channel of the Middle Fork into 
Nelson Point Reservoir, whence the power head to the 
Middle Fork arm of Oroville Reservoir would be de- 
veloped by tunnel in a series of five drops with regu- 
latory and diversion facilities provided enroute on the 
Middle Fork, as required. The feasibility of this pro- 
posal may depend upon utilizing for power virtually 
all of the present water supply in critical years with- 
out further impairment by additional upstream use 
in Sierra Valley. The district has been granted a pre- 
liminary permit by the Federal Power Commission. 
The Department of Water Resources is currently 
(1957) giving further study to this proposal, as well 
as to the other developments discussed herein for the 
Middle Fork. 

Other developments on the Middle Fork of the 
Feather River would probably consist of small reser- 
voirs on downstream tributaries to maintain stream 
flow for fish, wildlife, and recreation. Typical but not 
necessarily desirable sites are Mt. Ararat on Willow 
Creek, Whiskey Hill on South Branch, and Quartz 
Hill on Fall River. 

Water supplies for areas dependent on the South 
Fork of the Feather River would be made available 
under The California Water Plan by a combination 
power and water supply development involving the 
utilization of surplus flows from Canyon and Slate 
Creeks, tributaries of the North Yuba River, as well as 
from the South Fork itself. Under the plan the waters 
of the South Fork would be conserved in Little Grass 
Valley Reservoir and released to the stream channel 
of the South Fork for subsequent diversion by tunnel 
into an enlarged Lost Creek Reservoir on Lost Creek, 
a tributary of the South Fork. Water from Canyon 
and Slate Creeks would also be diverted by tunnel 
and conserved in the enlarged Lost Creek Reservoir. 

Part of the water released from Lost Creek Reser- 
voir would serve lands along the Forbestown Ditch, as 
at present, and new lands in the Dobbins-Oregon 
House area west of the North Yuba River. The re- 
mainder would be conveyed by tunnel to a power drop 
on the South Fork at the mouth of Lost Creek and 
thence again by tunnel to another power drop on the 
South Fork near Forbestown. From this point, the 
water would be diverted from the river and conveyed 
by canal and tunnel to serve the foothill lands of the 
uiiil south of Oroville. 

A number of other plans for development of the 
water and power resources of the South Fork of the 
Feather River, both with and without imports from 
the North Yuba River, have been proposed by various 
agencies Erom time to time. Among these are plans by 
the Pacific <!as and Electric Company, the Oroville- 



Wyandotte Irrigation District, and Yuba County and 
the Yuba County Water District. In an effort to re- 
solve differences between the plans of the Oroville- 
Wyandotte Irrigation District and the Yuba County 
interests, the State Engineer on October 7, 1955, pur- 
suant to Water Right Decision No. 838, suggested a 
compromise plan wherein the capacity of Little Grass 
Valley Reservoir would be made much larger than 
contemplated in the plan first described above, and 
the South Fork diversion to Lost Creek Reservoir 
would include unregulated water imported by tunnel 
from Fall River, a tributary of the Middle Fork of 
the Feather River. The existing Lost Creek Reservoir 
would not be enlarged, and water supplies imported 
by tunnel from Canyon and Slate Creeks would be 
conserved in a Sly Creek Reservoir immediately up- 
stream. Regulated water supplies made available by 
this alternative plan would be released from existing 
Lost Creek Reservoir and utilized for irrigation and 
power in much the same manner as first described 
above. 

The various proposals for development of the South 
Fork of the Feather River are currently (May, 1957) 
under consideration by the State Water Rights Board 
in acting upon the conflicting application of Oroville- 
Wyandotte Irrigation District and Yuba County and 
Yuba County Water District. 

Additional small local developments in the foothill 
area of the Feather River Unit south of Oroville 
would consist of South Honcut Reservoir on South 
Honcut Creek for irrigation and flood control, and 
Bangor Reservoir on North Honcut Creek for recrea- 
tion and stream flow maintenance. Wicks Corner Res- 
ervoir on Cottonwood Creek, a tributary of Dry Creek 
which drains the foothill area north of Oroville, would 
provide recreation and stream flow maintenance on 
that stream. 

Features of the California Aqueduct System within 
the Feather River Unit would consist of Oroville Dam 
and Reservoir, Oroville Power Plant, a diversion dam 
below the power plant, and canal serving another 
power plant enroute to an off-stream afterbay. In their 
local function these features would protect Sacra- 
mento Valley floor areas against damaging floods, con- 
serve and regulate water for use on the valley floor, en 
hance and improve stream flow in the Feather River, 
and afford opportunities for recreational development, 
Oroville Reservoir will have a capacity of 3,500,000 
acre-feet with 500,000 acre-feet tentatively reserved 
for flood control. Oroville Reservoir and related fa 
cilities have already been authorized as a part of the 
Feather River Project, the initial unit of The Cali-i 
fornia Water Plan, and work thereon is currently 
under way. 

In summary. Local works of the Feather River Uni' 
would consist of at least 21 new and enlarged reser-i 
voirs; six new power plants, exclusive of those existing 






THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



109 



or proposed for the Pacific Gas and Electric Company 
North Fork System; and associated conveyance, 
feeder, and service conduits, with diversion structures. 
afterbays, and other auxiliary features as required. 
The local reservoirs would have a combined gross stor- 
age capacity of about 2,100,000 acre-feet, of which 
about 77,000 acre-feet would be inactive. They would 
! provide water for local use in the upland and foothill 
'areas of the unit, while Oroville Reservoir would serve 
•dependent areas on the Sacramento Valley floor and 
would provide flood protection thereto. Releases would 
be made from the local reservoirs for stream flow 
maintenance in the interests of fish and wildlife, and 
many of the reservoirs themselves would afford oppor- 
tunity for recreational development. The new local 
'power plants would add about 331,000 kilowatts of 
installed capacity to the basin power system, and 
would generate an average of about 1.3 billion kilo- 
watt-hours of new energy per year. 

Yuba-Bear River Unit. The Yuba-Bear River 
Unit is located on the western slope of the Sierra Ne- 
vada between the Feather and American River Units. 
It consists of the drainage basins of the Yuba and 
Boar Rivers, and the minor drainage areas of Auburn 
Ravine, Doty Ravine, and Coon Creek south of the 

'Bear River; Dry Creek between the Bear and Yuba 
Rivers; and French Dry Creek and the southern 
drainage of South Honcut Creek north of the Yuba 
River. Included within the unit are approximately 

'1,720 square miles of land area ranging from rugged 
mountains to rolling foothills. Only about 75 square 

I miles of the area have been classified as valley and 

; mesa land. 

Precipitation in the Yuba-Bear River Unit varies 

jfrom about 25 inches per season at the Avestern foothill 

•boundary to as much as 70 inches in the high moun- 
tains. The mean natural runoff of the Yuba River is 
about 2,420,000 acre-feet per year. The Bear River 
has a mean natural runoff of about 360,000 acre-feet 

| per year, and the minor foothill streams together have 
a mean natural runoff of about 144,000 acre-feet per 
year. 

Most of the presently irrigated area as well as 

•potentially irrigable land lies within the boundaries 

-of the Browns Valley and Nevada Irrrigation Dis- 
tricts and the Yuba County Water District. Some of 

l the reservoirs and canals presently employed to serve 
these areas date back to the days of hydraulic min- 

'ing. The Browns Valley Irrigation District obtains 
its water supply principally from the North Yuba 
River by diversion from the Colgate power tunnel. 
Existing works of the Nevada Irrigation District in- 
clude about a dozen large and small reservoirs which 
are used to regulate the headwater runoff of the Mid- 

idle and South Yuba Rivers, Bear River, and Deer 
Creek which enters the Yuba River from the south 

; below Englebright Dam. Except for releases from 



Scotts Flat Reservoir on Deer Creek and from Van 
Geisen (Combie) Reservoir on the Bear River, the 
water developed by these reservoirs flows through local 
power facilities of the Pacific Gas and Electric Com- 
pany, after which it is distributed to the lands of 
the district. 

The Camp Far West Irrigation District, located 
west of the Yuba-Bear River Unit boundary, develops 
its water supply in Camp Far West Reservoir on the 
Bear River to serve downstream areas on both sides 
of the river. The Pacific Gas and Electric Company 
owns and operates 12 power plants within the unit. 
In addition to utilizing the water developed by the 
works of the Nevada Irrigation District as previously 
noted, the company operates approximately 20 of its 
own dams and reservoirs, ranging in size from small 
diversion structures to the 74,500 acre-foot capacity 
Lake Spaulding Reservoir on the South Yuba River. 

The water problems of the Yuba-Bear River Unit 
relate mainly to the conflicting uses of developed 
water for power, irrigation, and stream flow main- 
tenance for fish and wildlife. Although some local 
flood problems exist within the unit, much of the run- 
off of the streams is uncontrolled and heavy damage 
is inflicted upon the Sacramento Valley floor during 
major floods. 

Development of the Yuba-Bear River Unit under 
The California Water Plan contemplates that part of 
the remaining undeveloped headwaters of the Yuba 
River would be concentrated by further diversion of 
tributaries into Lake Spaulding, whence the developed 
water would be released for power and irrigation. 
Under this plan, the waters of the South Fork of the 
North Yuba River would be diverted below the mouth 
of Haypress Creek and conveyed by tunnel to Jack- 
son Meadows Reservoir on the Middle Yuba River. 
Releases from Jackson MeadoAvs Reservoir would flow 
into the existing Milton-Bowman-Spaulding diversion 
facilities of the Nevada Irrigation District and into 
Lake Spaulding throxigh an enlarged Spaulding No. 3 
Power Plant. Water from Fordyce Lake on Fordyce 
Creek, now draining into Lake Spaulding, would be 
conveyed by canal, together with the intercepted 
water of Rattlesnake Creek and the South Yuba 
River, into an enlarged Lake Valley Reservoir on the 
North Fork of the North Fork of the American River. 
After satisfying nominal stream flow maintenance re- 
quirements for fish on that stream, releases from Lake 
Valley Reservoir would be returned to the South Yuba 
River by pipe line with a power drop into Lake 
Spaulding. From Lake Spaulding the developed and 
regulated waters of the upper Yuba River Basin 
would be released through two separate existing con- 
duit systems ; namely, the Drum System of the Pacific 
Gas and Electric Company and the South Yuba 
Canal. 

Water conveyed by the Drum System would enter 
the Bear River through the Dutch Flat Power Plant 



110 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



as at present. Here the water would be diverted and 
would flow in a canal into a proposed Rollins Reservoir 
on the Bear River through a new power drop. Releases 
from Rollins Reservoir would flow through a power 
plant at the base of the dam, and, after reregulation 
in an afterbay, would again be diverted into the Drum 
System as at present, where it would be available for 
irrigation on the divide between the Bear and Ameri- 
can Rivers and for power generation at enlarged Hal- 
sey and Wise Power Plants. The winter power releases 
from the latter plant would be conveyed by tunnel 
to Auburn Reservoir on the North Fork of the 
American River, and stored for subsequent summer 
release to Auburn Ravine for irrigation of the foothill 
lands north of Folsom Reservoir. 

The South Yuba Canal would continue to serve 
lands in the Nevada City-Grass Valley area as at 
present, but with an increased supply made available 
in part by additional releases from Lake Spaulding 
and in part by enlarging Scotts Flat Reservoir on 
Deer Creek to store the winter power releases from 
Deer Creek Power Plant. Both this plant at the ter- 
minal and the Spaulding No. 2 Power Plant at the 
head of the South Yuba Canal would be enlarged to 
utilize the additional water supplies made available 
by new upstream storage works. 

Additional water supplies for the Nevada City- 
Grass Valley area and new water supplies for the 
North San Juan area would be made available by a 
combination power and water supply development 
that would concentrate the runoff from the middle 
sectors of the Middle and South Yuba Rivers in a 
large storage reservoir near Washington on the South 
Yuba River. In this project the waters of the Middle 
Yuba River would be diverted at a point near Al- 
legheny and would flow through a tunnel into Wash- 
ington Reservoir. Releases from Washington Reser- 
voir would then be conveyed by tunnel to a forebay 
near Nevada City, whence diversions for irrigation 
and power would be made. A main irrigation canal 
would divert southward into the Nevada City-Grass 
Valley area. A smaller irrigation conduit would cross 
the South Yuba River by inverted siphon to serve 
lands in the North San Juan area. Releases for power 
would flow through a penstock to the Devils Slide 
Power Plant on the South Yuba River. Part of the 
I lower releases from this plant would be diverted 
from an afterbay on the South Yuba River through 
the existing Excelsior Ditch into a proposed Anthony 
House Reservoir on Deer Creek, where it would be 
stored for subsequent irrigation use. The remaining 
power releases would be diverted from the same after- 
hay and conveyed by tunnel to a Jones Bar Power 
Planl on the South Yuba River near the head of 
Englebright Reservoir. 

Bxeepl for the diversion of the South Pork of the 
North Yuba River into Jackson Meadows Reservoir, 
the only other headwater development contemplated 



for the North Yuba River would be the diversion of 
Canyon and Slate Creeks, tributary thereto, into 
Lost Creek Reservoir in the drainage basin of the 
South Fork of the Feather River. These latter works 
would comprise a part of the South Fork Feather 
River Development and have been previously dis- 
cussed under the heading ''Feather River Unit." 

The Department of Fish and Game considers that 
the main stem of the North Yuba River has certain 
unique and desirable natural flow characteristics for 
angling that should be preserved in perpetuity for 
future generations to enjoy. Furthermore, the stream 
flows through an area rich in historical background. 
For these reasons no developments are now consid- 
ered for the accessible reaches of the river above the 
mouth of Canyon Creek ; but in future, more detailed 
investigation, careful consideration should be given 
to the relative advantage of adhering to this principle 
or of further water development, if the need arises 
for additional water. Historic Downieville, in this 
area, sometimes suffers damage from floods, but it is 
improbable that corrective measures, other than the 
possible relocation of some buildings to a safe level. 
could ever be justified under presently accepted 
methods of evaluating flood control benefits. 

Prospective works on the North Yuba River below 
the mouth of Canyon Creek would consist of Wambo 
Dam and Reservoir, with a short tunnel to develop 
about 400 feet of power head into an enlarged 
Bullards Bar Reservoir on the North Yuba River. 
This latter reservoir would be connected by a short 
equalizing tunnel with a large Freemans Reservoir on 
Middle Yuba River. The two connected reservoirs 
would thus, in effect, constitute a single large multi- 
purpose reservoir, with the power head to Englebright 
Reservoir then developed by tunnel. About 160,000 
acre-feet of the combined storage space would be re- 
served in the reservoirs for flood control. 

Foothill development of the Yuba River would con- 
sist of Parks Bar Reservoir below Englebright Dam 
for flood control, and Waldo Reservoir, on Dry Creek. 
a tributary of Bear River, to provide off-stream stor-i 
age for surplus Yuba River water. Water supplies for j 
Waldo Reservoir would be diverted by tunnel from: 
Englebright Reservoir into Deer Creek, combining 
therewith for further diversion to a small distributing 
reservoir soivth of Parks Bar Dam. From this point 
the surplus water would be further conveyed by canal 
to Waldo Reservoir for storage and regulation. The 
head available between the distributing reservoir and 
the main stem of the Yuba River below Parks Bar 
Dam would be developed for power, utilizing firm 
water supplies developed by upstream storage works > 
and conveyed to this point by the foregoing described; 
diversion facilities. A low afterbay dam on the Yubaj 
River below the power plant would reregnlate the 
power releases. All of the prospective foothill works 
of the Yuba River would have important export as 1 




Sacramento River Basin— Spaulding Dam on South Fork of Yuba River and Fish Ladder at Deguerre Point 

Diversion Dam on Yuba River 



112 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



well as local functions, and have therefore been desig- 
nated as features of the California Aqueduct System. 

Major foothill storage regulation of the remaining 
water resources of the Bear River below Rollins Reser- 
voir would be accomplished by enlarging the present 
Camp Far West Reservoir east of Wheatland. This 
reservoir would be used for both conservation and 
flood control, and has also been designated as a feature 
of the California Aqueduct System. 

The waters of French Dry Creek, principal down- 
stream tributary of the Yuba River entering from the 
north, would be conserved for local use in "Virginia 
Ranch Reservoir located about 7 miles above Browns 
Valley. Waters of Coon Creek would be conserved for 
local use by construction of a small Coon Creek Reser- 
voir on the middle reaches of Coon Creek. Other possi- 
bilities for storage development on the minor foothill 
streams of the unit would be a small Auburn Ravine 
Reservoir on Auburn Ravine below the town of 
Auburn and a Doty Ravine Reservoir on Doty Ravine 
northeast of Lincoln. 

In summary, prospective works of the Yuba-Bear 
River Unit under The California Water Plan would 
consist of about 16 new and enlarged reservoirs; a 
number of diversion works at various locations ; neces- 
sary conveyance and service conduits; and 15 new 
and enlarged hydroelectric power plants. The new 
reservoirs would add about 2,000,000 acre-feet of 
capacity to the present storage system of the unit. Of 
this, about 400,000 acre-feet would be reserved for 
flood control. The reservoirs would provide supple- 
mental water supplies for all dependent areas and 
would regulate substantial quantities of water for 
export. They would provide a measure of flood control 
for local areas and would afford substantial flood pro- 
tection to downstream areas. Releases would be made 
from the reservoirs to maintain and in some instances 
enhance the stream flow in the interests of fish, wild- 
life, and recreation. The power plants would provide 
about 325,000 kilowatts of new capacity and would 
generate an average of about 1.2 billion kilowatt-hours 
of new energy each year. Of this, about 40,000 kilo- 
watts and 83,000,000 kilowatt-hours are considered to 
be creditable to the Parks Bar Power Plant, a feature 
of the California Aqueduct System. This takes into 
account the loss of power at the upstream Narrows 
Power Plant, which eventually would be abandoned 
due to submergence by Parks Bar Reservoir. 

American River Unit. The American River Unit 
comprises the drainage basin of the American River 
above the Pair Oaks gaging station and the adjoining 
foothill area north to the southern drainage boundary 
of Auburn Ravine. The total area, measured to the 
base of the foothills, is 2,050 square miles, of which 
the American River Basin itself contains 1,920 square 
miles. About 1,900 square miles of the American River 
Basin are considered to be mountainous. Elevations 



range from about 150 feet at the western foothill 
boundary to about 10.000 feet along the crest of the 
Sierra. 

The main stem of the American River is formed by 
the junction of its North and South Forks in Folsoni 
Reservoir. The North Fork has no important tribu- 
taries except the Middle Fork which joins it near 
Auburn. The Middle Fork has one important tribu- 
tary, the Rubicon River. The South Fork has two main 
tributaries, namely Silver Creek and Silver Fork. The 
forks of the American River and their principal trib- 
utaries flow from the headwaters through deeply in- 
cised canyons separated from each other and from 
adjoining streams by comparatively broad east-west 
trending ridges. The irrigable lands of the unit are 
located on the main ridges and on the rolling foothills. 

Precipitation in the American River Unit ranges 
from about 25 inches per season at the base of the 
foothills to more than 70 inches in the high moun- 
tains. The estimated full natural runoff of the Ameri- 
can River amounts to about 2,770,000 acre-feet per 
year at the Fair Oaks gage. The runoff of the minor 
streams of the unit north of Folsom Reservoir amounts 
to only about 79,000 acre-feet per year. Under ulti- 
mate conditions of development it is anticipated that 
exchanges of water with neighboring basins will result 
in a small increase in the water supply of the unit. 

The economy of the American River Unit is based 
mainly on activities relating to agriculture, lumber- 
ing, mining, and recreation. Because of its proximity 
to large centers of population in northern California 
and because of an excellent -road network, including 
two transcontinental highways,, the recreational op- 
portunities, in particular, are being rapidly devel- 
oped. These include skiing resorts, summer home and 
camp sites, trout fishing, etc. Indicative of the interest 
in recreation is the almost unprecedented attraction 
of the recently completed Folsom Reservoir and Lake 
Natoma to boating, fishing, and water sports enthusi- 
asts. Development of the lake shore at both of these 
reservoirs has been authorized as part of the State 
Park System. 

Present water development in the American River 
Unit consists of: about 67,000 acre-feet of headwater 
storage located principally in Lake Valley, Loon Lake, 
Medley Lakes, Twin Lakes, and Silver and Webber 
Reservoirs for power, irrigation, and stream How 
maintenance ; 14,600 acre-feet of debris control storage 
in North Fork Debris Storage Reservoir near Auburn; 
and 1,000,000 acre-feet of multipurpose storage in 
Folsom Reservoir. Folsom Afterbay at Nimbus, called 
Lake Natoma, contains about 9,000 acre-feet of storage , 
capacity. The El Dorado Irrigation District in the; 
vicinity of Placerville obtains water from the El Do- 
rado Forebay and Webber Reservoir in the watershed , 
of the South Fork of the American River and from 1 
Diamond Ditch and Slv Park Reservoir in the 



. 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



113 



! Cosumues River Basin. The Georgetown Divide Public 
Utility District, serving lands on the divide between 
the Middle and South Forks, obtains its water supply 
i principally from Loon Lake on Gerle Creek through a 
long and inefficient conduit system dating back to the 
s mining days. 

: The foothill area north of Folsom Reservoir is 
served from the Drum Power System of the Pacific 
!Gas and Electric Company with water originating 
i principally in the Bear and Yuba Rivers, but includ- 
ing a modest supply diverted from the North Fork of 
the North Fork of the American River at Lake Valley 
Reservoir. There is no important water development 
at present on the Foresthill Divide between the North 
and Middle Forks other than for municipal and indus- 
trial requirements of the town of Foresthill. Down- 
stream areas are served from Folsom Reservoir and by 
pumping from the American River. There are four 
[existing hydroelectric power installations in the 
•American River Basin, namely, the El Dorado and 
, American River plants of the Pacific Gas and Electric 
Company and the Folsom and Nimbus plants of the 
Federal Government. 

The present water requirements of the American 
River Unit, for consumptive purposes, amount to some 
163,000 acre-feet per season for water service areas 
aggregating about 31,000 acres. These requirements 
are met, without deficiency, by releases from some of 
•the foregoing works, together with importations of 
xleveloped water from adjoining basins. Future de- 
pnands on the American River for agriculture and 
•.urban purposes may amount to about 217,000 acre- 
feet per season when dependent lands in the Cosumnes 
River Basin, as well as those within the unit, are 
•taken into account. The problem of floods is not a 
jmajor concern in the upper American River Basin; 
and Folsom Reservoir, in conjunction with river 
levees, provides a high degree of protection for down- 
stream areas. The preservation of fish and wildlife in 
the basin does not constitute a problem except as re- 
gards conflicting uses of developed water for other 
purposes. The former anadromous fishery of the upper 
basin has been blocked by the construction of Folsom 
Dam, but the provision of a salmon and steelhead 
n^h hatchery below Lake Natoma is proving to be 
remarkably effective as a remedial measure. 

Main objectives of The California Water Plan in 
fhe American River Unit are the development of its 
and, water, power, fish, wildlife, and recreational re- 
sources to the highest practicable degree. 
• Plans for development of the water resources of the 
American River Unit, in accordance with the prin- 
aples of The California Water Plan, were first pub- 
ished in preliminary draft form in State Water Re- 
sources Board Bulletin No. 21, entitled "American 
liver Basin Investigation, Report on Development 
'roposed for The California Water Plan". Following 



release of the preliminary draft report in June, 1955, 
the Board held public hearings which culminated in 
the adoption of a somewhat modified plan of basin 
development proposed by the Sacramento Municipal 
Utility District as an acceptable alternative to the 
basic plan presented in Bulletin No. 21. The Board 
directed that both plans be presented in the final edi- 
tion of Bulletin No. 21 and in this bulletin. Accord- 
ingly, both plans are discussed herein under the gen- 
eral headings of "Basic Plan" and "Modified Plan". 

1. Basic Plan. Prospective works in the watershed 
of the North Fork would consist of the enlargement 
of Lake Valley Reservoir on the North Fork of the 
North Fork for off-stream storage of water from the 
South Yuba River as discussed in the Yuba-Bear 
River Unit ; a small reservoir on the headwaters of 
the North Fork at The Cedars, or suitable alternative 
site, to conserve water for stream flow maintenance in 
the interests of fish, wildlife, and recreation ; a group 
of three small reservoirs on the Foresthill Divide, 
namely, Sugar Pine on North Shirttail Canyon, and 
Forbes and Big on Forbes Creek, with feeder canal or 
possible future tunnel from Secret Canyon and other 
tributaries of Middle Fork, for irrigation of the divide 
area and possibly for fish, wildlife, and recreational 
purposes; and a large Auburn Reservoir and Power 
Plant at the head of the North Fork arm of Folsom 
Reservoir, to conserve and regulate water for local 
use and export. Because of its export function, Au- 
burn Reservoir is classified as a feature of the Cali- 
fornia Aqueduct System. The other works on the 
North Fork have strictly local functions. 

Water developed and/or regulated for export in 
Auburn Reservoir would enter Folsom Reservoir for 
further disposition through the Auburn Power Plant 
at the base of the dam. In its local function, Auburn 
Reservoir, in addition to fishing and recreation, would 
store the winter power releases of Wise Power Plant 
for subsequent release for use on the foothill lands of 
the American River Unit north of Folsom Reservoir 
during the irrigation season. This would involve a 
tunnel between Auburn Reservoir and Auburn Ravine 
with connecting shaft to the afterbay of the Wise 
Power Plant. The tunnel would be gated at each 
end to control flow in either direction. Irrigation di- 
versions would be made downstream from Auburn 
Ravine, as required, with possible additional regula- 
tory storage provided in Whitney Ranch Reservoir on 
Pleasant Grove Creek. This small reservoir would also 
be used to conserve the local runoff of Pleasant Grove 
Creek. 

Plans for the Middle Fork contemplate that water 
supplies for the Georgetown Divide area between the 
Middle and South Forks would be conserved in a 
large Stumpy Meadows Reservoir on Pilot Creek, a 
tributary of the Rubicon River. The water would be 
conveyed to the service area through a renovated and 



i 



114 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



enlarged Georgetown Ditch, comprising a portion of 
the present conveyance system from Loon Lake Res- 
ervoir. Upper portions of this conveyance system 
would likewise be enlarged and improved by tunnel- 
ing to convey surplus water from Gerle Creek and the 
South Fork of the Rubicon River to Stumpy Meadows 
Reservoir to augment natural inflow from Pilot Creek. 
A small feeder canal from Onion Creek, a tributary of 
Silver Creek, would be provided. In addition to its 
irrigation function, Stumpy Meadows Reservoir would 
afford opportunities for fishing and recreation, includ- 
ing stream flow releases to Pilot Creek for these pur- 
poses. 

The excellent power potential of the Middle Fork 
of the American River and its headwater tributaries 
would be developed by a separate system of works 
comprising : four headwater reservoirs with associated 
conduits and power plants above a regulating and 
diversion reservoir at Parsley Bar on the Rubicon 
River ; a main power conduit, consisting of a tunnel 
to Long Canyon and a canal along Ralston Ridge to 
a forebay at the end of the ridge ; a high head Ralston 
Power Plant, served by pressure tunnel from Ralston 
Forebay and discharging into the Rubicon River arm 
of an American Bar Reservoir on the Middle Fork; 
and a low head American Bar Power Plant, develop- 
ing the remaining head to the Middle Fork arm of 
Auburn Reservoir by tunnel. The headwater reser- 
voirs would consist of French Meadows on the Middle 
Fork with feeder tunnel from Duncan Creek; Lower 
Hellhole on the Rubicon River; enlarged Loon Lake 
on Gerle Creek with feeder conduits from the South 
Fork of the Rubicon River and from upper Rubicon 
River by way of Rockbound and Buck Island Lakes ; 
and Gerle below Loon Lake on Gerle Creek. Releases 
from all of the foregoing reservoirs would be made for 
stream flow and fishery maintenance purposes prior 
to diversion for power. The power head between these 
reservoirs would be developed by tunnel as follows: 
French Meadows to Lower Hellhole to Parsley Bar 
and Loon Lake to Gerle to Parsley Bar. 

Plans for development of Silver Creek in the wa- 
tershed of the South Fork of the American River 
contemplate that its headwater runoff would be con- 
served for power and for irrigation of the Placerville 
Divide area in a large Junction Reservoir, with dam 
located below the forks of Silver Creek and with a 
feeder canal diverting from the South Fork of the 
American River in lieu of far more costly on-stream 
storage. The regulated water from Junction Reservoir 
would he conveyed southward by tunnel to a power 
plant on ;i small tributary of the South Fork, and 
thence, after reregulation in an afterbay, by canal 
and tunnel to the existing Sly Park Reservoir in the 
Cosumnes River Basin, crossing the South Pork of the 
American River by inverted siphon. Sly Park Reser- 
voir, under the basic plan, would continue to regulate 



Cosumnes River water as at present, functioning 
primarily as a conduit for the water imported from 
Junction Reservoir. From Sly Park Reservoir the 
water would be conveyed to an enlarged Webber 
Reservoir on Webber Creek, a tributary of the South 
Fork of the American River, with power drops en- . 
route below Sly Park Dam and into Webber Reser- . 
voir. The latter reservoir would also receive addi- . 
tional inflow by feeder canal from the South Fork of 
Webber Creek. Stream flow maintenance releases for 
fish and recreation would be made from all of the 
above-mentioned reservoirs and diversions prior to 
any diversions for power or irrigation. 

From Webber Reservoir the water would be con- jj 
veyed to a small distributing reservoir on Hangtown ' 
Creek south of Placerville, with power drops enroute ' 
below the dam and into the distributing reservoir. 
From this reservoir a main irrigation conduit would ' 
extend westward along the ridge between the Ameri- ' 
can and Cosumnes Rivers, while another conduit ' 
would return unused water to the South Fork of the ' 
American River with a power drop at Gold Hill, 
discharging into Salmon Falls Reservoir, which is I 
subsequently described. 

A variation of the basic plan for Silver Creek 
would route the water from Junction Reservoir by 
tunnel through two successive power drops, namely 
Jaybird on Silver Creek, and Camino on the South ' 
Fork of the American River at a point opposite the : 
existing El Dorado Power Plant of the Pacific Gas 
and Electric Company. Releases from the Camino 
Power Plant would be reregulated in a Slab Creek' 
Reservoir on the South Fork of the American River. ' 
From Slab Creek Reservoir the water would be di- 
verted by tunnel to Webber Creek, whence it would! 
be further diverted for irrigation on the Placerville . 
Divide and returned to the South Fork for power as ' 
in the basic plan. Another variation would substitute 
three small reservoirs for the single large Junction , 
Reservoir of the basic plan. The substitute reservoirs il 
would consist of Lower Ice House on the South Fork 
of Silver Creek, with feeder canals from the South; 
Fork of the American River and the Jones Fork of 
Silver Creek; Union Valley Reservoir on the maim 
stem of Silver Creek, also receiving inflow from a I 
Lower Ice House Power Plant ; and a small Junction j 
Diversion Reservoir, regulating the discharge from a| 
Union Valley Power Plant. The works below the latter ! 
reservoir would follow either of the two foregoing 
suggested alignments. 

Under the basic plan, additional water supplies 
would be made available for the Placerville Divide 
area through development of Silver Fork, with the : 
surplus waters of that stream diverted by canal and? 
tunnel for oh'-stream storage and regulation in a large 
Alder deek Reservoir on Alder Creek. Water re-| 
leased from this reservoir in excess of stream flow 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



115 



maintenance for recreation and fishing would flow 
[through a power plant on Alder Creek and would 
j then enter the El Dorado Ditch of the Pacific Gas 
and Electric Company, whence it would flow to the 
El Dorado Forebay for further disposition. Part of 
i the developed water would then be conveyed through 
, an enlarged El Dorado Irrigation Ditch to serve lands 
,in the eastern part of the Placerville Divide area, 
i while the remainder would flow through and improve 
ithe output of the existing El Dorado and American 
River Power Plants. 

The basic plan also contemplates that major con- 
servation of the waters of the South Fork would be 
accomplished in a large Salmon Falls Reservoir, a 
feature of the California Aqueduct System, with dam 
jand power plant located at the head of the South 
.Fork arm of Folsom Reservoir. In its local function, 
^Salmon Falls Reservoir would afford excellent oppor- 
tunity for fishing and recreational development as 
jwell as increase the degree of flood protection made 
javailable to downstream areas. However, this impor- 
tant reservoir would, unfortunately, inundate the site 
\oi gold discovery in California ; and as a consequence 
thereof the Legislature has directed that " In no event 
shall a permit to appropriate water be issued by the 
State for the purpose of a project which would flood 
any portion of the Gold Discovery Site State Park at 
Coloma unless such issuance is specifically authorized 
by law." Studies indicate that there are no feasible 
alternative storage sites for a large reservoir on the 
v South Fork. The best alternative would be to divert 
i the flow of the South Fork into the Cosumnes River 
for storage in Nashville Reservoir. This would require 
I a diversion dam at Slab Creek on the South Fork and 
la tunnel to AVebber Creek and then to Nashville 
Reservoir. This plan, however, would be virtually in- 
i pffeetive in regulating the heavy flood runoff of the 
■South Fork to any considerable degree. 

2. Modified Plan. Under the modified plan of 

■[omplete basin development, as proposed by the 

Sacramento Municipal Utility District and adopted 

•y the State Water Resources Board as an acceptable 

ilternative to the basic plan, many features would 

■emain the same or substantially the same as in the 

lasic plan. For this reason and in order to avoid 

epetition, discussion of the modified plan is pre- 

ented essentially on the basis of differences between 

t and the basic plan, wherever such differences exist. 

I Under the modified plan the water stored in Loon 

■>ake Reservoir and the natural flow of Gerle Creek 

t kould be diverted to Union Valley Reservoir on 

-■Silver Creek for power development. The effect of 

this diversion would be to reduce the water supply 

vail able for power development on the Middle Fork 

nd for diversion to Stumpy Meadows Reservoir on 

be Georgetown Divide. As a consequence, the basic 

>lan for the Middle Fork power development would 



necessarily be revised to exclude the power drops 
from Loon Lake into Gerle Reservoir and from that 
reservoir into Parsley Bar Reservoir. Gerle Reservoir 
would be eliminated. Below Parsley Bar to Ralston 
the power head of the Middle Fork would be devel- 
oped in two drops instead of the single large Ralston 
drop. Below Ralston Power Plant to the head of 
Auburn Reservoir the power head would likewise be 
developed in two drops with reservoirs at American 
Bar and Volcano, instead of the single larger Ameri- 
can Bar power development described above in the 
basic plan. The modified plan also proposes the con- 
veyance of water in tunnels instead of open canals. 
Preliminary estimates indicate that, even with the 
reduced water supply and the increased cost occa- 
sioned by the substitution of tunnels for open canals, 
the altered Middle Fork power development would 
still be sufficiently attractive to warrant early de- 
velopment. 

Irrigation supplies for the Georgetown Divide 
would be developed in a smaller Stumpy Meadows 
Reservoir on Pilot Creek with feeder canal from 
Onion Creek, and in four other small reservoirs 
situated on streams draining from the divide area, 
namely, Tipton Hill on Rock Creek, and Traverse, 
Canyon, and Greenwood on streams of like name. 
Water developed in Canyon Creek Reservoir would 
be diverted by tunnel to Greenwood Reservoir for 
further disposition. This system of small reservoirs 
would afford about the same degree of development 
for the Georgetown Divide area as the single large 
Stumpy Meadows Reservoir described in the basic 
plan. An added advantage would be that additional 
increments of water could be obtained more readily 
by the construction of the small reservoirs than by 
successively raising Stumpy Meadows Reservoir as 
would be required in the basic plan. Except as dis- 
cussed above, the remaining features of the North 
and Middle Fork developments of the American 
River would remain substantially the same as in the 
basic plan. 

The diversion of Middle Fork water to Silver 
Creek under the modified plan contemplates the 
eventual full utilization for power of some 1,600 feet 
of head between Loon Lake Reservoir and Union Val- 
ley Reservoir. This would be accomplished by the con- 
struction of two small power plants enroute to the 
point of diversion at Sawmill on Gerle Creek, and 
by a small terminal power plant at the end of a Robbs 
Peak tunnel diverting into Union Valley Reservoir. 
Other works on Silver Creek, under the modified plan, 
would consist of Ice House Reservoir on the South 
Fork of Silver Creek at a site upstream from the one 
discussed in the basic plan; a tunnel diversion from 
lee House Reservoir with a power plant discharging 
into Union Valley Reservoir; and a small Junction 
Diversion Reservoir regulating the discharge Croin 



116 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



Union Valley Power Plant. There would be no feeder 
canal diverting from the South Fork of the American 
River as in the basic plan, since the Sacramento Mu- 
nicipal Utility District determined that diversion from 
the Middle Fork of the American River to Silver 
Creek for water development is more economical than 
diversion from the South Fork of the American 
River. 

From Junction Diversion Reservoir the water 
would flow by tunnel to Jaybird Power Plant on 
Silver Creek, and then again by tunnel to Camino 
Power Plant at the head of a Slab Creek diversion 
and regulating reservoir on the South Fork of the 
American River. From Slab Creek Reservoir the 
water would be diverted by tunnel and flow through 
a White Rock Power Plant with the remaining head 
to Folsom Reservoir, then developed in three drops 
comprising, successively, a small Kelsey Reservoir 
and Power Plant, a large Coloma Reservoir and 
Power Plant, and a very small Salmon Falls Reservoir 
and Power Plant. 

The waters of Silver Fork, under the modified plan, 
would be developed in the same manner as in the basic 
plan, except that releases from the Alder Creek Power 
Plant would flow down the stream channel of Alder 
Creek for subsequent diversion from the South Fork 
of the American River into an enlarged Sly Park 
Reservoir, whence the water would be conveyed to 
an enlarged Webber Reservoir with power drops en 
route as in the basic plan. From the enlarged Webber 
Reservoir the water would be conveyed with a ter- 
minal power drop into a small distributing reservoir 
on Hangtown Creek near Placerville, whence diver- 
sions would be made for irrigation as in the basic 
plan, but with no further power development by re- 
turn of water to the South Fork of the American 
River. Additional water supplies for the area would 
be obtained as required by pumping from Folsom 
Reservoir, combined with terminal storage for the 
pumped water in a small Malby Reservoir on Carson 
Creek near White Rock. 

In summary, two alternative plans have been de- 
scribed for development of the water resources of the 
American River Unit in accordance with the objec- 
tives of The California Water Plan. The first of these, 
designated as the basic plan, contemplates the even- 
tual construction of 17 new and enlarged reservoirs; 
a number of diversion works at various locations; 
necessary conveyance and service conduits; and 15 
new power plants. The new reservoirs would add 
almost 2,300,000 acre-feet of capacity to the present 
storage system of the unit. None of this storage ca- 
pacity would be specifically reserved for flood control, 
hut incidental flood control benefits wonld result from 
the lar<re amount of surcharge storage available in 
the reservoirs. The reservoirs would provide supple- 
mental water supplies for all dependent areas and 
would regulate substantial quantities of water Eor 



export. Releases would be made from the reservoirs 
to maintain, and, in some instances, enhance the 
stream flow in the interests of fish, wildlife, anc 
recreation. The power plants would provide 565,000 
kilowatts of new capacity and would generate ar 
average of about 2.5 billion kilowatt-hours of ne'i 
energy each year. Variations of the basic plan might 
increase the number of reservoirs and reduce the 
number of power plants. Of the foregoing estimate 
about 1,500,000 acre-feet of the new storage capacity 
and 153,000 kilowatts of installed power capacit 
would be developed by features of the California 
Aqueduct System. 

The second plan was suggested by the Sacramento 
Municipal Utility District and has been designated 
the modified plan. It would utilize about 25 reservoirs 
to provide about the same storage as in the basic plan 
and would develop the power potential at 22 ncv 
plants. The basic plan is superior to the modified plar 
from the standpoint of over-all costs and ultimate 
accomplishments; but parts of the modified plan are 
more adaptable to staged construction and it is there- 
fore considered to be an acceptable alternative to the 
basic plan. The Sacramento Municipal Utility District 
has recently (March, 1957) been issued water rigt 
permits by the State Water Rights Board to begin 
its development. 

Sacramento Valley Floor. The Sacramento Val 
ley Floor embraces an area of about 4,300 squar 
miles south of Red Bluff between the foothills of th 
Sierra Nevada and the Coast Range. Except for Sut- 
ter Buttes, which rise precipitously from the 7 
floor near Yuba City, the land is relatively flat or 
gently rolling in most areas. The stream system in 
eludes the Sacramento River, flowing in the trough 
of the valley, and the various tributary streams flow- 
ing into the river from the surrounding mountains. 

Economic development of the Sacramento Valley 
Floor is based primarily on agriculture and its allied 
food-processing industries. In addition, major indus- 
tries are engaged in the extraction or mining and 
the production of natural gas, clay, limestone, sand 
and gravel, and gold. The Sacramento River and the 
valley floor portions of its tributaries are important I 
spawning streams for salmon, on which the salmon 
fishing industry depends in large measure, and also 
as spawning areas for steelhead, shad, and striped 
bass. All of these are of vital concern to sport fishing, 
which is of major economic importance to the area 
and to the State. Likewise, the Sacramento Valley 
Floor area is regarded as a major hunting area, as it 
contains excellent shooting grounds for waterfo 
pheasant, quail, and dove. 

Precipitation on the Sacramento Valley Floor avt 
ages about 22 inches per season, decreasing slightly 
from north to south. Much of the precipitation not 
consumed by plant growth probably penetrates to thU 
ground water, since the estimated mean seasonal nat- 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



117 



ural surface runoff from the valley floor amounts to 
only about 321,000 acre-feet as compared with a mean 
seasonal precipitation of about 5,000,000 acre-feet. 

Present (1949) water service areas of the Sacra- 
mento Valley Floor aggregate about 900,000 acres, 
supporting a population of about 400,000 people ac- 
cording to the 1950 census. Present gross urban and 
■ agricultural water requirements, amounting to some 
i 3,810,000 acre-feet per season, are substantially met 
in most areas of the valley by direct stream flow di- 
versions from the Sacramento River and its several 
tributaries, supplemented by releases from upstream 
storage and by pumping from ground water. Accord- 
ing to a land use survey conducted in 1949, there is 
!a present supplemental requirement of about 124,000 
jacre-feet per season for the Tehama, Arbuckle, Yuba, 
Marysville-Sheridan, and Carmichael areas. 
' Present flood protection on the Sacramento Valley 
'Floor, though grossly inadequate in some areas, com- 
' prises a vast system of river levees and by-pass chan- 
nels, as part of the Sacramento River Flood Control 
: Project, supplemented by reserved storage space in 
Shasta and Folsom Reservoirs. Some reduction in 
flood peaks is also afforded by unfilled reservoir space 
and surcharge storage available above the spillway 
lip in all other reservoirs of the Sacramento River 
Basin. 

i In addition to flood control and water development 
land distribution works on the Sacramento Valley 
■Floor, a large salmon and steelhead fish hatchery is 
located on the American River below Lake Natoma; 
and a 30-foot depth ship channel is being constructed 
Ifrom Collinsville to Sacramento, via the Sacramento 
River and Yolo By-Pass on the west side of the river. 
' Protection against damaging floods is the most im- 
portant, and in some areas the most urgent, of the 
water problems of the Sacramento Valley Floor. 
Other problems relate to adverse seepage from the 
Sacramento River; rising connate saline waters in 
'the Peach Bowl area of Sutter County ; the disposal 
Df sewage, industrial wastes, and drainage waters; 
ind the protection and enhancement of the fishery 
•esources and recreational values of the Sacramento 
River and its tributaries. No particular problems are 
ioreseen in providing adequate water service for the 
rapidly growing urban, agricultural, and industrial 
treas. Under ultimate conditions it is anticipated that 
I the water service areas of the Sacramento Valley 
IpToor may expand to about 2,400,000 acres, support- 
ug a future population of about 1,400,000 people, 
tnd requiring a supplemental water supply of about 
!,460,000 acre-feet per year. 

Under The California Water Plan it is contem- 
)lated that flood protection for the Sacramento Valley 
■door would be substantially increased by assigning 
md specifically reserving about 1,850,000 acre-feet 
if storage space in prospective reservoirs of the 



Sacramento River Basin for that purpose. This stor- 
age space would be strategically disposed on the 
tributary streams ; and, in addition, the new reservoirs 
would contain a large volume of surcharge storage 
space effective in reducing peak rates of flow. On the 
valley floor, stream channels would be improved and 
leveed, wherever necessary, to protect adjoining de- 
veloped areas to the extent warranted. 

Methods to alleviate damage from seepage in 
specific local areas will require further detailed study ; 
but, in general, it is believed that the full coordinated 
use of the ground water basins in the alluvium of 
the Sacramento Valley, under conditions of ultimate 
development, could limit the deleterious effects of 
seepage to small areas immediately adjacent to the 
river levees. Further study may indicate the neces- 
sity and feasibility of additional measures. Coordin- 
ated use of ground water is further discussed in this 
chapter under the heading of "Utilization of Ground 
Water Storage." 

Insofar as disposal of sewage, and industrial wastes 
and drainage waters are concerned, The California 
Water Plan envisages a trunk line waste conduit into 
which such waters could be pumped for disposal. The 
conduit would be built only if experience should in- 
dicate that the water resources would otherwise be 
seriously impaired. It would begin at Redding with a 
capacity of about 50 second-feet, and would flow 
through that area in a buried conduit to a pumping 
station south of Cottonwood Creek. Here, the water 
would be lifted to the divide between Cottonwood 
and Dibble Creeks, whence it would flow by gravity 
in both open and closed conduit along the west side 
of the Sacramento Valley into the Sacramento River 
Deep Water Ship Channel, or by separate conveyance 
conduit to the Delta below any future barrier. It is 
anticipated that the terminal capacity of the waste 
conduit would not exceed 500 second-feet, and its cost 
would be in the order of $20,000,000. 

Supplemental water supplies to meet present de- 
ficiencies and near future requirements on the west 
side of the valley and in the vicinity of Chico would 
be obtained from the Corning and Tehama-Colusa 
Canals, diverting from the Sacramento River at Red 
Bluff, and from the Chico Canal diverting near Chico. 
Water supplies for these canals will be made avail- 
able from the authorized Trinity River Division of 
the Central Valley Project of the Federal Govern- 
ment. Folsom Reservoir will relieve the present de- 
ficiency in the Carmichael area and may, with full 
upstream development, supply all of the future needs 
of the Sacramento metropolitan area. Remaining pres- 
ent and future supplemental requirements on the Sac- 
ramento Valley Floor would be obtained from de- 
velopments on the tributary streams, as described in 
preceding sections, and by increased pumping from 
ground water. 



118 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



Under The California Water Plan, the anadromous 
and other fishery resources of the Sacramento River 
and its tributaries would be enhanced to the maximum 
feasible extent. The recreational potential would like- 
wise be developed. 

In summary, The California Water Plan for the 
Sacramento Valley Floor would satisfy present and 
future supplemental water requirements, provide sub- 
stantial increased flood protection, maintain high- 
quality water and improve the quality where neces- 
sary, and enhance the fishery and recreational 
potential. 

Summary of Sacramento River Basin. The Cali- 
fornia Water Plan for the Sacramento River Basin 
contemplates the gradual addition of about 17,500,000 
acre-feet of storage capacity to the present basin 
reservoir system. This capacity would be contained in 
about 130 strategically disposed storage, diversion, 
and regulatory reservoirs, ranging in size from small 
impoundments for recreation to about 3,500,000 acre- 
feet in Oroville Reservoir on the Feather River. 
Twenty-four of the new reservoirs, with a combined 
capacity of about 9,000,000 acre-feet, are classified as 
features of the Klamath-Trinity, Eel, and Sacra- 
mento Divisions of the California Aqueduct System, 
but many of these would have important local as well 
as export functions. The new reservoirs would contain 
about 1,850,000 acre-feet of storage space specifically 
reserved for flood control, to augment about the same 
amount of such storage space now reserved in Shasta 
and Folsom Reservoirs and made available in other 
existing reservoirs of the basin. 

Under The California Water Plan, the present and 
future reservoirs of the Sacramento River Basin 
would yield an average of about 17,700,000 acre-feet 
of water per year for local use and export, of which 
about 12,500,000 acre-feet would be a firm supply. Of 
this, about 6,000,000 acre-feet may be regarded as new 
water. Assuming that all local demands would be met 
from firm water supplies and taking into account the 
availability of return flow, there would be an average 
of about 10,000,000 acre-feet per year of regulated 
water available to meet present and future export 
demands on the water supplies of the Sacramento 
River Basin. 

Based upon conventional concepts of reservoir op- 
eration, and considering the probable incidental safe 
ground water yield of the Sacramento Valley, about 
6,000,000 acre-feet of the export supply would be on 
a firm basis. The remainder would be a variable 
supply, ranging from zero in dry years to about 
6,000,000 acre-feet in wet years, and averaging about 
l.ooo, (Kin acre feel per year over a Long-time period. 
Conventional reservoir operation is defined herein 
as the achievement of optimum safe surface reservoir 
yield, as distinguished from conjunctive operation 



wherein optimum combined safe surface and ground 
water yield is the objective. 

Under full conjunctive operation of surface and 
ground water storage in the Sacramento River Basi: 
with the foothill reservoirs of the basin operated su 
stantially to regulate seasonal flows and the grou 
water reservoirs operated for cyclic storage, abo' 
8,000,000 acre-feet per year of the export suppj 
would be on a firm basis. The corresponding variable 
supply would then average only about 2,000,000 
acre-feet per year, ranging from zero in dry years to 
about 3,000,000 acre-feet in- wet years. For purposes 
of this report it was assumed that there would be 
gradual transition from conventional to conjuncti 
reservoir operation as the need to utilize ground wa 
storage to a greater extent develops. Further disc 
sion of the general subject of conjunctive operati 
is presented in greater detail later in this chapter. 

Specifically, the reservoirs of the Sacramento Riv 
Basin which have been classified as local works wou 
have an aggregate capacity of about 8.700.000 acn 
feet. These reservoirs would contain a total of abo 
550,000 acre-feet of storage space specifically reserv 
for flood control. In the aggregate their eombim 
safe yield in terms of new water would be abo 
3,000,000 acre-feet per year. Their cost, ineludi 
feeder conduits where pertinent, would be in a 
order of $600,000,000. 

There would be about 45 new and enlarged hyd 
electric power plants associated with the local resi 
voirs. These plants would have a combined install 
power capacity of about 1,600,000 kilowatts 
would generate an average of about 7.2 billi 
kilowatt-hours per year. Including related diversi 
works, conduits, penstocks, forebays. afterbays, ei 
their cost would be in the order of $375,000,000. 

Other local works would consist of main convey- 
ance and service canals for irrigation, wells for irri 
gation and urban purposes in some areas, additio: 
levees and floodway channels where needed, distribu 
tion and drainage systems, and possibly a main w; 
conduit extending southward from Redding the full 
length of the Sacramento Valley. The cost of this: 
conduit and the main conveyance and irrigation con 
duits in the upland areas of the basin would be in 
the order of $70,000,000. No estimates of cost were 
made for the various drainage and distribution sys- 
tems and other local works on the Sacramento Valley 
Floor that would be required for complete develop- 
ment of the land and water resources of the Sacra- 
mento River Basin. 

In summary, the local works of The California! 
Water Plan would provide sufficient regulated water 
to meet the local needs, develop the hydroelectric 
power potential to the maximum economic limit, sub-' 
stantially increase the flood protection in the local' 
areas, maintain the high-quality water and improve 
it where necessary, and maintain and enhance th( : 






THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



119 



jsh, wildlife, and recreational potential to the maxi- 
mal feasible extent. 
I The general features and costs of the principal local 
evelopment works contemplated in the Sacramento 
liver Basin are presented in Table 13. Similar in- 
prmation for the aqueduct features of the basin 
[evelopment is presented later in this chapter in 
ables 17 through 22, under appropriate divisions of 
California Aqueduct System. 

entral Valley Area — 
an Joaquin-Tulare Lake Basin 
California's greatest present and future water defi- 
lencies are in the San Joaquin and Tulare Lake 
asins. These two great basins, which are separable 
b to their drainage characteristics, contain 40 per 
mt of the irrigable lands of the State but share only 

6 per cent of the State's total water resources, 
ogether they comprise the greatest and most produc- 
ve single agricultural area of the State and are 
rossly deficient in native water supply. 

The San Joaquin-Tulare Lake Basin is approxi- 
ately 300 miles long and 130 miles wide, and em- 
races an area of 33,000 square miles, or about one- 
iph of the area of the State. In the central portion 
E the basin, surrounded by mountains on three sides 
id by the San Joaquin Delta at its northerly end, 
es the San Joaquin Valley, a region of 13,500 square 
jiles of gently sloping plains, with predominantly 
fertile soils well adapted to agriculture. The highest 
baks of the Sierra Nevada rise above the valley along 
■s entire eastern length. In these rugged scenic 
fountains lie the southern portion of the historic 
lother Lode region, a large area of national forest, 
bee national parks, and many state parks, all of 
hich afford excellent opportunities for recreation. 
J Because of favorable soil and climatic conditions, 
le San Joaquin-Tulare Lake Basin has pioneered i^ri- 
Ibtion development in California. About 3,700,000 
feres of a total irrigable area of about 8,000,000 acres 
pe been placed under irrigation. More than 50 irri- 
ttimi districts have been formed, as well as other 
Tpes of public districts and private companies, and 

7 their initiative many notable water works have 
-en constructed to furnish water and other services 
* irrigators. 

Precipitation in the San Joaquin-Tulare Lake Basin 
ages from less than 5 inches per season at the 
cithern end of the San Joaquin Valley to 60 to 70 
ches on higher ranges of the Sierra Nevada. About 
i per cent of the precipitation falls during the 
onths of November through April, with little or no 
linfall on the valley floor during the growing season 
hen the moisture demands of the crops are at their 
•ak. Runoff of streams tributary to the basin comes 
rgely from snow which provides a beneficial natural 
filiation. 



The major portion of the San Joaquin-Tulare Lake 
Basin is drained by the San Joaquin River and its 
many tributaries which comprise one of the largest 
stream systems in California. Principal tributaries of 
the San Joaquin River include the Cosumnes, Mo- 
kelumne, Calaveras, Stanislaus, Tuolumne, Merced, 
Chowchilla, and Fresno Rivers. The Tulare Lake 
Basin, a closed basin, constitutes the southern portion 
of the area, and the Kings, Kaweah, Tule, and Kern 
Rivers, as well as numerous minor streams, are tribu- 
tary to it. 

The present water requirements in the San Joaquin- 
Tulare Lake Basin are being met in several ways. At 
the north end of the basin there are diversions from 
Delta channels. Along the east side of the trough of 
the San Joaquin Valley there are substantial diver- 
sions from the major streams, some of which have 
been virtually completely developed for use. In addi- 
tion, water from the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta 
is imported in the Delta-Mendota Canal which began 
operation in 1951. There is also considerable pumping 
from ground water throughout the basin, particularly 
in the southern Tulare Lake Basin where development 
of ground water, combined with surface storage, has 
resulted in virtually complete conservation of the 
surface runoff. 

During 1954 approximately 8,250,000 acre-feet of 
water were withdrawn from underlying ground water 
storage in the San Joaquin-Tulare Lake Basin, repre- 
senting over two-thirds of the ground water utilized 
in the entire State. Two of the major rivers of the 
basin, the Mokelumne and the Tuolumne, furnish 
water which is conveyed westerly across the valley in 
pipe line aqueducts for use in the San Francisco Bay 
Area. Substantial hydroelectric power development 
has taken place on the Mokelumne, Stanislaus, Tuo- 
lumne, Merced, San Joaquin, Kings and Kern Rivers. 

Objectives of The California Water Plan in the San 
Joaquin-Tulare Lake Basin are : first, to develop fully 
and distribute local water supplies for all beneficial 
purposes, including irrigation, municipal, industrial, 
fish and wildlife, recreation, and power generation ; 
second, to protect urban and agricultural areas from 
damaging floods ; third, to convey and distribute the 
imported water supplies necessary to satisfy fully the 
ultimate water requirements for all beneficial pur- 
poses; and fourth, to protect the quality of water In- 
adequate drainage and removal of unsuitable waters. 
The necessity for protection and enhancement of fish 
and wildlife resources and for development of the 
recreational potential are important considerations 
that must be borne in mind in further development of 
the surface water resources of the basin. 

Virtually all portions of the San Joaquin-Tulare 
Lake Basin are now experiencing or are threatened 
with serious water problems of one kind or another. 
The most serious and widespread problem is the in- 



120 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 




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THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



TABLE 13-Continued 

SUMMARY OF WORKS TO MEET WATER REQUIREMENTS IN SACRAMENTO RIVER BASIN 

(These works show future development possibilities. They are not project proposals.) 



General location and sheet of Plate 5 i 
which shown 



Average 
head, 



Installed 
capacity, 



Average 
annual energy 
generation, in 
kilowatt-hours 



Capital 



Sugarloaf Mountain. 

Pit No. 2 

Pit No. 6 

Pit No. 7 

Willow 

Chonton Tubas 

Fiddlers . 

New ville 

Deer Creek No. 1 

Deer Creek No. 2 _ . . 

Deer Creek No. 3 

Deer Creek No. 4__. 

Squaw Queen 

Indian Falls 

Meadow Valley 

Swayne 

Woodleaf 

Forbestown 

Spaulding No. 3 d __._ 

Lake Valley 

Spaulding No. 2 d 

Drum d 

Dutch Flat d 

Chicago Park 

Rollins 

Halsey d 

Wise d 

DeerCreek d 

Devils Slide 

Jones Bar 

Wambo 



French Meadows 
Lower Hellhole.. 

Loon Lake 

Gerle 

Ralston 

American Bar.. . 

Junction 

Sly Park 

Camino 

Webber 

Placerville 

Gold Hill 

Alder Creek 



Hat Creek 

Pit River 

Pit River 

Pit River 

McCloud River 

McCloud River 

Middle Fork Cottonwood Ci 

North Fork Stony Creek 

Deer Creek 

Deer Creek 

Deer Creek 

Deer Creek 

Feather River 

Feather River 

Feather River 

Feather River 

Feather River 

Feather River 

South Yuba River 

South Yuba River 

South Yuba River 

Bear River 

Bear River 

Bear River 

Bear River 

Colfax Divide 

Colfax Divide 

Colfax Divide 

South Yuba River 

South Yuba River 

North Yuba River 

North Yuba River 

Rubicon River 

Rubicon River 

Gerle Creek 

Rubicon River 

Rubicon River 

Middle Fork American Rive 

South Fork American River 

Sly Park Creek 

Webber Creek 

Webber Creek 

Placerville 

South Fork American River 

Alder Creek 



548 
105 
118 
182 

1,126 
650 
250 
188 

1,602 
813 

1,047 
179 

1,660 
650 

1,675 

1,365 

1,648 
785 
318 
812 
305 

1,375 
643 



765 
385 

1,157 
618 
385 
512 

1,687 

2,743 
203 

1,120 
154 
838 
142 
347 
887 

1.372 



5,000 
14,000 
50,700 
98,000 
122,000 
86,000 

8,000 

8,500 
29,200 
27,100 
3.5,400 

5,500 
14,000 
25,000 
125,000 
84,000 
70,000 
13,000 

3,200 
17.500 

2,300 
68,000 

7,000 
25,000 
11,000 

3,500 
10,000 

8,100 
33,600 
23,700 
17,700 
131,000 
11,000 
18,000 

5,500 
21,000 
135,000 
16,000 
60,000 
10,000 
45,000 

7,000 
19,000 
45,000 
20.000 



42,000,000 

95,000,000 

210,000,000 

333,000,000 

644,000,000 

476,000,000 

45,000,000 

33,000,000 

118,000,000 

135,000,000 

173,500,000 

29,700,000 

51,900,000 

126,000,000 

503,300,000 

300,000,000 

168,800,000 

146,800,000 

9,300,000 

82,000,000 

14,900,000 

276,000,000 

25,000,000 

96,000,000 

57,500,000 

6,400,000 

5,700,000 

25,900,000 

100,000,000 

78,000,000 

116,000,000 

800,000,000 

52,300,000 

78,300,000 

26,100,000 

109,700,000 

684,000,000 

106,000,000 

301,600,000 

34,100,000 

184,800,000 

30,900,000 

73,600,000 

103,500,000 

104,500,000 



Totals . 



,.VM, .->()(> 



7,213,100,000 



Feeders for 

Power conduits 

Main upland irrigation conduits 
Sacramento Valley waste conduit 

Totals 



Length, in miles 



278 
188 
696 

175 



•8102,277,01 

> 1 60,836,Ot 

48.767,01 

20,514,01 



K332 394.01 



yield of upstream works, if any. 
1 At L95S price levels. 

( 'ost of each plant includes associated works except reservoirs. 
1 Tabulated data pertain to enlarged portion of existing plant, 
included with reservoirs. 
Cost included a L1 h pow ei plant 

Symbols of Type of Dam 

Ml, fill 
I! Rod 111! 

I one n : i ■ 1 1 1 

' 'A ( loncrete arch 



Symbols of Purpose 
I — Irrigation 
I ' Power 
FC— Flood control 
I I ohancemenl of 
R Recreation 
D — Diversion 









■ im 



m 






my 





-*fc 



San Joaquin River Basin-Diversion Flume From Mokelumne River 



126 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



adequacy of the available water supply to meet many 
present needs, to support continued expansion, and 
to sustain and protect the vast agricultural wealth of 
the basin during periods of drought which may occur 
at any time. The present annual water deficiency, 
estimated to be about 2,300,000 acre-feet in 1957, is 
so great that if a severe drought period, such as those 
experienced in the past, should now occur, the neces- 
sary water conservation and conveyance works could 
not be constructed fast enough to prevent widespread 
havoc and economic disaster. 

Major reservoirs have been constructed on virtually 
all streams on the east side of the San Joaquin-Tulare 
Lake Basin. In addition to this substantial develop- 
ment of surface water sources, many of the local 
public water districts supplement their water supplies 
by use of ground water. Many other areas are com- 
pletely dependent upon ground water supplies. Use 
of ground water is increasing, and this trend is cer- 
tain to continue. 

Operation of the surface reservoirs and use of the 
underground basins have resulted in a high degree 
of conservation and utilization of the natural runoff 
of the tributary streams of the basin, particularly 
those streams south of the Merced River. In addition, 
large quantities of water, amounting to 675,000 acre- 
feet during 1956, are imported from the Sacramento- 
San Joaquin Delta in the Delta-Mendota Canal. De- 
spite such extensive development, there is an urgent 
need for additional supplemental water supplies. 
There is also a need for works which will make avail- 
able a portion of the local water supplies for moun- 
tain and foothill lands so that these lands may 
develop. In those stream basins where water supplies 
are fully utilized on valley floor lands, exchange or 
purchase agreements will be necessary. 

As of 1950, the seasonal requirement for water in 
the San Joaquin Valley was estimated to be 9,300,000 
acre-feet. Ultimate realization of the full potential for 
agricultural and other types of development would 
increase this requirement to about 16,300,000 acre- 
feet annually, a virtual doubling of the water re- 
quirement. Runoff of tributary streams, which already 
has been almost fully developed, can support only 
about one-half of this requirement; the remainder, 
over 8,500,000 acre-feet annually, ultimately must be 
imported. 

At the present time there are large overdrafts in 
all valley hydrographic units in the Tulare Lake 
Basin and in several of the valley units of the San 
Joaquin River Basin. These deficiencies are particu- 
larly serious in the western and southern portions of 
the vallej and in certain areas of the eastern portion 
which, although located close to the Friant-Kern 
Canal, cannot he supplied therefrom because the 
limited supply available lias already been contracted 
for in other areas. 



For some years past the expansion of irrigatet 
areas devoted to permanent crops has occurred chiefh 
by the utilization of ground water supplies, and th 
recent and increasing development of the west ski 
area has been dependent entirely upon the develop 
ment and use of ground water. Many other area 
which have limited or no surface supplies, and whie! 
depend mainly upon ground water, are experiencin; 
serious water deficiencies. In many of these localities 
particularly in the southeastern part of the valle,, 
and, more recently, on the western side of the valley 
expansion of irrigated areas has continued in thj 
face of this deficiency. With the continued recession 
of the ground water levels, amounting to as much a: 
30 feet per year in some instances, water supplies i. 
some areas have become almost exhausted, while i. 
others pumping lifts have become so excessive as ti 
be nearly economically prohibitive. Annual ovei 
drafts, accumulating for many years, have so d< 
pleted many portions of the ground water basins tltf 
excessive pumping lifts will reduce net agriculture 
profits for years to come, until costly imported wate 
supplied in quantities in excess of actual water r<| 
quirements, has refilled the basins. 

In certain of the west side areas the surface an; 
much of the ground water supplies are of poor qua. 
ity, and it is probable that in some cases their use i 
even now detrimental to the utility of the soil. Othe; 
serious problems of water quality are developing c; 
the west side of the San Joaquin Valley. In much «; 
this area the usable aquifer for pumping is four, 
between overlying unusable perched water and undej 
lying connate brines, and improperly constructe. 
wells permit a commingling of the waters in the thrtj 
zones to the detriment of the usable water. There j 
also a serious water quality problem along the low; 
reaches of the San Joaquin River during much of tlj 
irrigation season when the flow is composed entire 
of drainage and return waters. 

There are also many areas in the San Joaqui 
Tulare Lake Basin where serious drainage probler 
exist. In some instances increased use of ground wat; 
would alleviate such problems; in other areas surfa< 
drainage systems are needed. There is an urgent ne»! 
to intercept, collect, and drain from the basin il 
creasing quantities of agricultural, municipal, ai| 
industrial waste waters and other waters of degrad 
or impaired quality. As additional supplement 
water supplies become available, there will be an 
creased need for drainage, particularly in the clos 
Tulare Lake Basin. 

In past years of subnormal runoff and prior to 
construction of Shasta Dam on the Sacramento Rivl 
available inflow to the Delta from the Sacrai 
and San Joaquin River systems was insufficient &\ 
in" certain mouths to meet water demands in t 






THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



127 



pelta. During such periods the invasion of saline 
fater from San Francisco Bay into the Delta chan- 
jels rendered the water unfit for irrigation and other 
(ses, not only in the Delta and adjacent uplands but 
|Lso in the adjacent upper portions of the San Fran- 
seo Bay. At the present time, when necessary, re- 
uses of water are made from Shasta Reservoir to 
ow out into the bay to prevent the recurrence of 
His situation. 

' Damaging floods have occurred in past j r ears of 
rge runoff, and their possible repetition is a menace 

some of the improved valley lands in populated 

as. Although works for flood protection, including 
ajor flood control reservoirs such as Pine Flat and 

bella, have been provided for considerable portions 
f the area subject to flooding, there is still a need 
|r additional flood control works on many streams 

protect many of the valley lands of the basin. 

[I The San Joaquin-Tulare Lake Basin has been sub- 
sided into five separate geographical subdivisions, 
Id the development works to meet local requirements 
|e segregated according to these subdivisions for dis- 

ssion herein. Under the first two subdivisions, ' ' San 
■ laquin-Sierra Group," and "Tulare-Sierra Group," 
mjor works of The California "Water Plan on east 
Be streams and tributaries of the San Joaquin- 

ilare Lake Basin are described. Such works would 
operated to accomplish the necessarily high de- 
[fee of conservation of runoff, and would furnish 
rge amounts of incidental hydroelectric energy and 
iovide a large measure of flood control. There are 
bo described additional works, generally of smaller 
He, which would be necessary adjuncts to the major 
jlrks, in order that local requirements would be met 
i all foothill and mountain watersheds above the 
lor of the San Joaquin Valley. The two groups in- 
nde all mountain and foothill lands of the basin, 
Hd their common boundary is the watershed divide 
ftween the San Joaquin and Kings Rivers. The third 
ipdivision, "West Side Group," encompasses the 
Bast Range slopes of the San Joaquin-Tulare Lake 
Hsin with its numerous minor peripheral streams, 
Rm Marsh Creek on the northwest side to Buena 
Msta Creek near Taft. The fourth subdivision, "North 
■Hey Group," includes the northern portion of 
Wley floor lands of the basin. Works in the southern 
irtion are described in connection with the fifth 
jfcdivision, "South Valley Group." The locations of 
U various units are shown on Plate 3. Following the 
leussion of all works in the basin, there is a sum- 
pry statement, with tables, showing principal char- 
Ijeristics of the various works and their estimated 
i|ts. The works included in the California Aqueduct 
l^tem and lying within the San Joaquin-Tulare 
Lke Basin are described separately in a later part 
Cthis chapter. 



San Joaquin-Sierra Group. The San Joaquin- 
Sierra Group includes all mountain and foothill lands 
of the San Joaquin-Tulare Lake Basin lying north of 
the watershed divide between the San Joaquin and 
Kings Rivers. Consisting of mountainous and foothill 
areas, the region is favored by forest, mineral, and 
recreational resources and developments typical of 
such areas. There is a considerable amount of ir- 
rigable land, approximately 278,000 acres, of which 
only 11,700 acres were irrigated in 1950. Large timber 
resources are located in this group. 

Much of the flow of the streams draining the San 
Joaquin-Sierra Group has already been developed for 
use on the San Joaquin Valley floor and for export 
to the San Francisco Bay Area. Flood problems within 
the group are of minor importance ; however, foothill 
reservoirs are now and in the future will be operated 
to give flood protection to lands on the valley floor. 
Hydroelectric power is presently developed on the 
Mokelumne, Stanislaus, Tuolumne, Merced, and San 
Joaquin Rivers. Other streams of the group include 
the Cosumnes, Calaveras, Chowchilla, and Fresno 
Rivers, and minor east side streams which are directly 
tributary to the valley floor. 

As of 1950, the seasonal water requirements for 
lands in the San Joaquin-Sierra Group aggregated 
about 41,000 acre-feet and were met, for the most 
part, by direct stream diversion, with only little use 
of reservoir storage. It is estimated that ultimate 
water requirements will total about 520,000 acre-feet, 
which could be met by contemplated future reservoirs 
and diversion works of The California Water Plan 
subsequently described. As indicated previously, the 
streams of this group furnish water not only to foot- 
hill and mountain lands therein, but also to lands on 
the San Joaquin Valley floor and for export to the 
San Francisco Bay Area. Under full development it is 
estimated that the firm yield of all reservoirs on 
streams in the group would be about 4,070,000 acre- 
feet annually, of which about 520,000 acre-feet would 
be allocated to foothill and mountain lands. 

Development on the Cosumnes River for use in that 
watershed has been relatively minor. There are several 
small diversions in the foothills and lower mountain 
regions for irrigation and domestic purposes ; how- 
ever, the total quantity of water which is now diverted 
from the upper river for local use is small in compari- 
son with the total runoff of the watershed. The most 
substantial export from the watershed, about 17,000 
acre-feet per season, is conveyed from the recently 
completed Sly Park Reservoir on Sly Park Creek, with 
a capacity of 41,000 acre-feet, to the American River 
watershed. 

The Mokelumne River is subject to heavy draft for 
irrigation, power, and municipal purposes. Salt 
Springs and Bear River Reservoirs in the headwater 
area supply the Pacific Gas and Electric Company 



.i 



128 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



power development. Pardee Reservoir in the foothills, 
with a capacity of 239,000 acre-feet, develops muni- 
cipal water supply for the East Bay Municipal Utility 
District in Alameda and Contra Costa Counties, with 
some attendant hydroelectric power generation. 

Existing developments on the Stanislaus River in- 
clude Melones Reservoir, with a capacity of 112,500 
acre-feet, owned jointly by the Oakdale and South 
San Joaquin Irrigation Districts; and the Tri-Dam 
Project, consisting of Donnells, Beardsley, and Tul- 
loch Reservoirs and associated power plants, presently 
under construction by the same districts. The Tri- 
Dam Project will add substantially to the present ir- 
rigation supplies and hydroelectric energy developed 
by Melones Reservoir. 

Existing developments on the Tuolumne River in- 
clude works by the City and County of San Fran- 
cisco in the upper watersheds to provide water, hydro- 
electric power, and conveyance of the water to the 
San Francisco Peninsula for use in the San Francisco 
Bay Area. These works include three reservoirs, 
Hetch Hetchy, Lake Eleanor, and Cherry Valley, with 
a combined storage capacity of 656,000 acre-feet. In 
1954-55, about 123,000 acre-feet of water were con- 
veyed in the Hetch Hetchy Aqueduct to the Bay 
area. Additional works, including Don Pedro Reser- 
voir, with a capacity of 289,000 acre-feet, have been 
constructed on the main river by the Modesto and 
Turlock Irrigation Districts to generate power and to 
provide water for use in their service areas in the San 
Joaquin Valley. 

Exchequer Dam on the Merced River forms Mc- 
Clure Reservoir, owned by the Merced Irrigation Dis- 
trict. The reservoir, with a capacity of 289,000 acre- 
feet, is operated to store water for irrigation use in 
the valley and for hydroelectric power production. 

There are no existing developments of any con- 
sequence on the Fresno or Chowchilla Rivers, which 
rise too far from the crest of the Sierra and at too 
low an elevation to be snow-fed in the summer months. 
Runoff from these streams varies from little or no 
flow to flashy floods. 

The San Joaquin River rises on the western slope 
of the Sierra Nevada and flows southwesterly, dis- 
charging from the foothills to the trough of the val- 
ley floor, where it turns northwesterly and traverses 
the Sail Joaquin Valley to its confluence with the 
Sacramento River at the head of Suisun Bay. The 
Southern California Edison Company has developed 
an extensive system of power plants and four major 
storage reservoirs on the upper watersheds, compris- 
ing Florence, Huntington, Shaver, and Vermillion 
Lakes Reservoirs, with a combined storage capacity of 
about 148,000 acre-feet. This system utilizes a. large 
pari of the (low of the river for hydroelectric power 
production. The Pacific Gas and Electric Company, 
with 46,000 acre-feel of regulatory storage in Crane 
Valley Reservoir, also develops power in the lower 



watershed. Releases from the two systems are © 
bined in the small Kerckhoff Reservoir and are 
charged through the Kerckhoff Power Plant. Fri 
Dam, forming Lake Millerton with a storage capa 
of 520,000 acre-feet, has been constructed at the 
ley floor line by the United States Bureau of Reel 
tion and is operated for irrigation and flood con 
purposes. 

Plans for development of the water resources of 
San Joaquin-Sierra Group contemplate the even 
construction of 57 dams and reservoirs to make w; 
available for use on mountain and foothill lands 
on the valley floor. The reservoirs would also proi 
the watershed lands, preserve and enhance fish, 
life, and recreation, and give flood protection to 
valley floor. A number of the reservoirs would be o 
ated either primarily or partly to produce hydro 
trie energy. The contemplated works in each of 
major river basins are described separately. 

Works in the Cosumnes River Basin would incl 
12 dams and reservoirs on the North, Middle 
South Forks of the Cosumnes River and their t 
taries, on the main river, and on Deer, Sutter 
Dry Creeks. Additional water would be made : 
able to the basin from works on the South Fork of 
American River and by the Amador Canal which 
veys water from the Mokelumne River. Works on t! 
North Fork would include Capps Crossing and Midd 
End Reservoirs. Two reservoirs, Bakersford and Pi B 
would be located on the Middle Fork. Sopiago Rese 1 
voir would be located on Sopiago Creek, a tributary 
the Middle Fork. Works on the South Fork would 
elude two reservoirs, Bridgeport and Case Vap 
Other reservoirs in the basin would include Volca} 
on Sutter Creek, Deer Creek on Deer Creek, and Irij 
Hill on Dry Creek. 

Water conserved in these reservoirs would suppi 
ment existing diversions to meet water requiremei' 
in the Cosumnes River Basin and on adjacent laDf 
above the valley floor. In addition, all of the reserve] 
would be operated to preserve and enhance the 8 
wildlife, and recreation values of the watershed. T' 
major reservoirs, Nashville and Michigan Bar, wot 
be constructed on the main river. Water conserved 
Nashville Reservoir would be discharged through 
power plant for power generation, and then to 
natural channel of the Cosumnes River for doft 
stream irrigation and to augment low flows in I 
interests of fish and wildlife. A substantial portion 
these waters would be diverted immediately below 
power plant and conveyed in a southerly direction 
serve lands south of the river. The remaining 
would be impounded downstream in Michigan I 
Reservoir, together with the intervening tribui 
runoff, reregulated to meet irrigation demands, 
released to the natural channel for downstream dh 
sion and for use on the valley floor. Nashville i 






THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



129 



ichigan Bar Reservoirs also would be operated to 
ptect downstream areas from floods and to provide 
istained flows for fish. 

! Plans to provide water for a portion of the irrigable 

nds in the Mokelumne and Calaveras River Basins 

[elude five reservoirs, of which two would be in the 

[okelumne River Basin and three would be in the 

nlaveras River Basin. Certain lands in these basins 

so would receive water from developments on the 

brth Pork of the Stanislaus River. The plans con- 

mplate the enlargement of existing Middle Fork 

bservoir, which is located on the Middle Fork of the 

okelumne River, and construction of Forest Creek 

id Jesus Maria Reservoirs on Forest Creek and on 

-sus Maria Creek, respectively. Also included is the 

largement of the existing McCarty Dam. which is 

tated on the North Fork of the Calaveras River in 

daveras Valley, and construction of San Domingo 

itservoir on San Domingo Creek. Irrigable lands 

■tween the North and South Forks of the Mokelumne 

tjver would be supplied with water from Middle 

Bprk and Forest Creek Reservoirs. Lands between the 

lluth Fork of the Mokelumne River and the Stan- 

}aus River watershed divide would be supplied with 

■iter from Jesus Maria, McCarty, and San Domingo 

Itservoirs and direct diversions from the South Fork 

K the Mokelumne River and the North Fork of the 

ianislaus River. The foregoing reservoirs also would 

■ operated to enhance the fish, wildlife, and recrea- 
pm potentials. There are, however, other tributaries 

■ the rivers on which small reservoirs should be con- 
ducted in the headwaters to maintain flows for fish. 
■[Developments on the Mokelumne River proposed by 
m East Bay Municipal Utility District include Rail- 
ed Flat Reservoir on the South Fork, and Middle 
■r and Camanche Reservoirs on the main river, as 
■11 as enlargement of the existing Pardee Reservoir, 
■ese works would make additional water available 
ft* export to the East Bay area under water rights 
Ijnnits already granted. In operation studies of the 
■ervoirs on the Mokelumne River, it was assumed 
Kit water in the firm annual amount of 364,000 acre- 
ftt would ultimately be exported to the East Bay 
lea. Storage in and operation of Camanche Reservoir 
m flood control is necessary if downstream areas are 
■be protected. Studies of the operation of Camanche 
Eservoir indicate that under ultimate conditions the 
Bervoir releases in dry years probably will not sup- 
ft*t the anadromous fishery on the lower Mokelumne 
■her. This problem should be given further study to 
Rtermine steps that can be taken to protect and 

■serve the fishery. 

■Prospective major developments on the Calaveras 
Rrer would be confined to the enlargement of existing 
B»gan Reservoir. Water released from the reservoir 
■uld be diverted at the dam and would be served to 
■ids north of the river. New Hogan Reservoir would 



also be operated to protect downstream lands from 
floods. 

Suggested works on the Stanislaus River would in- 
clude the construction of three new reservoirs and 
the enlargement of two existing reservoirs. These 
works would be on the North and South Forks of 
the Stanislaus River, and would provide water for 
irrigable lands in the Stanislaus River Basin and in 
portions of the Mokelumne and Calaveras River 
Basins. Operation of these works would enhance the 
fish, wildlife, and recreation resources of the Cala- 
veras and Stanislaus River Basins. Under the plan 
for the development of the North Fork of the Stanis- 
laus River, an enlarged reservoir would be con- 
structed at the existing Spicer Meadow reservoir site 
on Highland Creek, a tributary to the North Fork. 
Water released from the enlarged Spicer Meadow 
Reservoir would flow down the natural channel of 
Highland Creek and the North Fork to Ganns Reser- 
voir, which would be constructed on the North Fork 
of the Stanislaus River about 1 mile downstream from 
the junction with Highland Creek. Water conserved 
in Ganns Reservoir would be augmented by these re- 
leases from Spicer Meadow Reservoir and by releases 
from existing Utica, Silver Valley, and Union Valley 
Reservoirs, which are located on the North Fork 
of the Stanislaus River. Releases from Ganns Reser- 
voir would be discharged through a power plant and 
into Ramsey Reservoir, also on the North Fork. From 
Ramsey Reservoir, the water would be conveyed along 
the right bank of the North Fork of the Stanislaus 
River. A portion of the water would be discharged 
to a power house on Moran Creek and thence to exist- 
ing Hunter Reservoir and to the existing Murphys 
Power Plant, from where it would be conveyed to San 
Domingo Reservoir. The remaining water from the 
North Fork of the Stanislaus River would be dis- 
charged through a proposed power plant on Jesus 
Maria Creek. From this power plant, a portion of 
the water would be conveyed to the proposed en- 
larged McCarty Reservoir on the North Fork of the 
Calaveras River to supply water to irrigable lands 
between the North Fork of the Calaveras River and 
the South Fork of the Mokelumne River. The re- 
maining water would flow down the creek to Jesus 
Maria Reservoir. All of the foregoing reservoirs 
would be operated to enhance fish, wildlife, and rec- 
reation. 

Suggested works on the South Fork of the Stanis- 
laus River would include Big Dam Reservoir and en- 
larged Lyons Reservoir. Irrigable lands in the Stanis- 
laus River Basin north of the Stanislaus River and 
its North Fork would receive water conserved in the 
enlarged Spicer Meadow Reservoir, Ganns Reservoir. 
Ramsey Reservoir, and in works on Moran Creek and 
existing Hunter Reservoir, all previously mentioned. 
These works would also furnish Avater to lands in the 






130 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



Mokelumne River Basin which are south of the South 
Fork of the Mokelumne River. Irrigable lands be- 
tween the Stanislaus River, the South Fork of the 
Stanislaus River, and the Tuolumne River watershed 
divide would receive water conserved in Big Dam 
and Lyons Reservoirs on the South Fork of the Stanis- 
laus. Lyons Reservoir also would be used as a regula- 
tion reservoir for water developed by works on the 
Clavey River and the North Fork of the Tuolumne 
River. These waters, so regulated, would be conveyed 
from Lyons Reservoir in the existing Tuolumne 
Ditch to Phoenix Power Plant and thence to irrigable 
lands in Tuolumne County. In addition to providing 
water to irrigable lands, the foregoing works also 
would provide sustained flows to enhance fish, wildlife, 
and recreation. 

Other works in the upper watershed of the Stanis- 
laus River would be constructed primarily to pro- 
duce hydroelectric power and to enhance fish, wild- 
life, and recreation benefits. They would include Ken- 
nedy Meadows and Griswold Reservoirs, Sand Bar 
and Oriswold Power Plants, and the enlarged Stanis- 
laus Power Plant. In addition, it is proposed to en- 
large the existing Melones Reservoir to a capacity of 
1,100,000 acre-feet to provide flood control and hydro- 
electric power, and to make additional water avail- 
able for use on valley floor lands. 

"Works contemplated in the upper watershed of the 
Tuolumne River would include reservoirs at sites on 
the North and South Forks of the main river, on Lily 
Creek, Clavey River, and Hull and Sullivan Creeks, 
tributaries to the main stream, and on Big Creek, 
tributary to the South Fork. These works would en- 
hance fish, wildlife, and recreation. In addition, after 
reregulation in Lyons Reservoir and discharge 
through the Phoenix Power Plant, the water woiald 
be available for use on irrigable lands in the Tuol- 
umne River Basin. 

Works on the South Fork of the Tuolumne River 
would consist of Hardin Flat and Burch Meadows 
Reservoirs. These reservoirs would serve water to 
irrigable lands in the basin which lie south of the 
main river, and would furnish a limited quantity of 
water for export to off-stream storage in Mariposa 
County. Much of the exported water, after reregula- 
tion in Coulterville Reservoir, would be returned to 
lower lands in the Tuolumne River Basin. Irrigable 
lands in the basin which lie north of the North Fork 
and north of the Tuolumne River would receive water 
from Lily Lake, Belle Meadows, Lords, Browns Mea- 
dow, and Phoenix Reservoirs, and from Lyons Reser- 
voir as mentioned previously. Lily Lake Reservoir 
would be constructed on Lily Creek, a tributary of 
the Tuolumne River; Belle Meadows Reservoir would 
be on Clavey River, a tributary of the Tuolumne 
River; Lords Reservoir would be located on Rush 
Creek, a tributary of Clavey River; and Browns 



Meadow Reservoir would be located on the Nort; 
Fork of the Tuolumne River. An enlargement of thi 
existing Phoenix Reservoir, located on Sullivan Creell 
is also contemplated. In addition to providing wata 
for upstream lands, the foregoing reservoirs would b 
operated to enhance fish, wildlife, and recreation. 

New power developments proposed by the City an 
County of San Francisco on the Tuolumne Rive 
would include the Hetch Hetchy Power Plant at EarL 
Intake and Cherry Creek Power Plant on Cherr. 
Creek. Existing power plants which logically could a 
enlarged include the Moccasin Creek, Phoenix, an| 
Don Pedro Power Plants. Operation of Don Pedi; 
Reservoir, enlarged to a capacity of about 1.950,0(1 
acre-feet, would protect downstream lands from flooi 
and provide additional regulation of water for use 
valley floor lands. 

In operation studies of works on the Tuolu: 
River, it was assumed that water in the firm ann 
amount of 450,000 acre-feet ultimately would be 
ported to the San Francisco Bay Area through 
Hetch Hetchy Aqueduct by the City and County 
San Francisco. In the event that the export would 
increased above this amount, a similar increase wouj 
be required in the amount imported to the San Joi 
quin-Tulare Lake Basin through facilities of the Gs( 
ifornia Aqueduct System. The City and County 
San Francisco claims large rights of early priority 
waters of the Tuolumne River. 

Works contemplated to provide water for irrigabi 
lands in the Merced River Basin lying north of til 
Merced River, as well as to enhance fish, wildlife, aij 
recreation in this area, would include Coultervillj 
Butterfly, and Hayward Reservoirs. Lands in ti 
basin lying south of the river could receive water 
verted from the South Fork of the Merced River nei 
Wawona and outside Yosemite National Park, 
regulated in reservoirs on tributaries of the Wd 
Fork of the Chowchilla River, and on Mariposa ai 
Bear Creeks. These reservoirs would enhance 
wildlife, and recreation, and also would furnish watl 
to certain land in the Chowchilla River Basin. 

Coulterville Reservoir, in addition to conserving 
runoff of its own watershed, would regulate wat 
imported into the area from Hardin Flat Reservoir 
the South Fork of the Tuolumne River, as previous 
mentioned. The water would be released from Cou'ft) 
ville Reservoir to Butterfly and Hayward Reserve; 
for further regulation, and to serve irrigable 1: 
and enhance fish, wildlife, and recreation. Water 
verted from the South Fork of the Merced River 
the Wawona diversion would be conveyed we! 
in a tunnel into the upper watershed of the G. 
cli ilia River Basin. As the water would be con 
across the upper Chowchilla River watershed, 
releases would be made lor local application 
regulatory storage reservoirs in this basin, as is 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



131 



k uently described. However, the major portion of 
water would be conveyed out of the watershed 
a. I discharged into Aqua Fria and Upper Bear Creek 
lservoirs, located on Mariposa Creek and Bear 
( >ek. respectively, and served to lands in the vicinity 
othe two reservoirs. 

n addition to the foregoing works, which would 
i ve water to upper watershed lands and would en- 
fish, wildlife, and recreation, a major reservoir, 
Vginia Point, with a storage capacity of about 
100,000 acre-feet, would be constructed on the main 
|tn of the Merced River immediately above the ex- 
feng McClure Reservoir. Releases from Virginia 
Mnt Reservoir would be made through a new power 
put into McClure Reservoir. From McClure Reser- 
ik, the water would be discharged through an en- 
tered Exchequer Power Plant, the Merced Falls 
Pjjver Plant, and then diverted for irrigation in the 
lrced Irrigation District and adjacent areas in the 
Si Joaquin Valley. Reservoir space in the amount of 
1K000 acre-feet would be reserved in Virginia Point 
Rervoir to control floods on the Merced River. Re- 
lets would be made from the reservoirs to sustain 
fl.s fur the preservation of fish life. 

Vs mentioned previously, a portion of the water 
Iferted from the South Fork of the Merced River 
wild be released in the upper Chowchilla River 
B|in. This water, which would be released to four 
mil reservoirs, namely, Darrah, Magoon, Pegleg, 
U: Humbug, and to farm-size reservoirs, would meet 
■tetantially all water requirements in the upper por- 
mks of the Chowchilla River Basin which have no 
al.rnative source of supply. Lower lands in the basin 
•lid receive water from Buchanan Reservoir on the 
•wchilla River, which would also furnish water to 
u provide flood protection for lands on the San 
Jkiquin Valley floor. 

Irrigable lands in the Fresno River Basin would 
-Wive water conserved in three small reservoirs, 
■kely, Miami, Lewis, and Nelder Creek, located on 
■iutaries of the Fresno River. Irrigable lands in 
Mower reaches of the Fresno River Basin would re- 
-■je water from Windy Gap Reservoir and from 
Mjden Reservoir. These latter reservoirs would also 
faiish water to lands in the San Joaquin Valley, and 
Kden Reservoir would provide flood protection to 
tii valley floor. 

-lrospective development of the San Joaquin River 
■ild be confined to the undeveloped tributaries of 
fc* portion of the main river watershed which ex- 
I - north from the mouth of Big Creek, excluding 
BSouth Fork. The works would be constructed pri- 
nsily to produce hydroelectric energy and to pre- 
«ie and enhance the fish, wildlife, and recreation re- 
Hces of the watershed. Suggested works would in- 
I e .Miller Bridge Dam and Reservoir, Miller Bridge 
Wer Plant, Forks Dam and Reservoir, Forks Power 



Plant, Mammoth Pool Dam and Reservoir, Mammoth 
Pool Power Plant, Chiquito Creek Dam and Reservoir, 
and Chiquito Power Plant. The Southern California 
Edison Company is proposing the construction of 
Mammoth Pool Reservoir. No works are specifically 
contemplated herein to provide for future water re- 
quirements in the mountain and foothill watersheds of 
the San Joaquin River Basin, since such requirements 
are small and are for lands in scattered valleys adja- 
cent to the main river and its tributaries, which lands 
could be served by direct diversions and from local 
farm-size reservoirs. 

From Miller Bridge Reservoir on the Middle Fork, 
a tunnel would convey water to the Miller Bridge 
Power Plant, located on the Middle Fork about 2 
miles above the confluence of the South Fork and on 
the flow line of Forks Reservoir. From Forks Reser- 
voir a tunnel would convey the water to the Forks 
Power Plant, which would be located on the flow line 
of Mammoth Pool Reservoir. From Mammoth Pool 
Reservoir on the main San Joaquin River the water 
would be discharged through the Mammoth Pool 
Power Plant, located above the junction with Big 
Creek. The power plant would be connected with 
Mammoth Pool Reservoir by a tunnel. Releases from 
the power plant would be available for use in three 
existing downstream power plants before flowing into 
MiUerton Lake. 

Chiquito Reservoir on Chiquito Creek would con- 
serve the runoff of its own watershed, plus diversions 
from West Granite and Jackass Creeks. A tunnel 
would convey the flow of West Granite Creek to 
Jackass Creek, where a second diversion would di- 
vert the combined flows of both creeks for discharge 
into Chiquito Reservoir. Water released from Chi- 
quito Reservoir would be conveyed in a tunnel to 
Chiquito Power Plant, also on the flow line of Mam- 
moth Pool Reservoir. 

The new and existing works in the San Joaquin 
River Basin would produce large amounts of hydro- 
electric energy and would provide water to meet local 
water requirements, including that for enhancement 
of fish and wildlife resources and for development of 
the recreational potential. Water requirements in 
the service areas of the Madera and Friant-Kern 
Canals also would be met. A substantial amount of 
Hood control is provided in the basin by reservation 
of storage space for that purpose in Millerton Lake. 

The 57 prospective reservoirs which would accom- 
plish the local objectives of The California Water 
Plan in the San Joaquin-Sierra Group, would have a 
total reservoir storage capacity of about 6,560,000 
acre-feet. Their construction and operation in con- 
junction with existing works in the group would pro- 
vide about 520,000 acre-feet of water each year to 
meet requirements in the foothill and mountain wa- 
tersheds. They also would provide about 3.550.000 




San Joaquin River Basin— Headwaters and Delta 



f 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



133 



re-feet of water for release to lands on the valley 
far, together with large quantities of usable spill 
Billable for regulation in the ground water reser- 
a r. The existing and new hydroelectric plants, with 
aotal installed capacity of about 1,880,000 kilowatts, 
vuld produce about 8.8 billion kilowatt-hours of 

I droelectric energy each year, of which 2.9 billion 
kowatt-hours would be new energy. Operation of 

I I units of The California Water Plan would pro- 
i^.e reservoir pools and sustained stream flows to 
j:serve and enhance the valuable fish, wildlife, and 
r reation resources in these Sierra watersheds. In 
alition. about 1.500,000 acre-feet of space would be 
I »vided in the major downstream reservoirs, which, 
I en operated in conjunction with existing and pro- 
I ed levee systems, would prevent flooding of valley 
lids. 

Tulare-Sierra Group. The Tulare-Sierra Group 

I hides all mountain and foothill lands on the east 

I I south sides of the San Joaquin-Tulare Lake Basin 
I lg south of the watershed divide between the San 
J quin and Kings Rivers. The group includes the 
p tions of the Tehachapi Mountains tributary to the 
b.in. The area is characterized by foothill and moun- 
ts topography, the peaks being some of the highest 
■{the United States. Forest resources are extensive 
lithe region north of the Kern River. Mineral re- 
Hrces are less fully exploited than in the San Joa- 
Bi-Sierra Group to the north. Recreational and 
Hiic values are very high here, although they are 
H accessible than in other parts of the Sierra Ne- 
Ha. The major recreational attractions in the group 
H Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks. The 
Bonal forests are of lesser recreational importance 
■p those farther north, but only because they are 
H well-developed by access roads. 

Hmall parcels of irrigable land are found scattered 
Hughout the lower portions of the Tulare-Sierra 
■up. These total about 243,000 acres. In 1950, how- 
H, only about 12.500 acres were being irrigated. 
Htreams of the Tulare-Sierra Group include several 
Hor rivers, namely, the Kings, Kaweah, Tule, and 
■d; several intervening minor streams draining 
^£r slopes of the Sierra Nevada ; and a number of 
Hor streams draining the Tehachapi Mountains 
Ha Caliente Creek westward to Bitterwater Creek. 
■ aggregate runoff of these streams constitutes 
Hit 30 per cent of the total runoff of streams of 
HSan Joaquin-Tulare Lake Basin as a whole. Pres- 
Hwater requirements are met largely by pumping 
Hi ground water, inasmuch as the great majority 
Hie irrigated lands is in the area south of the Kern 
Hp where surface supplies are limited. The major 
Heuiis have been developed for hydroelectric power. 
Tp> major foothill reservoirs, Pine Flat and Isabella, 
■k been built primarily for flood control on the 
•ey floor, but with some conservation storage. Pine 



Flat Reservoir is also used to reregulate releases from 
upstream power developments. 

Virtually all of the flow of the streams draining the 
Tulare-Sierra Group is utilized under prior vested 
rights on valley floor lands of the San Joaquin Valley. 
Such utilization is accomplished by surface diversions 
and widespread use of ground water. There is a need 
for initiating development of water for use on the 
irrigable watershed lands above the valley floor ; how- 
ever, such developments would require, in almost 
every case, the substitution of imported water in ap- 
proximately an equivalent amount to valley floor 
lands under negotiated exchange agreements, since 
there is little, if any, unappropriated water left avail- 
able for these upper lands. 

Flood problems in the Tulare-Sierra Group are of 
local importance. Foothill reservoirs are now and in 
the future will be operated to provide flood protec- 
tion for lands of the valley floor. 

In 1950, water requirements for lands in the Tulare- 
Sierra Group were about 62,000 acre-feet annually. 
It is estimated that ultimate water requirements would 
total about 915,000 acre-feet per year. A large portion 
of the ultimate requirement would be for irrigable 
land contiguous to the valley floor, which could be 
served by pumping from major conduits and sources 
of supply on the valley floor. Another portion of the 
ultimate requirement would be for lands in scattered 
valleys and mountain meadows, only some of which 
could be irrigated by developing limited local water 
supplies; however, works to accomplish this are not 
described herein. The remaining portion would be 
for lands adjacent to and which could be irrigated 
from the major streams of the group. Works which 
are subsequently described would make available 
about 130,000 acre-feet of water each year, which is 
sufficient to serve such lands. The remaining water 
from streams in the group would be available to serve 
valley floor lands. As previously stated, any addi- 
tional water to be supplied to the upper lands must 
be obtained through the medium of exchange con- 
tracts. 

Existing developments and projects under construc- 
tion on the Kings River include three reservoirs and 
three power plants. The three reservoirs are Helms 
and Wishon on the North Fork, presently under con- 
struction by the Pacific Gas and Electric Company, 
and Pine Flat on the main river, recently completed 
by the Corps of Engineers, U. S. Army, for flood 
control and irrigation. Releases from Helms and 
Wishon Reservoirs will pass successively through 
Haas, Balch, and Kings River Power Plants, finally 
discharging into Pine Flat Reservoir. These works 
when completed will provide almost complete develop- 
ment of the water resources of the Kings River and 
its tributaries. The upstream reservoirs will provide 
for the generation of power, will protect watershed 
lands from floods, and will preserve and enhance the 



134 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



fish, wildlife, and recreation resources. Pine Flat 
Reservoir provides irrigation water and flood protec- 
tion to valley floor lands. 

Existing developments on the Kaweah River con- 
sist of three run-of-river power plants located near 
the junction of the Middle and East Forks. 

Existing developments on the Tule River are rela- 
tively minor. Two small run-of-river power plants 
are on the Middle Fork. Diversions are made from 
all forks of the river for irrigation of approximately 
1,400 acres above the valley floor. 

Existing developments on the Kern River, the most 
southerly of the large streams which rise in the Sierra 
Nevada, include the recently completed Isabella Dam, 
with a reservoir capacity of 570,000 acre-feet, and 
four hydroelectric plants. Prior to construction of 
Isabella Dam by the Corps of Engineers, U. S. Army, 
all of the works were dependent upon unregulated 
runoff for operation. Works on the South Fork of the 
Kern River consist of small diversions and canals to 
irrigate scattered lands above Isabella Reservoir. 
Other diversion structures and canals are located on 
the main stream for service to the valley floor. 

Suggested plans for development of the water re- 
sources of the Tulare-Sierra Group contemplate the 
eventual construction of 11 reservoirs to make water 
available for use on mountain and foothill lands and 
to provide some additional regulation of water for 
valley floor lands. The reservoirs would also protect 
and enhance the watershed lands and the fish, wild- 
life, and recreation resources, and would provide flood 
protection to the valley floor. A number of the reser- 
voirs would be operated either primarily or partly to 
produce hydroelectric energy. Works in each of the 
major river basins are described separately. 

New developments contemplated on the Kings River 
as features of The California Water Plan would in- 
clude: Cedar Grove Diversion Dam and Cedar Grove 
Power Plant on the South Fork; Tehipite Diversion 
Dam and Tehipite Power Plant on the Middle Fork ; 
Junction Reservoir, located just below the confluence 
of the Middle and South Forks ; Junction Power Plant 
on the main stream; Dinkey Meadow Reservoir and 
Dinkey Meadow and Ross Power Plants On Dinkey 
Creek ; an enlarged Kings River Power Plant ; and 
Pine Flat Power Plant immediately below Pine 
Flat Dam. 

Water would be diverted at the Cedar Grove Diver- 
sion Darn into a tunnel leading to the Cedar Grove 
Tower Plant, located on the flow line of Junction Res- 
ervoir. In the same manner, water would be diverted 
;it the Tehipite Diversion Dam into a tunnel to be 
conveyed to the Tehipite Power Plant, which would 
also be located on the flow line of Junction Reservoir 
and adjacent to the Cedar' drove Power Plant. Junc- 
tion Reservoir thus would regulate the flow of the 
Middle ;ind South Forks and the releases from Te- 
hipite and Cedar Grove Power Plants. From Junction 



Reservoir, a tunnel would convey the water to th t 
Junction Power Plant, located on the main streai. 
about 2 miles above the mouth of Mill Flat Creel 
This plant would discharge to the main river. 

To augment the inflow to Dinkey Meadow Rese 
voir, the runoff of Bear Creek, tributary to Dinke 
Creek, would be diverted into the reservoir by mean! 
of a short conduit. From Dinkey Meadow ReservoJ|- 
a tunnel would supply water to the Dinkey Meadoi 
Power Plant downstream from the dam. A small du 
version dam on Dinkey Creek immediately below tl 
power plant would divert water into a tunnel extern 
ing to the Ross Power Plant on Dinkey Creek aboi 
2.5 miles above its mouth. From Ross Power Plai 
the water would be conveyed by tunnel to the exia 
ing Kings River Power Plant, thus permitting an i 
crease in the installed capacity of that plant. Watl 
in the seasonal amount of about 30,000 acre-fed 
which is required to irrigate scattered lands adjacei 
to the main tributaries in the basin, would be aval 
able by direct diversion or from small farm-size rese 
voirs. The remaining water developed by the foreg 
ing works would be released through Pine Flat Pow| 
Plant, which would be located at Pine Flat Dam. , 

Construction of works of The California Watj 
Plan in the Kings River Basin would provide so» 
additional regulation of the runoff to effect bett 
utilization in downstream areas. The works would all 
produce substantial amounts of hydroelectric energ 
Pine Flat Reservoir would be operated to protfi 
valley lands from floods, as at present, and the woi| 
would also provide sustained minimum flows in ma$ 
reaches of the Kings River and its tributaries for ti 
preservation and enhancement of fish, wildlife, ai 
recreation. 

The only project contemplated on the Kaweah RiX 
is the federally authorized Terminus Dam and Res: 
voir, located 20 miles east of Visalia. This proje, 
now in the planning stage, will provide flood prot 
tion and will permit additional regulation for beti 
service of irrigation water to lands on the valley floj 
As in the case of the Kings River, the runoff of f 
Kaweah River has been almost entirely, if not com- 
pletely, developed for use of the valley floor. Wa 
for use on the small and scattered parcels of irrigai 
lands above Terminus Reservoir, which have i 
aggregate ultimate seasonal requirement of ab 
9,000 acre-feet, could be obtained by direct divers 
or from small farm-size reservoirs ; however, it woi 
be necessary to substitute imported water for use« 
valley lands in approximately an equivalent amoi 
under negotiated exchange agreements. 

Developments on the Tule River would consist 
Success Reservoir, presently under construction 
the Corps of Engineers, U. S. Army, and two 
upstream reservoirs, North Fork Reservoir and I 
die Fork Reservoir. Success Dam is located ab 



.>» 






THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



135 



■les east of Porterville and just below the junction 
the South Fork with the main stream. The reser- 
Hir will provide flood protection and will permit 
Idditional regulation for better service of irrigation 
rater to lands on the valley floor. North Fork and 
[Eddie Fork Reservoirs would supply water to irri- 
|>ble lands which are adjacent to the main river above 
Iccess Reservoir and which have an annual water 
iquirement of about 23,000 acre-feet. Other irrigable 
■ids in the watershed, which are small in amount 
Id scattered, would receive water from direct stream 
Aversions and from local farm-size reservoirs. As in 
He case of the Kings and Kaweah Rivers, it would 
>1 necessary to substitute imported water in approx- 
imately an equivalent amount to valley floor lands 
■der a negotiated exchange agreement, if these 
roper reservoirs were to be constructed. In the case 
U both the Kaweah and Tule Rivers, there is a need 
■r small headwater reservoirs to sustain flows in the 
■mmer months to protect and enhance the fish, wild- 
le, and recreation resources. 

■Existing works in the Kern River-Tehachapi Moun- 
■ns area and on the valley floor have fully devel- 
ped the water resources of the Kern River and its 
•butanes. The works are operated to protect water- 
led and valley floor lands from floods, to provide 
ligation water to valley floor lands, to provide hy- 
loelectric power, and to preserve and enhance the 
Ih, wildlife, and recreation resources of the water- 
Wed. New works contemplated as features of The 
Nklifornia Water Plan would provide additional 
■droeleetrie power and would make water available 
I serve foothill and mountain lands, although it 
luld be necessary to substitute imported water in 
■proximately an equivalent amount to valley floor 
lnds under negotiated agreements. 
■Studies indicate that service of water to many of 
m irrigable lands in the Kern River-Tehachapi 
[fountains area would be difficult and expensive. 
■ere are 36,000 acres of irrigable land above the 
ftrn Canyon Power House on the Kern River, with 
i but 2.400 acres lying above the existing Isabella 
■servoir. These lands have an estimated ultimate 
Jsonal water requirement of about 74,000 acre-feet. 
Rater in the amount of about 50,000 acre-feet per 
■son to meet a portion of these requirements could 
■ furnished from reservoirs on the South Fork of the 
■rn River and its tributaries, which are subsequently 
fceribed. The remaining higher lands could, in iso- 
1 ed cases, be irrigated from farm-size reservoirs 
fcich would develop limited local water resources, but 
■pensive conduits and pumping would be required to 
pigate most of these lands. Works to accomplish this 
R not described herein. 

I^Lands contiguous to the valley floor and north of 
lp Kern River could be served by local water re- 
Firces and by pumping from the Friant-Kern Canal, 



if water could be made available from that source. 
Lands south of the Kern River and contiguous to the 
valley floor could be served, in part, by developing 
limited local waters; in part by the proposed Arvin- 
Eclison Canal, which would divert from the Kern 
River at an elevation of 680 feet and which is de- 
scribed subsequently in connection with the South 
Valley Group ; and in part from an extension of the 
Feather River Project Aqueduct around the southern 
end of the valley. 

Service of water to the scattered irrigable valleys 
and meadows in the Tehachapi Mountains would be 
difficult and expensive, since most of the lands are 
above 2,500 feet in elevation. Some of these lands 
could be irrigated by development of the limited local 
water supplies, but irrigation of the remaining lands 
would require expensive pumping from water sources 
and conduits on the valley floor. Works to accomplish 
this are not discussed herein. 

Major new works contemplated for the Kern River 
would include Rockhouse Reservoir and Power Plant, 
and Onyx Reservoir and Power Plant on the South 
Fork. In addition, three small reservoirs, Kelso, 
Canebrake, and Lamont Meadows, would furnish irri- 
gation water to other lands above Isabella Reservoir. 

Rockhouse Dam would be located on the South 
Fork. Water conserved in Rockhouse Reservoir would 
be conveyed in a tunnel to Rockhouse Power Plant for 
power generation. From Rockhouse Power Plant 
Afterbay the water would be diverted and conveyed 
in a tunnel to Onyx Power Plant for power genera- 
tion. Releases from Onyx Power Plant would be 
stored in Onyx Reservoir and wotdd be diverted for 
irrigation of lands in the South Fork Valley below an 
elevation of about 2,800 feet. Lands in the South Fork 
Valley above this elevation would receive water from 
Kelso, Canebrake, and Lamont Meadows Reservoirs. 

Releases from Isabella Reservoir would be made to 
Borel Power Plant for power generation, as is done 
now. Likewise, the water would be diverted down- 
stream from Borel Power Plant to Kern No. 1 Power 
Plant and thence to Kern Canyon Power Plant. The 
capacities of Borel and Kern No. 1 Power Plants 
would be increased. Below the Kern Canyon Power 
Plant water would be diverted through existing canals 
and to the Arvin-Edison Canal to serve the valley 
floor lands. 

Construction of works of The California Water 
Plan in the Kern River Basin would provide water 
for watershed lands above and adjacent to Isabella 
Reservoir. The works would produce large amounts of 
hydroelectric energy. A flood control reservation 
would be maintained in Isabella Reservoir, as is pro- 
vided at the present time. The works would also pro- 
vide sustained minimum flows in many reaches of the 
Kern River and its tributaries for the preservation 
and enhancement of fish, wildlife, and recreation. 



. 



136 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



In summary, the 11 reservoirs which would accom- 
plish the objectives of The California Water Plan in 
the Tulare-Sierra Group would have a total reservoir 
storage capacity of about 432,000 acre-feet. Their con- 
struction and operation in conjunction with existing 
works in the group would provide about 136,000 acre- 
feet of water each year to meet requirements in the 
foothill and mountain watersheds, and would provide 
some additional regulation to water entering down- 
stream reservoirs. These reservoirs would be operated, 
as the existing ones are at the present time, to serve 
valley floor lands. Operation of the reservoirs would 
make firm water supplies available in the amount of 
about 1,140,000 acre-feet, together with large quanti- 
ties of usable spill which would be available for re- 
regulation in the underground reservoir and for use 
on valley floor lands. As is described subsequently, 
the water made available at the eastern edge of the 
valley floor would be served at as high an elevation as 
possible in order to minimize pumping of imported 
water supplies. The existing and new hydroelectric 
plants, with a total installed capacity of about 725,000 
kilowatts, would produce a total of about 3.4 billion 
kilowatt-hours of hydroelectric energy each year, of 
which about 2 billion kilowatt-hours would be new en- 
ergy. Operation of these works would provide reser- 
voir pools and sustained stream flows to preserve and 
enhance the valuable fish, wildlife, and recreation re- 
sources in these Sierra watersheds. In addition, about 
750,000 acre-feet of space would be provided in the 
major downstream reservoirs, which, when operated 
in conjunction with existing and proposed levee sys- 
tems and terminal reservoirs, would prevent flooding 
of valley lands. 

West Side Group. The West Side Group includes 
a narrow strip of lands of the San Joaquin-Tulare 
Lake Basin which lie on the eastern slopes of the Coast 
Range and above the floor of the valley. The eastern 
boundary of the group ranges in elevation from less 
than 500 feet, southwest of the Delta, to about 1,500 
feet at the southern end of the valley. The eastern 
crest of the Coast Range, which varies in elevation 
from about 2,000 to 4,000 feet, forms the western 
boundary of the group. 

Presenl (1950) development in the West Side Group 
is quite minor. There is some mining, but practically 
no forestry. There arc about 109,000 acres of irrigable 
land, of which only about 1,600 acres were irrigated 
in 1950. Mercury is mined in importanl quantities in 
San Benito County. Petroleum and natural gas are 
produced Erom the Coalinga West and Midway-Sun- 
sel fields in the southern portion of the group. 

Average seasonal precipitation on Lands of the West 
side Group varies with elevation Erom less than 10 
inches at the base of the foothills to somewhat more 
than '_'() inches along the crest of the Coasl Range. 



This precipitation is largely concentrated in the win4 
ter months, practically none of it falling as snow. { 

A large number of minor streams drain the West* 
Side Group, from Marsh Creek on the northerly west; 
side to Buena Vista Creek near Taft on the south.; 
From north to south they include : Marsh, Del PuertoJ 
Orestimba, San Luis, Los Banos, Ortigalita, Littlef 
Panoche, Panoche, and Cantua Creeks; Arroyo Pas] 
sajero; and Avenal, Buena Vista, and Bitterwaten 
Creeks, as well as other small streams. Due to thd 
sparse rainfall these streams carry little water. The 
total runoff of streams of this group is only slightlj 
more than 1 per cent of that for the entire Sar 
Joaquin-Tulare Lake Basin. The 1,600 acres of lane 
in the group which were irrigated in 1950 have a sea< 
sonal water requirement of about 4,000 acre-feet. Ii 
is estimated that this requirement might increase t( 
about 366,000 acre-feet under full development. 

Water problems of the West Side Group include a 
need for supplemental water for irrigable lands whicl 
are presently not irrigated. Local surface water sup 
plies are very limited, and it is probable that grounc 
water supplies are almost nonexistent. In addition 
water of many streams of the group is characterized 
by relatively high amounts of dissolved minerals, in 
eluding significant concentrations of boron in somi 
cases. Floods on these streams are not a major probj 
lem because of the limited runoff and because most o{ 
the area is virtually undeveloped. However, futurj 
developments might, in some instances, warrant meas- 
ures to control the occasional flood waters. 

The total seasonal runoff of streams in the Wes 
Side Group is only about one-third of the probabl 
ultimate requirement, and even now is largely utilize< 
in replenishment of ground water supplies below th 
foothill line. Additional conservation is considered tl 
be impracticable. Consequently, it is assumed that th 
objectives of The California Water Plan for thil 
group would be met by deliveries through the Delta 
Mendota Canal, the Feather River Project Aqueduct) 
and the San Joaquin- West Side Conduit, all facilitie 
of the California Aqueduct System. 

The authorized San Luis Reservoir will be phyri 
cally located in the West Side Group, but it will hav 
no specific function with respect to water require 
ments of the group, except to reregulate importe 
water supplies, nor is it expected to result in an 
appreciable additional conservation of runoff of Sa 
Luis Creek, which is believed to be fully utilized a 
the present time. 

North Valley Group. The North Valley Grou 
includes all valley floor lands of the San Joaquiij 
Tulare hake Basin which lie north of that reach ( 
the San Joaquin River between Friant Dam and tl' 
Mendota Pool. The southwesterly boundary of tl 
group generally parallels the Delta-Mendota Can; 
west of Mendota Pool and includes within the grou 



L 




San Joaquin River Basin— Cotton and Irrigated Pasture 



138 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



all lands adjacent to the canal which receive water 
pumped from Mendota Pool. The group is bounded 
on the south by San Luis Creek and the San Joaquin 
River. 

The North Valley Group is highly developed for 
agricultural pursuits. Of about 3,142,000 acres of irri- 
gable land in this area, 1,753,000 acres were irrigated 
in 1950. The principal urban centers are Stockton, 
Modesto, and Merced. The predominant manufactur- 
ing industry is food processing, although in Stockton 
there are several machinery manufacturing establish- 
ments whose principal products are farm implements. 
Natural gas from the Rio Vista field is the most im- 
portant mineral product of the region. 

Rainfall on lands in the North Valley Group is 
largely concentrated in the winter months, and varies 
from somewhat less than 10 inches per season in the 
southern portion to approximately 15 inches in the 
north. Major streams contributing to the water sup- 
plies of the group are, from north to south, the Co- 
sumnes, Mokelumne, Calaveras, Stanislaus, Tuolumne, 
Merced, Chowchilla, Fresno, and San Joaquin Rivers. 
Present and contemplated developments on these 
streams have been described in connection with devel- 
opments in the San Joaquin-Sierra Group. The Sacra- 
mento-San Joaquin Delta, which is included in this 
group, also receives water from the north from the 
Sacramento River. A number of smaller tributary 
streams, as well as rainfall on the valley floor, also 
contribute to the fulfillment of water requirements. 

The water requirements for lands in the North Val- 
ley Group Avere estimated to be about 5,790,000 acre- 
feet for 1950 conditions. Although local water supplies 
are highly developed, ground water overdrafts exist in 
several local areas and the supplemental requirement 
was estimated to be about 266,000 acre-feet for 1950 
conditions. It is estimated that ultimate water require- 
ments will total 6,470,000 acre-feet. Although the 
streams tributary to this group provide large quanti- 
ties of water, nevertheless it will be necessary to im- 
port about 1,900,000 acre-feet of supplemental water 
each year to meet estimated ultimate requirements. 

The present requirements for water in the North 
Valley Group are being met in several ways. First, 
there are diversions from Delta channels and from 
the Sierra streams, supplemented on the larger rivers 
by mountain and foothill reservoir storage. Second, 
there is considerable but scattered pumping from 
ground water throughout the group. And third, water 
from the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers is im- 
ported in the Delta-Mendota and Madera Canals, re- 
spectively, units of the Central Valley Project. Water 
has been imported in the Madera Canal since L943, 
and in the Delta-Mendota Canal since 1951. Water is 
pumped into the Delta-Mendota Canal from Old River, 
a Delta channel, and is conveyed by the canal to Men- 
dota Pool on the San Joaquin River, a distance of 117 



: 



miles. The Madera Canal conveys water from the San 
Joaquin River to serve lands of the North Valley 
Group. The canal, which is 37 miles in length, extends 
from Friant Dam northward through Madera County 
to Ash Slough, a channel of the Chowchilla River. In' 
1956, 675,000 acre-feet of water were imported in the' 
Delta-Mendota Canal and 240,000 acre-feet were trans- 
ported in the Madera Canal. 

Several reclamation districts operate diversion 
works on channels of the Sacramento-San Joaquin 
Delta, in addition to their levee maintenance fune-, 
tions. Four irrigation districts divert from Old River 
in the southwestern portion of the Delta, as does the 1 
United States Bureau of Reclamation for the Contra 
Costa and Delta-Mendota Canals. About 20 publicf 
districts along the route of the Delta-Mendota Canal 
receive water by contract with the Federal Govern-': 
ment. 

The East Bay Municipal Utility District develops 
water from the Mokelumne River at Pardee Reservoir 
for export to cities in western Alameda and Contra 
Costa Counties. In addition to individual diversions, 
downstream from Pardee Dam, the Woodbridge Irri-';. 
gation District diverts for irrigation in the vicinity of 
Lodi. The water supply of the Calaveras River area isj 
developed primarily by the Stockton and East San. 
Joaquin Water Conservation District, which operates 
the conservation features of Hogan Reservoir in con- 
junction with diversion and ground water recharge 
works established, in part, by the Linden Irrigation 
District. 

The Stanislaus River is the source of irrigation 
water for the Oakdale and South San Joaquin Irriga-i 
tion Districts. Melones Reservoir provides conserva- 
tion storage for both districts. 

The South San Joaquin Irrigation District operates 
Woodward Reservoir on Simmons Creek for further 
regulation of its main supply. At present, the twa 
districts are cooperating in the Tri-Dam Project to 
augment their water supplies by constructing Don-i 
nells, Beardsley, and Tulloch Dams and associated 
power developments on the Stanislaus River and its 
tributaries. 

On the Tuolumne River the point of diversion % 
the Iletch Hetchy Aqueduct of the City and Counj^i 
of San Francisco is a considerable distance upstream 
from the foothill line. Don Pedro Reservoir, near the 
eastern edge of the valley floor, is operated jointly by 
the Modesto and Turlock Irrigation Districts. The* 
Waterford Irrigation District also has a right to 
waters of the Tuolumne River. 

The Merced Irrigation District operates McClure 
Reservoir on the Merced River. The Stevinson Water 
Dist rict diverts from the Merced River near its mouth. 
Individual diverters also utilize water of this stream. 
The El Nido Irrigation District, which obtains sup 
pleniental water from the Merced Irrigation District 






THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



139 



ad from ground water, is located along the lower 
eaehes of the Chowchilla River. 
Two irrigation districts and six water companies. 
1 addition to a large number of individual diverters, 
,ump from the San Joaquin River between Tracy and 
he mouth of the Merced River. The San Luis Canal 
•ompany diverts from the west bank of the San Joa- 
uin River near Dos Palos for irrigation of a large 
£reage between Los Banos and the river. Diversions 

fe made at Mendota Pool on the San Joaquin River 
r the Firebaugh Canal Company, the Central Cali- 
prnia Irrigation District, the Grasslands and Pa- 
pehe Water Districts, and other smaller districts. 
fhe Columbia Canal Company serves lands near Men- 
ota by gravity diversions from Lone Willow Slough, 
jad by pumping from the Mowry Canal and Mendota 
|ool. 
The major users of water from the Madera Canal 
re the Madera Irrigation District and the Chowchilla 
later District. The former district also has a diver- 
on on the Fresno River. 

Water problems of the North Valley Group include 
need for further development and distribution of 
cal water supplies to meet present and ultimate sup- 
lemental water requirements. Increased use of 
round water has resulted in local overdrafts. Con- 
nued increases in development will aggravate these 
pnditions unless additional water supplies are made 
mailable. There are also drainage problems in many 
■eas which are receiving surface water supplies. In 
iany instances increased use of ground water would 
[leviate such problems, in other areas surface drain- 
>e systems are needed. 

' Although water supplies of the North Valley 
roup are generally of excellent quality, certain lim- 
ed areas yield ground water of doubtful quality. In 
edition, surface water supplies obtained from the 
jwer reaches of the San Joaquin River contain ex- 
Issive concentrations of mineral constituents during 
le late irrigation season, due to drainage and return 
bw from upstream use of the water. Flooding along 
iajor and minor streams and in the lowlands of the 
an Joaquin Valley has been a recurring problem 
nee the first settlements. Existing levees and reser- 
iirs and those now under construction afford a high 
igree of protection; however, dedication of addi- 
nial flood control storage space in new and in cer- 
in existing reservoirs is necessary, and improved and 
ordinated levee systems are needed on some streams. 
Under The California Water Plan the water to 
eet requirements of lands in the North Valley 
roup would be obtained from streams of the San 
»aquin-Sierra Group, by imports through the Delta- 
endota, Madera, and proposed Folsom South Canals, 
id by further development of ground water. Runoff 
streams of the Coast Range, although small in 
Qount, would continue to contribute to the ground 
ater supplies at the foothill line, as at the present 



time. Runoff of streams of the San Joaquin-Sierra 
Group which would be available for use would consist 
of the combined yield of foothill reservoirs and under- 
ground reservoirs operated coordinately in such a 
manner as to make available for use a large propor- 
tion of the mean seasonal natural runoff. Foothill 
reservoirs on streams tributary to this group, which 
have been described in connection with developments 
in the San Joaquin-Sierra Group, would furnish 
water in the amount of about 3,550,000 acre-feet each 
year on a firm yield basis, together with large quan- 
tities of usable spill available for reregulation in the 
ground water reservoir and use on valley floor lands. 

Works contemplated in The California Water Plan 
in the North Valley Group would have five principal 
purposes: first, to convey and distribute water sup- 
plies from tributary streams for use on lands in the 
group; second, to distribute water supplies imported 
through facilities of the California Aqueduct System 
for use on lands in the group ; third, to protect Delta 
lands from floods and from the encroachment of saline 
tidal waters; fourth, to collect and convey to tidal 
water sufficient quantities of drainage and waste 
waters to prevent water-logging of irrigated lands and 
to maintain a favorable salt balance; and fifth, to 
control floods. To accomplish the first two purposes, 
it would be necessary to further develop and utilize 
the underground reservoir. 

Under The California Water Plan, water from 
tributary streams would be conveyed and distributed 
in existing and extended local canal and ditch sys- 
tems. Works which would convey and distribute im- 
ported water supplies to lands of the North Valley 
Group would include the existing Delta-Mendota 
Canal, which conveys water pumped from the Delta 
to Mendota Pool; the existing Madera Canal, which 
conveys water northerly from the San Joaquin River ; 
and the proposed Folsom South Canal and the pro- 
jected Placerville South Conduit, both of which would 
convey water southward from the American River. 
In addition, the San Joaquin Waste Conduit would 
convey undesirable waters from lands of the North 
Valley Group. 

The Delta-Mendota Canal would import about 
1,780,000 acre-feet of water each year to the San 
Joaquin Valley, of which amount about 730,000 acre- 
feet would be diverted for use in the North Valley 
Group. The Madera Canal would import about 420,000 
acre-feet each year to the group. The Folsom South 
Canal, described subsequently herein in connection 
with works of the Sacramento Division of the Cali- 
fornia Aqueduct System, would be operated to import 
about 640,000 acre-feet of water each year to the 
group. The Placerville South Conduit, already de- 
scribed in connection with works in the American 
River Unit of the Sacramento River Basin, would im- 
port about 76,000 acre-feet of water each year from 
that basin. The San Joaquin Waste Conduit would 



140 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



intercept, collect, and convey agricultural, municipal, 
and industrial waste waters, and other waters of 
degraded or impaired quality, to tidal waters, thus 
maintaining the quality of fresh-water supplies at ac- 
ceptable levels for beneficial uses. The conduit would 
be a lined canal about 260 miles in length, and would 
extend from the vicinity of Buena Vista Lake on the 
south to its discharge into saline water channels of 
the Delta on the north. 

Plans for the North Valley Group also include 
works in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta which 
would transport fresh water from the Sacramento 
River across the Delta, without loss or impairment in 
quality, to pumping plants along the southern bound- 
ary of the Delta; provide flood protection for Delta 
lands ; and provide salinity repulsion. These objectives 
would be accomplished by the Biemond Plan, which is 
subsequently described under the Delta Division of the 
California Aqueduct System. 

The estimated ultimate water requirements of the 
North Valley Group, amounting to about 6,470,000 
acre-feet per season, could be met by full conserva- 
tion of the runoff of the major tributary Sierra 
streams and by importing water in the Delta-Mendota, 
Madera, and Folsom South Canals, and in the Placer- 
ville South Conduit. The plans would provide for the 
full development of local water supplies for local use. 
Consideration was also given to a plan under which a 
portion of the waters of the Stanislaus, Tuolumne, and 
Merced Rivers would be diverted into a high-line 
canal along the east side of the valley for use in the 
South Valley Group, in exchange for water from 
Mendota Pool, which would be conveyed in a canal 
extending northward from Mendota Pool to the vi- 
cinity of Farmington. Such an exchange would result 
in substantial savings to the South Valley Group due 
to reduction in cost of pumping of imported water 
supplies, but would depend on the willingness of 
water users holding prior rights to the use of water 
from those streams, to enter into an exchange agree- 
ment. 

Under ultimate conditions, existing, enlarged, and 
new conduits would convey and distribute local water 
supplies, together with an average seasonal amount 
of about 1,900,000 acre-feet of imported water sup- 
plies, to lands within the North Valley Group. Utili- 
zation of such water supplies wonld require the 
conjunctive and coordinated operation of surface 
reservoirs, surface conveyance systems, and the large 
underground reservoir. Conjunctive operation is dis- 
cussed later in this chapter. Under such operation, 
surface reservoirs and conveyance systems would 
furnish water during the irrigation season to a 
portion of the irrigable lands in the group, and to 
stream channels and other percolating areas during 
the remainder of the year. The water not consumed 
wonld percolate to the under" round reservoir and 
would be available to he pumped to serve the remain- 



ing irrigable lands. Present estimates indicate that the 
gross storage capacity of the underground reservoir 
of the North Valley Group is about 36,000,000 acre- 
feet between the limits of 10 and 200 feet below the 
ground surface. Operation studies indicate that ade- 
quate water conservation could be obtained by the use 
of a maximum of about 11,000,000 acre-feet, or 30 
percent of such capacity. The total installed ground 
water pumping capacity would be about 11,000 
second-feet. 

Under ultimate conditions, the local and imported 
water supplies would be adequate, not only in quan- 
tity, but in quality, for all uses. Barriers and isolated 
channels in the Delta would operate to maintain the, 
quality of the water therein. The San Joaquin "Waste 
Conduit would intercept and convey to tidal water' 
the poor-quality surface water wasting from the; 
valley during the late irrigation season and during 
critical dry periods, thus preventing the mingling 
of such waters with irrigation supplies. The conduit 1 
would also convey sewage and industrial wastes, de- 
graded surface waters of minor west side tributaries 
drainage waters discharged to maintain proper salt: 
balance, and poor-quality ground water pumped for! 
quality control. 

Flood waters of the major rivers would be im 
pounded in foothill reservoirs, as discussed in con ! 
nection with developments on those streams. During 
flood periods, all surface diversion and conveyani 
systems would operate to intercept and distribut 
waters released from the reservoirs for ground wate 
recharge. Levees would add to the protection of th 
valley lands. Such works would include exist in: 
levees, those now under construction by the State i 
California on and adjacent to the San Joaquin Riv 
above the mouth of the Merced River, and new ant 
improved levees on the lower San Joaquin Pi 
such as those proposed by the Corps of Engineers. 

South Valley Group. The South Valley Gron 
includes all valley floor lands of the San Joaquir 
Tulare Lake Basin which lie south of the San Joaqui 
River and south of the area receiving water 
Mendota Pool and the Delta-Mendota Canal 
major economic pursuits in the South Valley (1 
are agriculture and the production of petroleum 
natural gas. Of about 4,360,000 acres of irri 
land in this group, 2,310,000 acres were irrigate 
1950. Principal crops are cotton, potatoes, hay an 
grain, grapes, and alfalfa. Fresno and Bakersfield ai 
the major urban centers of the group. Food 
ing is the most important manufacturing activit; 
followed by the manufacture of transportation eqi ' 
ment. principally aircraft, and petroleum refining, 

Precipitation on lands of the South Valley C.roii 
averages from less than 5 inches to about 10 inch 
per season. Rainfall is concentrated almost entirely 
the winter months and contributes little to surfa 









THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



141 



•unoft'. Major streams contributing to the water 
upply for this group are the Kings, Kaweah, Tule, 
i nd Kern Rivers. Present and proposed developments 
In these streams have been described in connection 
vith the Tulare-Sierra Group. Lesser streams, in- 
•luding Caliente Creek, Poso Creek, White River, 
Deer Creek, and others, also furnish water to this 
irea. In addition, substantial quantities of water are 
presently imported from the San Joaquin River in 
he Friant-Kern Canal. 

The water requirements for lands in the South 
/alley Group were estimated to be 4,850,000 acre-feet 
)er season under 1950 conditions. Substantial over- 
drafts exist in all units of the group. The consequent 
'upplemental water requirement, which was deter- 
mined at about 1,400,000 acre-feet in 1950, is esti- 
mated to have increased to about 1,900,000 acre-feet 
n 1957. It is estimated that ultimate water require- 
ments might total about 9,840,000 acre-feet. To meet 
luch a requirement, it will be necessary to conserve 
fully the runoff of the tributary streams, and, in addi- 

Iion, to import about 7,200,000 acre-feet of water 
ach year. 
Present requirements in the South Valley Group 
lire being met by surface diversions from all principal 
treams, until recently without reservoir storage ; by 
mports, amounting to 1,365,000 acre-feet in 1956, 
,'rom the San Joaquin River through the Friant-Kern 
banal, a unit of the Central Valley Project; and by 
•xtensive pumping from ground water, with conse- 
quent overdrafts. 

As mentioned previously, most lands of the South 
valley Group are tributary to Tulare and Buena 
Tista Lakes, which are closed basins in the trough of 
.he valley. Such conditions, together with a substan- 
tial development of use of ground water, have re- 
sulted in almost complete utilization of waters of 
ributary streams. 

The waters of the Kings River are utilized by a 
arge number of diverters, whose interests have been 
Ipportioned by court decrees and agreements. Most 
>f these diverters have associated themselves into the 
tings River Water Association, for the purpose of 
administering agreements called the Kings River 
Water Indentures. The parties at interest represent- 
ng the largest acreages are the Alta, Consolidated, 
nd Fresno Irrigation Districts, and the Tulare Lake 
lasin Water Storage District. The Kings River Con- 
ervation District has been organized by voters in the 
\iiius River service area, and is currently negotiating 
t contract with the Federal Government for repay- 
ment of the irrigation allocation for Pine Flat 
Reservoir. 

Westlands Water District in the western portion 
)f Fresno and Kings Counties has been formed to 
>btain desperately needed supplemental water sup- 
dies. Between the Kings and Kaweah Rivers, the 



Orange Cove, Stone Corral, and Ivanhoe Irrigation 
Districts supplement private pumping from ground 
water with deliveries from the Friant-Kern Canal. 
The major agencies utilizing waters of the Kaweah 
River are the Lindsay-Strathmore and Tulare Irriga- 
tion Districts; the Wutchuma, Visalia, and Kaweah 
Water Companies ; and the Consolidated Peoples, 
Farmers, and Lakeside Ditch Companies. The irriga- 
tion districts obtain supplemental water supplies 
from the Friant-Kern Canal. The Corcoran Irrigation 
District obtains water from the Kings River via Cross 
Creek, as well as occasional flows from the Kaweah 
River. The Exeter and Lindmore Irrigation Districts, 
located between the Kaweah and the Tule Rivers, 
distribute Friant-Kern Canal water to supplement 
ground water pumping. 

The major diverters along the Tule River are the 
Porterville and Lower Tule River Irrigation Districts. 
These districts, as well as the Terra Bella and Delano- 
Earlimart Irrigation Districts, also obtain water from 
wells and from the Friant-Kern Canal. 

The Saucelito Irrigation District obtains its water 
supplies from Deer Creek, from wells, and from the 
Friant-Kern Canal. The Southern San Joaquin 
Municipal Utility District distributes Friant-Kern 
Canal water to an area around Delano and McFar- 
land, supplementing private supplies from wells. 

Many of the canals diverting from the Kern River 
are operated by public districts. The North Kern 
Water Storage District operates the Lerdo and Callo- 
way Canals. The Shafter-Waseo Irrigation District 
has executed a contract for Friant-Kern Canal water 
to supplement private pumping from wells. The 
Buena Vista Water Storage District stores and uses 
water reaching Buena Vista Lake from the Kern 
River. The Arvin-Edison Water Storage District is 
negotiating with the Federal Government and with 
other Kern River interests for an exchange of water 
involving importation through the Friant-Kern Canal. 
Isabella Reservoir on the Kern River is operated pri- 
marily for flood control purposes, and secondarily for 
conservation of irrigation water and to produce 
power. 

Water problems of the South Valley Group include 
the urgent need for additional water supplies to meet 
present and ultimate supplemental water require- 
ments, a need for additional flood control, and a need 
for drainage and maintenance of water quality. Over- 
drafts exist at the present time in all units of the 
group. Such annual overdrafts, accumulating over 
many years, have so depleted many portions of the 
ground water basins that pumping lifts are nearly 
prohibitive economically. The excessive pumping lifts 
are reducing net profits and will continue to do so 
indefinitely, until costly imported water, supplied in 
quantities in excess of actual water requirements, has 
refilled the basins. In addition to works to provide 



142 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



supplemental water supplies, other new physical 
works are needed to prevent flooding of valley lands. 

Both surface and ground water supplies of lands 
in the eastern portion of the South Valley Group are 
generally of excellent quality. Water from the west 
side streams, although the combined flow is small and 
generally percolates into the alluvial cones, contains 
relatively high amounts of dissolved minerals, includ- 
ing in some cases significant concentrations of boron. 
West side ground waters are characterized by a high 
percentage of sulphate and an abnormal amount of 
boron, often in toxic concentrations. The usable zone 
of pumping along the west side is generally found be- 
tween overlying unusable perched water and underly- 
ing brines. Improperly constructed and abandoned 
wells allow the intermingling of these waters, with 
consequent degradation of the usable aquifers. 

Under The California Water Plan the water to 
meet requirements of lands in the South Valley 
Group would be obtained from streams of the Tulare- 
Sierra Group, by imports in several existing and new 
major conduits, and from ground water. Runoff of 
streams of the Coast Range, which is small in amount, 
would continue to be available to contribute to ground 
water supplies at the foothill line, as at the present 
time. Runoff of streams of the Tulare-Sierra Group 
which would be available for use would consist of the 
combined yield of foothill reservoirs and underground 
reservoirs operated, as at the present time, in such a 
manner as to make virtually all of the mean seasonal 
natural runoff available for use. Foothill reservoirs 
on streams tributary to this group, which have been 
described in connection with developments in the 
Tulare-Sierra Group, would furnish water in the 
amount of about 1,140,000 acre-feet each year on a 
firm yield basis. 

Works of The California Water Plan in the South 
Valley Group would have four principal purposes: 
first, to convey and distribute water supplies from 
tributary streams for use on lands in the group ; sec- 
ond, to distribute water imported through facilities 
of the California Aqueduct System, for use on lands 
in the the group ; third, to collect and convey drainage 
and waste waters in sufficient quantities so as to im- 
prove water quality and to maintain favorable salt 
balance conditions; and fourth, to control floods. To 
accomplish the first two purposes it would be neces- 
sary to develop the underground reservoir further by 
increased utilization of ground water. 

As mentioned previously, water in very large 
amounts musl be imported to the San Joaquin-Tulare 
Lake Basin. A considerable portion of this water 
would have to be supplied to lands on the east side 
of the trough of the Tulare Lake Basin. In order to 
minimize the pumping of water from aqueducts along 
the west side of the valley to serve such lands, it was 
assumed thai water supplies of the Kings, Kaweab, 



Tule, and Kern Rivers, and minor east side streams, 
and those imported and conveyed in the Friant-Kern 
Canal, would be served at as high an elevation as pos- 
sible along the eastern edge of their respective service 
areas. Canals flowing north and south along the foot-' 
hill line from Terminus and Success Reservoirs would 
facilitate such distribution. Remaining lands of the 
South Valley Group could then be served other im- 
ported water supplies which would be pumped from 
the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, conveyed along- 
the west side of the valley, and then diverted oi| 
pumped to service areas in the west, central, and east 
portions of the group as required. 

Under The California Water Plan, water from trib 1 
utary streams would be conveyed and distributed ir 
existing and extended local canal and ditch systems': 
and in the proposed Arvin-Edison Canal, which 
would divert from the Kern River. Works which 
would convey and distribute imported water supplier, 
in the annual amount of about 7,200,000 acre-feet to 
lands of the South Valley Group include : the exist' 
ing Friant-Kern Canal, which will deliver aboui 
1,200,000 acre-feet of water each year from the Sat 
Joaquin River; the authorized Feather River Projec: 
Aqueduct, which will convey about 2.200,000 acre) 
feet of water pumped from the Sacramento-Sar 
Joaquin Delta, and which is described subsequent! 
in connection with the San Joaquin Division of tit 
California Aqueduct System ; the San Joaquin-T 
lare Basin Canal System, which would convey aboi 
3,800,000 acre-feet and which would divert from th 
San Luis Forebay and extend southerly to San 
Ridge Reservoir at about the Kings-Kern county lim 
with a main pump lateral extending easterly alon 
the north bank of the Kings River to the Fresn 
South Canal; the Fresno South Canal, which woul 
extend from the Kings River south to Elk Bayou i 
the vicinity of Tulare; and the North Kings Caaa 
which would divert from the San Joaquin-Tulai 
Basin Canal and would flow northward to the S, 
Joaquin River. Imported water could be diverted 
pumped from the foregoing conduits to serve 1 
in all portions of the South Valley Group. In 
manner, water requirements in the group wou 
met by water from tributary streams and by 
pumped from the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delt 

In order to reduce the pumping of a portion o 
water supply imported to the South Valley (J 
further consideration should be given to a plan v 
would include a high-line canal extending south 
the Stanislaus River along the east side of the 
ley to Elk Bayou hear Tulare. A portion of the w 
from the Stanislaus, Tuolumne, and Merced Ki 
would be diverted into the high-line canal for 
veyance to and use in the South Valley Group 
exchange for water from Mendota Pool, which wot 
be conveyed in a canal extending northward H 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



14:; 



Memlota Pool to the vicinity of Farmington. It 
would be necessary to negotiate an exchange agree- 
ment with the holders of vested rights to the use of 
waters of these rivers. 

1 Agricultural, municipal, and industrial waste 
fcvaters, other waters of degraded or impaired quality, 
and drainage waters w-ould be collected, often in lined 
r closed conduits, and discharged into the previously 
escribed San Joaquin Waste Conduit, a main drain- 
age canal, which would extend along the trough of 
the valley from the vicinity of Buena Vista Lake 
to saline water channels in the Delta, and which 
was described in connection with works in the North 
Valley Group. 

The foregoing major conduits would convey and 
istribute local water supplies, together with large 
uantities of imported water supplies, to lands within 
he South Valley Group. Full utilization of such water 
applies would require the conjunctive and coordi- 
lated operation of surface reservoirs, surface convey- 
mee systems, and underground storage. Under such 
bperation, surface reservoirs and conveyance systems 
jvould furnish water during the irrigation season to 
•i portion of the irrigable lands in the group, and to 
itream channels and other percolating areas during 
;he remainder of the year. The water not consumed 
vould percolate to the underground reservoir and 
vould be available to be pumped to serve the remain- 
og irrigable lands. 

Present estimates indicate that the gross storage 
apacity of the underground reservoir of the South 
'alley Group is about 65,000,000 acre-feet between 
he limits of 10 and 200 feet below the ground surface. 

peration studies indicate that adequate water con- 
ervation could be obtained by use of a maximum of 
bout 1."). 000,000 acre-feet, or 23 percent of such ea- 
acity. The total installed ground water pumping 
city necessary for such operation is estimated at 
7.001) second-feet. 

] Flood waters of the Kings, Kaweah, Tule, and 
£ern Rivers would be impounded in Pine Flat, Ter- 
pinus, Success, and Isabella Reservoirs, respectively, 
s discussed in connection with developments on those 
treams. During flood periods, all surface diversion 
ad conveyance systems would operate to intercept 
ad distribute waters released from the reservoirs 
tar ground water recharge. The portion of rare flood 
ows, particularly snowmelt floods, which could not 
e thus controlled would, in the case of the Kings 
liver, be discharged through Fresno Slough. No such 
utlet channel exists, however, for the discharge of 
nusual floods of the Kaweah, Tule, and Kern Rivers, 
'herefore, excess flood waters of these streams would 
I e discharged into Sand Ridge Reservoir and would 
e impounded south of the natural sand ridge between 
libit" and Buena Vista Lakes. The capacity of that 



reservoir would be about 1,400,000 acre-feet. It is 
considered that the works discussed herein would pro- 
vide adequate flood control on these streams. An al- 
ternative method of disposing of such flood waters 
would involve the installation of pumping plants 
which could pump the flood waters into conduits of 
the California Aqueduct System. 

Other streams of the South Valley Group which 
produce floods are Deer Creek, White River, and 
Pozo Creek north of the Kern River, and Caliente 
Creek, Tejon Creek, and other minor streams south 
of the Kern River. Under The California Water Plan, 
the plan for flood control on Deer Creek, White River, 
and Pozo Creek would include construction of a rela- 
tively small reservoir on each stream, minor channel 
improvements along the upper reaches of the streams, 
and leveed flood channels along the lower reaches 
which would convey the flood waters to Sand Ridge 
Reservoir. During floods, water would be released 
from the reservoirs at rates at which the water would 
percolate in the stream channels. Releases and spills 
in excess of these amounts would be conveyed to Sand 
Ridge Reservoir. In somewhat the same manner, small 
reservoirs on Caliente and Tejon Creeks and other 
minor streams of this group would be operated to re- 
lease water at rates within the percolation capacity 
of the natural and artificial channels, for ground 
water recharge. 

Summary of San Joaquin-Tulare Lake Basin. 
The San Joaquin-Tulare Lake Basin is California's 
principal area of present and ultimate water defici- 
ency. Under The California Water Plan the ultimate 
requirements for water in the basin would be met by 
full development of local water resources, supple- 
mented by substantial quantities of imported w y ater. 
The California Water Plan contemplates the eventual 
import of 8,550,000 acre-feet of water per season, on 
the average, to the basin. Water in this amount would 
be conveyed and regulated by works of the San 
Joaquin Division of the California Aqueduct System. 
including San Luis Reservoir. 

The California Water Plan also contemplates the 
eventual addition of about 8,400,000 acre-feet of stor- 
age capacity to the present basin reservoir system. 
This capacity would be contained in 76 strategieally 
disposed storage, diversion, and regulatory reservoirs 
which would provide additional regulation and some 
additional conservation of local water supplies. Local 
water supplies already are substantially developed. 
but almost exclusively for use on the valley floor 
lands. The new reservoirs and related works would 
make available a portion of the local supplies for 
use in the foothill and mountain watersheds. They 
would also produce large amounts of hydroelectric 
energy, preserve and enhance fish, wuldlife. and rec- 
reation resources, and, together with existing reser- 
voirs, would provide a total of about 3.700.000 acre- 







trm 




Diversion Dam and Irrigation Canal Headgates on Kings River 






THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



14.-, 



■t of storage spare specifically reserved to protect 
•Hey lauds from floods. 

In addition to construction of the local reservoirs 
; d import conduits of the California Aqueduct Sys- 
tn, The California Water Plan also contemplates an 
i:reased and coordinated use of the underlying 
■ ound water basin. It would not be possible by use 
( surface reservoirs alone to regulate adequately the 
] al and imported water supplies so that water needs 
did be met as they occur over long-time climatic 
i des. However, there is every indication, based upon 
(iservative assumptions, that the necessary regula- 
[n of local and imported water supplies could be 
jained by conjunctive operation of surface and 
{ Dund water reservoirs. 
Collectively, the present and future local reservoirs, 
t 1 import conduits of the California Aqueduct Sys- 
i n, and the ground water basin would provide water 
i the amount of 16,305,000 acre-feet each season to 
t; San Joaquin-Tulare Lake Basin. In addition, 812,- 
CD acre-feet would be exported each season to the 
in Francisco Bay Area. The new local reservoirs 
■\ uld have a combined yield of about 4,600,000 acre- 
ffet per year. Their cost would be in the order of 
1)0,000,000. 

There would' be about 32 new and enlarged hydro- 
ctric power plants associated with the new reser- 
rs. These plants would have a combined installed 
l|wer capacity of about 1,100,000 kilowatts and 
uld generate an average of about 4.7 billion kilo- 
tt-hours per vear. Their cost would be in the order 
$120,000,000' 

Dther local works in the San Joaquin-Tulare Lake 
sin would consist of new and enlarged main con- 
* -ance and service canals for irrigation ; wells for 
igation and urban purposes in some areas ; addi- 
\, rial levees, floodway channels, and retention reser- 
rs ; distribution and drainage systems ; and a main 
linage conduit extending northward from Buena 
;ta Lake to discharge into the lower Sacramento- 
Joaquin Delta. The cost of this conduit and the 
n in water supply conduits and pumping plants on 
valley floor and in the foothill and mountain areas 
the basin would be in the order of $300,000,000. 
estimates of cost were made for the various drain- 
and distribution systems and other local works 
tit would be required for complete service and de- 
opment of the land and water resources of the 
in. 

Che total cost of all the described local development 

ks of The California Water Plan in the San Joa- 

Mn-Tulare Lake Basin would be about $920,000,000. 

The general features and costs of the local develop- 

nt works of The California Plan in the San Joa- 

n-Tulare Lake Basin are presented in Table 14. 

£ ailar information for the import facilities pertinent 

t the basin are presented later in this chapter in 

Tbles 23 through 26, under the Delta and San 



Joaquin Divisions of the California Aqueduct Sys- 
tem. The locations and layouts of all of the facilities 
described in the foregoing sections are delineated on 
Sheets 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 16, 17, 18, and 21 of 
Plate 5. 

Lahontan Area 

The Lahontan Area comprises the easterly slope of 
the Sierra Nevada, and reaches from the Oregon bor- 
der on the north to and including the Mojave River 
drainage basin and Antelope Valley on the south. 
The area extends over approximately 33,000 square 
miles, of which about 10,000 square miles are classi- 
fied as valley and mesa lands, most of which are con- 
sidered irrigable. The area, as a whole, is one of gross 
water deficiency insofar as potential development is 
concerned, although a few of the included stream 
basins have ample water supplies for their ultimate 
needs. 

The majority of the water resources of the Lahon- 
tan Area have been extensively developed in the past. 
The Truckee, Carson, and Walker Rivers have, for 
many years, been developed for utilization in both 
California and Nevada. There are about 80 reservoirs 
presently located in the area, with an aggregate stor- 
age capacity of approximately 1,400,000 acre-feet. 
More than half of this storage is provided by Lake 
Tahoe. Reservoirs in the Truckee River Basin, and 
Topaz and Bridgeport Reservoirs on the Walker 
River, are used principally to conserve and regulate 
irrigation water supplies for lands in Nevada. 

About 11,000 acre-feet of water per season is im- 
ported into the Lahontan Area from the Pit River 
Basin. For many years, about 7,000 acre-feet of water 
from the Little Truckee River and 2,000 acre-feet of 
water from the Echo Lake Basin have been exported 
to the Central Valley Area. The major export of water 
from the Lahontan Area is made by the City of Los 
Angeles, which diverts about 320,000 acre-feet per 
season from Mono Lake Basin and Owens Valley for 
municipal use in the Los Angeles metropolitan area. 

Because of the inland position of the Lahontan 
Area, and the high elevation of much of the valley 
and mesa lands, precipitation generally occurs in the 
form of snow, which delays the bulk of the resultant 
runoff to the late spring- and early summer months. 
However, in spite of this natural regulation, deficien- 
cies in water supply for the support of the local 
economy are felt in many areas during the late sum 
mer period. In the desert areas comprising- the south- 
ern portion of the Lahontan Area, precipitation is 
generally light, although localized areas have often 
suffered damaging floods from cloudbursts of extreme 
intensity. 

The estimated mean seasonal natural runoff of 
streams in the Lahontan Area is about 3,180,000 acre- 
feet, and, even if fully developed, would constitute 



146 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 






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THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



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148 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



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THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



149 



TABLE 14-Confinued 

SUMMARY OF WORKS TO MEET WATER REQUIREMENTS IN SAN JOAQUIN-TULARE LAKE BASIN 

(These works show future development possibilities. They are not project proposals.) 



5an Joaquin-Sierra Group 

Nashville 

Middle Bar 

Jesus Maria 

New Melones d 

Sand Bar 

Stanislaus d 

, Griswold 

Ganns 

Moran Creek 

Murphys d 

Early Intake 

Cherry Creek 

Moccasin Creek d 

I Phoenix d 

| New Don Pedro d 

Virginia Point 

[ Exchequer" 1 

Miller Bridge 

■ Forks 

Mammoth Pool 

r Chiquito 



fulare-Sierra Group 
[ Cedar Grove 

Tehipite 

i Junction 

; Dinkey Creek 

Ross.- 

Pine Flat 

I Kings River d 

Rockhouse 

! Onyx 



Kern No. 



Cosumnes River 

Mokelumne River 

Jesus Maria Creek 

Stanislaus River 

Middle Fork Stanislaus River 

Stanislaus River 

Middle Fork Stanislaus River 

North Fork Stanislaus River 

Moran Creek 

Angels Camp 

Tuolumne River 

Tuolumne River 

Moccasin Creek 

Sullivan Creek 

Tuolumne River 

Merced River. 

Merced River 

San Joaquin River 

San Joaquin River 

San Joaquin River 

San Joaquin River 



Kings River 

Kings River 

Kings River 

Dinkey Creek 

Dinkey Creek 

Kings River 

Kings River 

South Fork Kern River 

South Fork Kern River 

Kern River 

Kern River 



1,490 
2.400 

575 

685 

1,060 

2,000 

1,275 

1,180 

425 

442 

252 

850 

520 

1,032 

1,600 



2,070 

1,670 

1,163 

1,850 

1,790 

.315 

710 

940 



Installed 
capacity, 



15.000 
10,000 
10,000 
.34,000 
10,000 
35,000 
10,000 
20,000 
6,000 
6,000 
75.000 
100.000 
30,000 
13,000 
73,000 
50,000 
4,000 
30,000 
35,000 
125,000 
30,000 



oo.ooo 
50,000 
70,000 
25,000 
25,000 
60,000 
10,000 
10,000 
15,000 
7,000 
5.000 



,II.-,S,[)0(1 



Annual energy 
production, 



62,000,000 
50,000,000 
56,000,000 
135,000,000 
44,000,000 
34,000,000 
47,000,000 
91,000,000 
33,000,000 
13,000,000 
429,000,000 
530,000,000 
17,000,000 
52.000,000 
192,000.000 
232,000,000 
32,000,000 
140,000,000 
149,000,000 
500,000,000 
123.000,000 



298,000,000 
245,000,000 
359,000,000 
103,000,000 
123.000,000 
304,000,000 
56.000.000 
38,000,000 
69,000.000 
34,000,000 
68,000,000 



4,657,000.000 



Capital 
cost b , ■ 



$1,724,000 
1,810,000 
1,170,000 
2,840,000 
1,715,000 
4,225.000 
1,418,000 
2,356,000 
1,086,000 
1.039,000 
9.550.000 

10,174,000 
2,230,000 
2,180,000 
7,762,000 
4,260.000 
582,000 
2,908,000 
3,425.000 

12,637,000 
3,652,000 



6,255,000 
4.440.000 
7,890,000 
3,386,000 
3,560,000 
5,693,000 
2,177,000 
1,787,000 
2,104,000 
983,000 
699,000 



(Table 14 continued on following page) 



mly a portion of the estimated ultimate possible 
mean seasonal water requirements, aggregating about 
8,740,000 aere-feet. 

The objectives of The California Water Plan for 
he Lahontan Area cannot be fully met by local de- 
velopment works, as the available water resources are 
Insufficient to provide for the needs of the area and 
iiinh of the area is remote from areas of surplus in 
)ther parts of the State. Because of the difficulty and 
tost of providing imported water supplies, possible 
aeans of importation of sufficient water to the various 
treas within the Lahontan Area to meet the ultimate 
tossible requirements have not been planned as they 
tave been for other hydrographic areas. Rather, the 
Lireetion of future development has been indicated, 
vitli further plans left for future investigation. 

For planning purposes the Lahontan Area has been 
abdivided into four groups, designated the "Lassen 
■ roup," "Alpine Group," "Mono-Owens Group," 
ad "Mojave Group," and their locations are shown 
n Plate 3. Physical features and costs of all sug- 
gested local works for the Lahontan Area are pre- 



sented in Table 15, following the summary of works 
for the Lahontan Area. 

Lassen Group. The Lassen Group comprises the 
Surprise Valley, Madeline Plains, and Honey Lake 
areas, with a combined area of about 3,800 square 
miles. The group is located in the extreme northeast- 
ern portion of the State, lying between the Cali- 
fornia-Nevada boundary and the crests of the Warner 
Mountains and the Sierra Nevada. Each of the fore- 
going areas in this group is essentially a closed and 
internally draining watershed. The Susan River, 
largest stream in the group, rises on the eastern slopes 
of the Sierra Nevada and flows eastward through 
Susanville, terminating in Honey Lake. Some of the 
streams draining the Warner Mountains into Surprise 
Valley provide excellent trout fishing in the mountain 
reaches. 

Approximately 90,000 acres are presently (1950) 
irrigated in the Lassen Group, and about 2,500 acres 
are occupied by urban and suburban developments. 
The present (1950) mean seasonal water require- 
ment is estimated to be about 268,000 acre-feet per 



150 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



TABLE 14-Continued 

SUMMARY OF WORKS TO MEET WATER REQUIREMENTS IN SAN JOAQUIN-TULARE LAKE BASIN 

(These works show future development possibilities. They are not project proposals.) 



Length of conduit, in mile 



Capital 
cost b 



San Joaquin-Sierra Group 

Cosumnes River development 

Mokelumne-Calaveras River development 

Stanislaus River development 

Tuolumne River development 

Merced River development 

Chowchilla-Fresno River development 

San Joaquin River development 

Tulare-Sierra Group 

Kings River development 

Kaweah River development 

Tule River development 

Kern River development 

North Valley Group 

San Joaquin Waste Conduit 

South Valley Group 

Arvin-Edison Canal 

San Joaquin-Tulare Basin Canal 

North Kings Canal 

Fresno South Canal 

Totals 



$6,082,000 
8.162,000 
10,683,000 
29,505,00| 
14,675,000 
100,000 
32,672,000 



7,140,000 
38.910,000 
2,515,000 

4,450.000 



Sheet of 
Plate 5 on 
which shown 



Installed 

capacity, 

in kilowatts 



Seasonal power 
consumption, in 
kilowatt-hours 



Capital 
cost b 



San Luis Forebay Pumps 

San Joaquin-Tulare Canal Pumps 
Kettleman City Pumps 

Totals 



'.in. ooo 

30,000 

211,000 



260,000,000 
80,000,000 
60.000,000 



$18,600,000 
9.400.C 
3.400,( 



Symbols of Type of Dan 
CG — Concrete gravity 
E— Earthfill 
CO — Concrete overpour 
CE — Composite earthfill 
R— Rockfill 
ER— Earth-rock 
CA — Concrete arch 



Includes yield of upstream works, if any. 

At 1955 price levels. 

i o i "' each plant includes associated works except 

Tabulated data pertain to enlargement of existing plant 



Symbols of Purpose 
I — Irrigation 
U— Urban 
FC— Flood control 
P — Power generation 
R — Recreation 

F — Enhancement of fish environment 
OP — Regulation for use of off-peak power 
S — Reregulation of waters to local demand schedules 
D— Diversion 



season, while the yield of the presently developed 
works, including wells and surface diversions, lias 
been estimated to be only about 172,000 acre-feet. 

The short, steep slopes of the easterly face of the 
Warner .Mountains render impracticable the provision 
of major storage facilities for the conservation of 
runoff in Surprise Valley, Possible sources of future 
supplemental supplies for that area include an inter- 
basin importation by tunnel through the Warner 
Mountains from Goose Lake and importation of water 
from Cowhead Lake in Oregon to the northeast of 
Surprise Valley, wliieli are interstate problems; and 
increased utilization and development of the local 



ground water supplies. "With the exception of the 
ground water development, however, provision of 
oilier water supplies for Surprise Valley would be 1 
extremely costly, and no definite development plans 
have been formulated. 

Plans for the provision of supplemental water sup- 
plies in the Madeline Plains area have not been prM 
pared. Due to the remoteness of the area, the eleva-j 
tion of the agricultural lands, and the short growing 
season, irrigable lands in this area have a limited* 
adaptability to general agricultural development. The] 
area is closely associated with the economy of western 
Nevada, and the lands are currently utilized for sum- 



. 



^n$/f^ii^ 



Lahontan Area— Donner Summit 




Lahontan Area— Arid Lands in Mono County 



i 



152 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



mer forage for cattle. A possibility exists of importa- 
tion of supplemental water supplies from the Pit 
River or from the area tributary to Eagle Lake, if 
justified. 

Local development works in the Honey Lake area 
could provide for the conservation of available water 
supplies though a system of reservoirs and appurte- 
nant facilities. These works would consist of Devils 
Corral Reservoir on Susan River; Long Valley Dam 
on Long Valley Creek; and the Pete's Valley-Eagle 
Lake development, comprising a dike confining the 
waters of Eagle Lake to the southerly part of the 
present lake bed, and a dam and reservoir on Willow 
Creek. All of the foregoing reservoirs would supply 
about 59,000 acre-feet of water annually for use in 
the Honey Lake area. However, only a portion of this 
water supply could be considered to be new water, as 
most of the flow of the Susan River and the many 
creeks in the area are presently utilized for the irriga- 
tion of crops. The principal benefits to be derived 
from these works would be the more advantageous 
regulation of the water supply in accordance with 
agricultural demands ; the provision of adequate water 
supplies during recurrent periods of deficiency ; and 
the development of additional water supplies, ap- 
proximately equivalent to the amounts now wasted to 
Honey Lake, and a portion of that consumed in pres- 
ent evaporation from the surface of Eagle Lake. 

It is reported that Eagle Lake is of great scientific 
interest, particularly to biologists. Varieties of pre- 
historic aquatic life are found in the waters of the 
lake and thus provide a definite link with the distant 
past. Improvements designed to increase the utility 
of the waters of the lake from a water supply stand- 
point should be so designed, constructed, and operated 
as to result in a minimum adverse effect on the exist- 
ing fish and aquatic specimens. The growing economy 
of California and the demands of the people of the 
State for recreational developments will require the 
maximum utilization of all available facilities. The 
improvement would provide an excellent opportunity 
for additional developments of a recreational nature 
in the Susanville area. 

It is probable that the future development of ground 
water resources in the Honey Lake area may provide 
an appreciable portion of the ultimate water require- 
ments of the area. Some development of this source 
has taken place in the past, and ground water is now 
being utilized for domestic, industrial, and agricul- 
tural purposes. 

Alpine Group. The Alpine Group, located in the 
central Sierra Nevada, comprises the California drain- 
age of the Truckee, Carson, and Walker Rivers. Lake 
Tahoe with its surrounding drainage area, part of 
which lies in the Stale of Nevada, forms the head- 
waters of the Truckee River. This area, centered about 
Lake Tahoe, has developed into a recreation area and 



11 



vacation land of major importance, and includes 
many outstanding and internationally known ski 1 
areas. Numerous back trails and some secondary roads 
provide access to the high mountain valleys. 

The existing economy of most lands in the Carson 
and Walker River Basins is based on the livestock in- 
dustry, supplemented by recreational activities. The) 
irrigated lands are used both for the production of 
hay for winter feeding of livestock and for summei. 
pasture for cattle, the majority of which are brought 
in from Nevada. Recreational opportunities are cen- 
tered around the fishing, hunting, and scenic attrac, 
tions of the high mountain areas. 

Existing water development works in the Truckei 
River Basin principally benefit lands in the State o' 
Nevada. About 7,000 acre-feet of water per season isi 
diverted from the Little Truckee River to Sierra Vallej- 
in the upper Feather River watershed. Boca Reservor 
on Little Truckee River and Independence and Donne 
Lakes have been developed to provide supplement;! 
water for areas in Nevada. Lake Tahoe, with a storag 
capacity of 732,000 acre-feet in the 6.1-foot operatinj 
range permitted under a federal court decree, com 
serves and regulates the seasonal snowmelt in tli 
upper basin areas. Releases from the lake, supple 
mented by water stored in Boca Reservoir and h 
Donner and Independence Lakes, are utilized for powe* 
production in five hydroelectric generating plants o 
the Sierra Pacific Power Company which are situatei 
on the Truckee River between Floriston, Californif 
and Reno, Nevada. No major water developments hav, 
been constructed in the upper Carson River Basir 
The minor developments which presently exist ar 
privately constructed diversions, small reservoirs, an- 
ditch systems, which utilize the available flows in tli 
various streams. In the Walker River Basin, the prin 
cipal existing development is for the benefit of land 
in Nevada. Topaz Reservoir, an off-stream develop 
ment on the West Walker River, and Bridgeport Res 
ervoir on the East Walker River, have been cor 
structed by the Walker River Irrigation District, i 
Nevada agency. These reservoirs store available winte 
runoff for use as irrigation water supplies during tt 
following growing season. 

As stated previously, the Truckee, Carson, an 
Walker Rivers have been developed for utilization 
California to some extent, and in Nevada to a 9 
siderably greater extent. At the present time there 
a shortage of water from these three stream systenT 
to supply the lands in Nevada which have been d 
veloped thereunder. In addition, there is a larJ 
acreage of undeveloped land within the basins of the! 
three rivers in both states which could use the wat< 
if it were available. 

The States of California and Nevada, in 1! 
created similar interstate compact commissions to 
with the problems created by the needs in both stat 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



153 



I for the waters of these three interstate streams. These 
commissions were formed to cooperate in the formu- 
lation of an interstate compact relative to the distri- 
bution and use of the waters of Lake Tahoe and of 
the Truckee, Carson, and Walker Rivers. Meetings 
held to date between the two commissons have pointed 
up the fact that there are insufficient water resources 
in these three interstate watersheds to meet fully the 
lultimate water requirements of the areas in both 
iCalifornia and Nevada. 

J It is anticipated that the compact negotiations will 
!be governed in the first instance by the necessity for 
preserving the existing economy, including the use of 
water for domestic purposes, irrigation, power, recre- 
ation, and the preservation of fish and wildlife. The 
j allocation under the compact between the two states 
.of water available for future development would de- 
termine to what extent the ultimate water require- 
ments of lands in California could be met from the 
■ local stream systems. 

Major flood damage in the Alpine Group is expe- 
'rieneed from time to time in the Lake Tahoe area. 
'Hisrh-water stages on the lake cause destruction of 
"beaches and boating facilities as well as damage to 

• septic tank installations. Suggested solutions for al- 
leviating this damage include reduction of the maxi- 

'mum operating limit of the water surface from its 
present elevation of 6.229.1 feet above sea level. On 
the other hand, extremely low water surface eleva- 
tions are detrimental to the recreation values of the 

I lake by making boat dock facilities unusable and ex- 
posing bottom areas not suitable for recreation. A 

I solution to this problem could be achieved by chang- 
ing the maximum and minimum operating limits of 
the lake level. However, any reduction in usable stor- 
age resulting from the change in operating limits 
would appear to require that equivalent storage be 

'substituted elsewhere in the area to replace present 
storage in Lake Tahoe. 

Flood damage to agricultural and urban develop- 

[ment elsewhere in the Alpine Group is not expected 

jto be of major importance. Minor channel improve- 
ments would probably provide adequate protection 
against all but extreme flood occurrences. Channel 
improvement on the Truckee River below Lake Tahoe 
lias been authorized by Congress for construction by 

jthe Corps of Engineers, U. S. Army. 

The Washoe Project was authorized by the Con- 
gr< !ss in 1956 for construction by the United States 
Bureau of Reclamation. Among the features of this 

[project located in the Truckee River Basin is Stam- 
pede Reservoir on the Little Truckee River, with a 

'capacity of 126,000 acre-feet. Water from this reser- 
voir would be discharged through a tunnel and pen- 
stock to the 20,000-kilowatt Calvada Power Plant on 
the Truckee River. The discharge from this power 

* plant would flow through the Truckee River channel 



and existing facilities to meet and supplement estab- 
lished rights in Nevada. 

In addition to these previously described works, 
Congress also provided for a fish and wildlife benefit 
of $2,000,000, part of which is to be used to improve 
the Truckee River fishery. The works to be constructed 
for improvement of the fishery were not described 
in the authorizing act. However, the Bureau of Rec- 
lamation has proposed a reservoir on Prosser Creek 
in order to maintain minimum flows in the Truckee 
River below Lake Tahoe by means of an exchange of 
water with Lake Tahoe. The act further provides that 
Stampede Reservoir shall be constructed in such a 
manner that it can be raised at a later date to a ca- 
pacity of 175,000 acre-feet, in conformity with The 
California Water Plan. 

The AVashoe Project Act also states : 

"The use of waters of the Little Truckee River 
solely for the generation of electric power by the 
Washoe project shall not impair or preclude the 
appropriation of such waters in the future for bene- 
ficial consumptive use within the Little Truckee 
River watershed in California, to the same extent 
as such waters may be presently available for such 
appropriation in the State of California : Provided, 
That if and when an interstate compact covering 
the distribution and use of the waters of the 
Truckee and Carson Rivers is approved by the Leg- 
islatures of the States of California and Nevada and 
is consented to by Congress, the operation of the 
Washoe reclamation project shall be in conform- 
ance with such compact, and the foregoing restric- 
tion shall not apply." 

In the Carson River Basin, Watasheamu Reservoir 
on the East Fork of the Carson River has been 
authorized for construction under the Washoe Proj- 
ect. Watasheamu Reservoir would be constructed to 
a capacity of 115,000 acre-feet, and would regulate 
flood flows now running to waste, together with water 
presently used by the Newlands Project which would 
be replaced by Washoe Project water from the 
Truckee River. Releases from Watasheamu Reservoir 
would pass through the 8,000-kilowatt Watasheamu 
Power Plant at the base of the dam. The water then 
would be reregulated at the 1,040 acre-foot Dressier 
Diversion Dam and af terbay. Water would be diverted 
to the proposed Carson Canal, serving new lands along 
its course through the Carson Valley. Water would 
also be delivered to the West Fork of the Carson River 
for distribution by existing canals diverting from 
that stream. 

The Washoe Project Act provides that water users 
in Alpine County, California, shall have the first 
opportunity to purchase a water supply from the 
water made available by Watasheamu Reservoir 
before such water is available for the development of 
new lands in Nevada. This would probabaly also in- 



154 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



volve an exchange of such East Carson River water 
from Watasheamu Reservoir for West Carson River 
water now used in Nevada. 

In addition to an adequate water supply for 
habitable (not alone irrigable) lands, the objectives 
of The California Water Plan in the Alpine Group 
include: (1) preservation and enhancement of the 
recreational value of Lake Tahoe and the surrounding 
areas; (2) preservation and enhancement of the fish 
and wildlife resources of the streams and surrounding 
areas; (3) preservation and enhancement of the recre- 
ational value of the entire group; and, (4) provision 
of the maximum assistance to the general economy 
of the entire group through utilization of the oppor- 
tunities for the generation of hydroelectric power. 

These objectives coidd be met by further develop- 
ment of the water resources in each of the three 
watersheds of the group. In general, the waters of 
each stream system would be utilized to meet supple- 
mental water requirements in its own drainage area, 
taking full cognizance of the interstate character of 
present and future water development. 

The Lake Tahoe-Union Mills development consists 
of a diversion from the north shore of Lake Tahoe, 
connected by tunnel and canal to the Union Mills 
Power Plant. The water supply developed by this 
project would be used for the production of about 
36,000,000 kilowatt-hours of hydroelectric energy 
annually. 

The Lake Tahoe-Farad development includes the 
Lake Tahoe-Union Mills development, as described 
above, and, additionally, would involve a diversion 
from Truckee River about 3.5 miles downstream from 
the City of Truckee, connecting with Boca Reservoir 
through canal and tunnel. A tunnel from Boca Reser- 
voir would transfer the flow to a contemplated hydro- 
electric plant located near Farad on the Truckee 
River. Water diverted from the Truckee River below 
Union Mills and routed through Boca Reservoir would 
produce about 66,000,000 kilowatt-hours of hydroelec- 
tric energy annually. 

Preliminary operation studies of this development 
indicate that in addition to the production of needed 
power for the Tahoe-Reno area, the problems en- 
gendered by high and low stages on Lake Tahoe would 
be greatly alleviated. 

The Stampede-Calvada development would divert 
flows from Prosser Creek, a tributary of the Truckee 
River, into a canal terminating at Stampede Reser- 
voir, which would then be enlarged to a total storage 
capacity of about 175,000 acre-feet. The average sea- 
sonal yield for all beneficial purposes would approxi- 
mate 120,000 acre-feet, of which 20,000 acre- feet 
could be utilized in service areas in California. Sea- 
sonal release of !),:»()() aere-feef would be made for 
maintenance of fish life in the Little Truckee River. 
The hydroelectric generating facilities of the Calvada 
Power Plant, nuclei- such ;i plan, would generate about 



165,000,000 kilowatt-hours of electrical energy sea- I 
sonally. Should the Prosser Creek works proposed by ' 
the United States Bureau of Reclamation be con- 
structed, the Stampede-Calvada development would : 
probably not be possible of accomplishment. 

Hope Valley Reservoir on the West Carson River j 
would provide a firm water supply to meet the irriga- j 
tion requirements of the 8,000 acres lying in Diamond , 
Valley and in the Fredricksburg area. The reservoir j 
would furnish an estimated firm seasonal yield of 
55,000 acre-feet of water. The major portion of this 
supply would be available for generation of hydro- 
electric energy at the Paynesville and Woodfords . 
Power Plants and for subsequent application to do- 
mestic and agricultural purposes. In addition, releases 
from the reservoir of about 5,000 acre-feet per season 
would provide to some extent for the maintenance of 
fish and wildlife below the dam. 

The remaining 5,300 acres of irrigable land in the 
Carson River Basin, located principally on the East 
Carson River, would experience a deficiency in supply ' 
in most seasons due to practical difficulties and costs 
of supplying irrigation water requirements to small 
and isolated tracts. 

In California, the flow of the East Carson River 
would be principally devoted to recreational uses. 
However, the stream flow would be depleted to an 
extent of about 5,300 acre-feet annually to provide 
water on about 4,500 acres of irrigable land. Silver 
King Reservoir on East Carson River would provide 
an ample water supply to furnish the necessary flow 
for maintenance of fish life at all times, except in the 
driest years of record. 

Developments contemplated on the West AValker 
River include reservoirs at Leavitt and Pickle 
Meadows, diversion of the Little Walker River into 
Pickle Meadows Reservoir, and Pickle Meadows and 
Antelope Valley Power Plants, of 5,000- and 25,000- 
kilowatt capacity, respectively. 

Leavitt Meadows Dam, located at the lower end of 
Leavitt Meadows, would form a reservoir with a stor- 
age capacity of 20,000 acre-feet. Water released from 
Leavitt Meadows Reservoir would pass through the 
Pickle Meadows Power Plant prior to being dis- 
charged into Pickle Meadows Reservoir, located at 
the lower end of Pickle Meadows. Stored water from 
the latter reservoir would be released for productioj 
of hydroelectric energy at the Antelope Valley Powi 
Plant, with subseqiient use for irrigation in Antelo 
Valley in California and lower areas in Nevada. 

Much of the flow of the Little Walker River abovi 
its junction with the West Walker River would be 
diverted into the 125,000 acre-foot capacity Pickle 
Meadows Reservoir for storage and use. Storage t3 
available runoff would contribute to flood protection 
in Antelope Valley and in lower areas in Nevada. 
In addition to the hydroelectric power and irrigation 
benefits there would be incidental fishery benefit! 






THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



155 



•onsisting largely of protection of the channel and 
ish habitat from scouring flood flows. 

No developments are contemplated above Bridge- 
port Valley on the East Walker River. However, a 
mlroeleetric generating plant, utilizing the available 
aead between Bridgeport Dam and the state line, of 
3,200-kilowatt capacity, could develop 39,700,000 kilo- 
watt-hours of electrical energy per year. Bridgeport 
Valley forms an excellent potential ground water 
i nit. Bridgeport Reservoir, at the lower end of the 
palley, bas caused high ground water elevations under 
lie town of Bridgeport. Use of the ground water basin 
night tend to lower such existing water levels. Both 
-he United States Bureau of Reclamation and the 
Walker River Irrigation District have investigated 
die possibility of raising Bridgeport Dam. A project 
if that nature should include works necessary to pro- 
eet the town of Bridgeport from further damage by 
lisrh ground water levels. 

Mono-Owens Group. The Mono-Owens Group 
lomprises the Mono Lake, Adobe Valley, and Owens 
liver areas in the central part of the State, adjacent 
o the California-Nevada boundary. The westerly 
boundary of the group lies along the crest of the 
Bierra Nevada. The gross area of this group in Cali- 
ornia is about 4,112 square miles, of which about 
•84 square miles are valley and mesa lands. Mt. Whit- 
ley. the highest peak in the continental United States, 
ising 14.500 feet above sea level, is the outstanding 
'opographie feature. 

Mono Lake is a perennial lake with a surface area 
[if about 88 square miles, at an elevation of 6,400 feet 
hove sea level. The lake waters are highly saline and 
Insuitable for general use. Many small reservoirs and 
akes in the upper reaches of Rush, Leevining, Parker, 
Walker, and Mill Creeks afford excellent opportuni- 
ty for fishing and recreation. Grant Lake on Rush 
'reek, and Walker and Sardine Lakes on Walker 
Ireek are owned by the City of Los Angeles and are 
perated to facilitate the exportation of water to Los 
^.ngeles. Several reservoirs in Mono Lake Basin, used 
rimarily for hydroelectric power production, are 
wned and operated by the California Electric Power 
Jompany. The several small reservoirs in the basin 
ave an aggregate storage capacity of about 90,000 
!cre-feet. 

The Owens River rises in volcanic formations to the 
orth of Owens Valley, flowing across the broad up- 
and meadows of Long Valley. The river then drops 
teeply through the Owens River Gorge, arriving at 
ead of Owens Valley at an elevation of about 
.400 feet. The fall through the gorge has been utilized 
br the production of hydroelectric energy. From the 
touth of the gorge, the river follows a meandering 

rurse through the valley, finally terminating in 
'wens Lake. Exportation of water to the City of Los 
Jlgeles has reduced the inflow to the lake, and a brine 



processing industry now conducts extensive operations 
on the lake bed. 

The many lakes and small reservoirs in the Mono- 
Owens Group provide excellent and much-needed 
recreational opportunities. In addition to the existing 
facilities for fishing and camping, the organization 
and provisioning of groups formed for fishing and 
hunting is a major activity. Much of the present econ- 
omy of the group is based upon these recreational as- 
pects, factors which are expected to be of increasing 
importance to the area. Long Valley Reservoir, also 
known as Lake Crowdey, is a very important recrea- 
tional asset to the Mono-Owens Group. 

Long Valley, Tinemaha, and Haiwee Reservoirs reg- 
ulate the runoff of the Owens River and the imported 
waters from Mono Lake Basin. The City of Los An- 
geles purchased some 300,000 acres of lands in Owens- 
Mono Basin to obtain water rights for its project. The 
city now leases lands under agreements which contem- 
plate applying water to varying acreages of these 
lands, depending upon the availability of water in 
excess of the carrying capacity of the Los Angeles 
Aqueduct, which now delivers 320,000 acre-feet per 
annum, approximately its full capacity. 

No plans have been prepared for further local de- 
velopment in the Mono-Owens Group as the City of 
Los Angeles claims rights to the use of most of the 
waters of these basins. It is expected, however, that 
some agricultural development on the more favorable 
lands will occur in the future, utilizing water pres- 
ently wasted by phreatophyte infestation. Importation 
of additional water would be extremely difficult and 
costly. Every effort must be made to preserve and en- 
hance the fish and wildlife resources of the area and 
to expand the recreational opportunities. 

Mojave Group. The Mojave Group comprises 
Death Valley, the Mojave River Basin, and Antelope 
Valley. The group is located in the southern part of 
the Lahontan Area and is bounded on the west and 
south by the crest of the Sierra Nevada and other 
drainage divides separating the Lahontan and Colo- 
rado Desert Areas. The group contains a total of 
about 22,700 square miles, of which 6,800 square miles 
are valley and mesa lands. Death Valley National 
Monument, an outstanding vacation land, is located 
in this group and is bordered on the west by the im- 
posing Panamint Range. 

The Mojave Group is unique because all drainage is 
internal, the streams terminating in dry lakes, or 
sinks, which are subject to inundation in the occa- 
sional periods of exceptionally high runoff. The prin- 
cipal streams in the group, all of which are compara- 
tively minor, are the Mojave River, draining the 
northerly slopes of the San Bernardino Mountains, 
Big and Little Rock Creeks in Antelope Valley, and 
the Amargosa River, draining Death Valley. 






156 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



Tremendous expansion has taken place in the desert 
areas during the past few years. Camp Irwin and the 
Naval Ordnance Test Station at Inyokern are located 
in the Mojave Group. The recent acceleration of activ- 
ities of these and other military installations has 
caused a major influx of population into adjacent 
urban areas. Antelope Valley has experienced some 
agricultural expansion during the last decade, but the 
principal development has been due to expansion of 
industry with the accompanying commercial develop- 
ment to support the urban growth. In the Palmdale 
and Lancaster areas, the advent of military and re- 
lated aircraft industrial installations has resulted in a 
great increase in population. Major industries in the 
Mojave Group are the manufacture of portland ce- 
ment, the production of crops by irrigated agricul- 
ture, and the operation and maintenance of railroad 
plant and equipment. Commercial development has 
expanded rapidly, due to the growth of population 
and the increased tourist trade that is being experi- 
enced in this group. 

"Water quality problems are inextricably connected 
with the development of the native water resources 
of the Mojave Group and the provision of additional 
imported supplies. Poor-quality ground water is pres- 
ently found in many of the individual ground water 
basins. The existence of borax mines is indicative of 
present and future problems associated with excessive 
boron content of otherwise usable water supplies. It is 
anticipated that other problems will develop as the 
expansion of economic activity occasions the further 
development of ground water resources. 

Future development of available ground water stor- 
age capacity, involving the utilization of large quan- 
tities of imported water supplies, would require ade- 
quate control over the maintenance of salt balance. 
This is a serious and aggravated problem under con- 
ditions of internal drainage such as are found in the 
Mojave Group, where all drainage water remains in 
the immediate vicinity of the primary supply. Salt 
balance in the usable ground water reservoirs must 
be maintained by providing facilities to export, or 
transfer, from the underground basins as great a 
quantity of salts as is added in the processes of use 
and re-use. 

Flood problems in this group are those principally 
connected with the Mojave River. Occasional floods on 
this stream have in the past caused extensive damage 
in the valley areas. In 1956 the Corps of Engineers, 
I'. S. Army, investigated the problem of floods, and 
recommended construction of a flood control reservoir 
on I he West Fork of the Mojave River. 

In common with most other arid areas, the Mojave 
Group is subject to cloudbursts, which cause flash 
floods, during which ;i large volume of water is dis- 
charged down a normally dry stream bed. Floods of 
this type have caused considerable damage in localized 






areas, but are so erratic in time and place as usually to 
make infeasible the provision of adequate safeguards jj 
against the prospective flood damage. 

The irrigated area in the Mojave Group amounted i 
to about 99,000 acres in 1950. The water supplies re- < 
quired to support this agricultural development, to- j 
gether with necessary urban and suburban require- i 
ments, have been principally secured by development 
of available underground water supplies. 

In Antelope Valley, the Little Rock Creek and 
Palmdale Irrigation Districts have developed avail- 
able surface supplies originating in the San Bernar- 
dino Mountains. In addition to the development of i: 
surface supplies, ground water has been extensively 1 
developed to supply most of the 74,000 acres presently ;: 
under irrigation in 1950. As a consequence, an annual 
overdraft of about 160,000 acre-feet existed at that' 
time; the ground water resources were overdrawn 
prior to 1946, at least. As a. result, ground water levels 
now (1957) average 176 feet below ground surface. 
It has been estimated that, under 1950 conditions, the 
water requirements for the then existing development 
in Antelope Valley amounted to about 226,000 acre- 
feet per season. It is estimated that the probable ulti- 
mate habitable Avater service area, in Antelope Valley 
would total about 725,000 acres, of which about 610,- 
000 acres would be irrigated, or approximately eight 
times the 1949-50 area of irrigated lands. The 
mated probable ultimate mean seasonal water require- 
ment is about 1,520,000 acre-feet, of which 1,490,000 
acre-feet might be used for irrigated agriculture. 
Since the native water supply amounts to only about 
66,000 acre-feet, it is apparent that, for all practical 
purposes, the water supplies necessary to support the 
potential economic development of this area would 
have to be imported through the facilities of the Call 
fornia Aqueduct System. 

It is estimated that the yield available from na.ti|& 
water supplies in the Mojave Group is about 200.000 
acre-feet per season, including about 135,000 acren 
feet from the Mojave River and 66,000 acre-feet from 
watersheds tributary to Antelope Valley. Although 
the Amargosa River, draining Death Valley, conl 
utes an unknown amount to the water supply of 
area, its effect, in relation to the magnitude of 
estimated requirement, is believed to be small. 

The objectives of The California Water Plan 
the Mojave Group would be met by the importation oi 
about 4,835,000 acre-feet of supplemental water &] 
plies pei' season from areas of surplus in Californf 
through the facilities of the California Aqueduct S; 
tern, and the transmission and distribution of 
water supplies to local agencies throughout the 
It is contemplated that water would be supplied 
a constant-flow basis, and that reregulation to 
monthly demand schedule prevailing in the ser 
areas would be accomplished by utilization of av; 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



157 



le mound water storage. The flow in excess of re- 
irements during the winter months would be placed 
underground storage, and, during periods when 
ute demand for water would be greater than the de- 
fered flow, supplemental water supplies would be 
jmped from the underground reservoirs and dis- 
puted through the existing system. 
It is pointed out that the cost of importing water 
this area would be high because of the elevations 
1 1 distances involved. This cost might well be be- 
nd the repayment capacity of irrigated agriculture 
ider current economic conditions. On the other hand, 
is believed that urban communities, military activi- 
lis, and industrial developments could bear these 
sts. The feasibility of providing adequate water sup- 
lies for the Mojave Group in the near future, at 
ist, will be largely dependent upon the probable hi- 
re trend of economic development, whether it be 
jincipally urban and industrial or agricultural. The 
spartment of Water Resources is currently (1957) 
«lfing further and intensive study to the matter. 
A unit of the California Aqueduct System would 
ater the Lahontan Area at the Antelope Afterbay. 
is described hereafter under the heading "Buena 
Rsta-Cedar Springs Aqueduct." It would traverse 
■ ■ area along the southerly edge of Antelope Valley 
d leave the area at Mojave Junction, from whence 
would proceed into the South Coastal Area. Diver- 
n of necessary water supplies for the Mojave Group 
^*uld be made as required at various points along the 
lie of the California Aqueduct route. 

Summary of Lahontan Area. Objectives of the 

< lifornia Water Plan in the Lahontan Area would 
1, met by further development of local water re- 
tirees, supplemented with imported water delivered 
■rough facilities of the California Aqueduct System 
lithe southerly portion of the area. Deficiencies in de- 
■oped water supplies to support the existing munic- 
Jal and agricultural development in the area have 
Ifcreased rapidly in the past few years, particularly 
ijthe Mojave Group. The population in the Lahontan 
Ilea was about 126,000 in 1955, with much of the 
Ifcrease since 1950 occurring in the southerly portion 

< tin- area. 

IjLocal water resources in the Lassen Group are in- 
efficient to provide for the water requirements of 
lis group. Projects contemplated herein, while aug- 
pnting the present development, would not suffice 
Bmeet the probable ultimate requirements. However, 
Wovision of imported water supplies to this area is 
■It considered feasible of accomplishment due to its 
Knote geographical location and the difficulties at- 
t ; idant on exporting required water supplies from 
I irees of the Central Valley. 

Ittn the Alpine Group the yield from local works 
^uld accrue largely to the benefit of lands lying in 
•p State of Nevada. Contemplated works could pro- 



vide water supplies adequate to meet the estimated 

ultimate requirements in this group. However, the 
considerations involved in the distribution of waters 
of an interstate stream will probably govern the 
amount of water which cotild be made available for 
the ultimate development of the lands in the Cali- 
fornia portion of the stream system. Projects included 
in The California Water Plan, together with existing 
works in this area, would provide a high degree of 
conservation of surface water resources, developing a 
yield of about 310,000 acre-feet of water per season. 
This yield would be additional to the yield from 
Bridgeport Reservoir on the Walker River and the 
proposed Watasheamu Reservoir on the East Carson 
River. In contrast, the estimated probable water re- 
quirements of lands in California included in this 
group are about 144,000 acre-feet per season. 

The possible yield from development of local water 
supplies in the Mojave Group is estimated to be about 
200,000 acre-feet of water per season. Required sup- 
plemental water supplies in this group would be 
largely provided from imported water delivered 
through the facilities of the California Aqueduct 
System. This would be accomplished principally 
through the use of ground water storage in conjunc- 
tion with supplemental water supplies amounting to 
4,835,000 acre-feet per season, which would ulti- 
mately be imported into the group through the Cali- 
fornia Aqueduct System, if determined to be feasible, 
and be distributed by local water service agencies. 

The future growth of California will necessitate a 
considerable increase in the development of recrea- 
tional areas and facilities. Water development must 
provide specific features for the enhancement of the 
sport fishery and the wildlife of California. The 
recreational aspect of anticipated water development 
is of outstanding importance in the Lahontan Area, 
particularly in the Lassen, Alpine, and Mono-Owens 
Groups. This region of the State has many almost 
unparalleled advantages for recreational develop- 
ment. Much of the present economic development is 
based upon supplying the recreational needs of Cali- 
fornia's population, and it is expected that this ac- 
tivity will increase at a rapid rate in the future. 

The general features and costs of the local de- 
velopment Avorks contemplated as features of The 
California Water Plan in the Lahontan Area are 
presented in Table 15. The location and layouts of all 
these facilities are delineated on Sheets 4. 6. and 9 of 
Plate 5. 

Colorado Desert Area 

The Colorado Desert Area comprises all lands 
draining directly into the Colorado River, together 
with a number of centrally drained desert basins 
without outlet. The area includes a total of lit. 400 
square miles, of which about one-half consists of 
valley and mesa lands. The climate of the area is arid. 



158 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



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THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



IT)!) 



pified by short, mild winters and exceptionally hot, 
ry summers. In the higher mountain regions, par- 
cularly in the coastal ranges, precipitation frequently 
curs in the form of snow. A large portion of the 
unfall in the valley areas originates from localized 
kunderstorms, resulting in extreme variability and 
aldistribution in precipitation. The rainfall on 
illey and mesa lands is generally so minor in amount 
lat it has little practical significance with respect to 
te water resources of the area. 
The economy of the Colorado Desert Area is based 
rincipally upon agricultural development in the Im- 
prial, Coachella, and Palo Verde Valleys, and in the 
unia Project, all of which have developed a stable 
rricultural economy dependent upon Colorado River 
iter. The mild winter climate and long growing 
asons have produced a great variety and abundance 
crops, and have permitted the expansion of spe- 
felty produce, such as off-season truck crops, citrus, 
ites, cotton, and table grapes. Much of the irrigable 
tid in this area is included within the service area 
• agencies holding rights in and to the waters of the 
llorado River. The remaining lands, two-thirds of 
nrich are located in the northerly portion of the area, 
ruld be supplied with their ultimate water require- 
pnts through major export projects from areas of 
ifrplus in northern California. 

[The Colorado Desert Area has taken its place in 
fcent years as one of the nation's outstanding resort 
feas. Recreational resorts are located principally in 
lid adjacent to Palm Springs, Desert Hot Springs, 
Ml Twentynine Palms. The development of dude 
Imch resorts and other desert types of recreational 
fcilities has attracted thousands of seasonal visitors. 
Be principal resort season covers the winter months, 
■hough there is an appreciable year-round influx of 
tirists and visitors to the area. 

■(Population in the Colorado Desert Area, with the 
kpeption of urban and recreational areas in the 
Ijachella Valley, as of 1950, had not kept pace with 
M large over-all growth which occurred in other 
Has of the State. With exception of the resort com- 
llnities, urban developments are, for the most part, 
Ijunets to the agricultural activity, which did not 
Ifcnge greatly in the decade from 1940 to 1950. Pop- 
Ution in the several resort areas, however, more than 
Bibled in the decade preceding 1950, and has con- 
Rued its rapid growth to the present time. It should 
■ noted that population in Palm Springs and other 
pilar areas is subject to wide seasonal variation. 
■jThe estimated mean seasonal natural runoff in the 
Korado Desert Area is about 221,000 acre-feet. This 
imager runoff, even if fully eonseiwed, would supply 
my a small fraction of the total seasonal water re- 
■jrements. The principal streams are the White- 
*ter River and San Felipe Creek, both of which 
din into the Salton Sea. The stream flow in this area 



is not ordinarily available for surface diversion, due 

to the extreme variability in time and amount of its 
occurrence. 

Continued utilization of irrigable lands within the 
areas presently served from the Colorado River, and 
which are traversed by or accessible to main canals 
already constructed, must depend upon the continued 
availability of Colorado River water to the full extent 
of California's established rights. California is limited 
by the Boulder Canyon Project Act and the Califor- 
nia Limitation Act to the annual consumptive use of 
4,400,000 acre-feet of the waters apportioned to the 
Lower Colorado River Basin by Article HI (a) of the 
Colorado River Compact, plus not more than one-half 
of any excess or surplus waters unapportioned by the 
compact, California considers its entitlement under 
these statutes to aggregate not less than 5,362,000 
acre-feet per annum of beneficial consumptive rise, as 
covered by contracts of California agencies with the 
Federal Government for the storage and delivery of 
water, confirming prior appropriations under the 
laws of California. Of this, districts in the Colorado 
Desert Area hold contracts aggregating 4,150,000 
acre-feet per annum. This figure derives from a 
"Seven-Party Agreement" among the California 
users of Colorado River water, made in 1931. 

The continued use of ground water is vital to the 
existing urban and agricultural development in por- 
tions of the Colorado Desert Area, although quantities 
of ground water available are small in comparison to 
the large surface diversions from the Colorado River. 
The primary sources of ground water in the area are 
seepage from the Colorado River into basins bordering 
the river, precipitation, and percolation of runoff 
from tributary drainage areas. Ground water use for 
agricultural piirposes is centered principally in the 
Coachella, Borrego, and Lucerne Valleys. The safe 
annual yield of these developed ground water basins, 
however, is only about 78,000 acre-feet, indicating 
that development may not safely continue without an 
imported supplemental water supply. 

Ground water quality varies greatly both in com- 
position and concentration throughout the Colorado 
Desert Area, and often within the individual ground 
water basin. In general, ground water quality is 
suitable for all uses except in the Imperial Valley, 
Chuckawalla Valley, and the ground water basins 
bordering the Salton Sea on the east and west. How- 
ever, localized areas of poor-quality water are en- 
countered throughout the area. 

If the Colorado River represented an unlimited 
source of supply, the entire Colorado Desert Area, 
because of geographical proximity, would look to that 
river for the satisfaction of its needs. The Colorado 
River is not an inexhaustible river, however, and 
California's entitlement to the use of its waters has 
been limited, since 1929, as has been previously stated. 




Colorado Desert Area— Power From the Colorado River 






THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



161 



'iese factors, together with the obvious difficulties 
id cost of importing water from other sources, will 
jobably retard further agricultural development in 
^e Colorado Desert Area. 

The total potential water service area in the Colo- 
Jdo Desert Area, as shown in Table 16, aggregates 
jout 1,856,000 acres of lands considered suitable for 
ijricultural and urban development, with an esti- 
Hited total ultimate seasonal water requirement of 
3out 6,300,000 acre-feet. These totals include three 
siarate components, as follows: 
h. The districts served from the Colorado River, 
iich consider that acreage aggregating about 1,065,- 
00 acres within their service areas may ultimately be 
lj\-eloped, and for which full development is de- 
Hndent upon the sufficiency of the 4,150,000 acre-feet 
annum to which these areas are entitled from the 
orado River ; 

. An additional 566,000 acres, as shown on Sheets 
through 26 of Plate 5, classified as water service 
is by the Department of Water Resources under 
■teria adopted during the State-wide Water Re- 
Birces Investigation, with a seasonal water require- 
but of 1,467,000 acre-feet; and 
IfS. A further additional 224,000 acres, considered by 
p Colorado River Board of California as susceptible 
■ development, based on planning reports and other 
llterial utilizing varying criteria with regard to land 
m, with an estimated seasonal water requirement of 
B,000 acre-feet if Colorado River water were avail- 
He, as explained later. 

Ifcn addition to the water supply available from the 
Borado River under California's entitlement, the 
■ectives of The California Water Plan in the Colo- 
Bo Desert Area ultimately could be met by utiliza- 
■a of ground water resources and by imports 
■•ough facilities of the California Aqueduct System. 
Iwever, the latter sources would be insufficient to 
fcvide fully for the needs of all lands considered 
Hceptible of water service. Further development in 
m area will be conditioned principally upon the 
Inomic feasibility of these contemplated import 

■The ground water storage capacity of the Colorado 
Isert Area is vital to life and culture. Continued 
B expanded development of ground water re- 
Hrees is anticipated. There are large areas of ir- 
lable land which, if developed, must depend at 
1st in part on ground water. Ground water is 
i)wn to occur in each of the 46 hydrologic units 
Inch have so far been identified. With the exception 
la few basins along the Colorado River, supplied 
b underflow from that source, the primary source 
Iground water in all units is precipitation and per- 
Bfation of runoff from tributary drainage areas. 
Fecipitation throughout the desert area is scanty 



and irregular and ground water supplies are there- 
fore generally limited. The California Water Plan 
envisions the utilization of existing ground water 
storage capacity for the regulation of imported sup- 
plemental water supplies. 

For planning purposes, the Colorado Desert Area 
has been subdivided into four groups, designated as 
the "Whitewater Group," "San Felipe Group," 
"Colorado River Group," and "Desert Valley 
Group." The locations of these groups are shown on 
Plate 3. Physical features and costs of the works 
which could make water available to the Colorado 
Desert Area are presented later in Tables 27 and 28, 
which describe facilities of the Southern California 
Division of the California Aqueduct System. 

Whitewater Group. The Whitewater Group con- 
sists of the Coachella Valley and the watersheds tribu- 
tary thereto. It is located to the northwest of the 
Salton Sea, principally in Riverside County, and is 
bounded by the Santa Rosa, San Jacinto, and Little 
San Bernardino Mountains. 

The principal stream in the Whitewater Group is 
the Whitewater River, with an estimated mean na- 
tural seasonal runoff of about 62,000 acre-feet. Sea- 
sonal runoff from Snow Creek and Palm Canyon 
Creek also contributes appreciable amounts to the 
water supply available in the group. The Coachella 
Valley constitutes a major ground water unit, and 
surface runoff from the mountains disappears rapidly 
after reaching the valley floor. It is estimated that the 
present safe yield of the ground water basin under- 
lying the Coachella Valley is about 60,000 acre-feet 
per season. 

The total area within the Whitewater Group is 
about 1,223,000 acres. About 32,000 acres of land 
were irrigated in 1950, principally by diversions from 
the Coachella Main Canal, which derives its supply 
from the Colorado River. The ultimate mean seasonal 
water requirement, exclusive of requirements of land 
served from the Colorado River, is estimated to be 
about 485,000 acre-feet. 

Available information indicates that some surface 
soils in the lower Coachella Valley possess infiltration 
rates too low to maintain acceptable salt balance re- 
lationships in the soil profile. However, most of the 
saline soils can be, and are being, reclaimed through 
use of an imported water supply of low sodium per- 
centage. This requires that the water table be kept 
some distance below the root zone. Drainage, either 
by means of deliberate pumping from wells- in order 
to lower the ground water table, or by the use of inter- 
cepting drains, is a necessary part of any irrigation 
development program for this area. Additional pump- 
ing from wells located in the upper Coachella Valley 
may assist in lowering piezometric levels in the lower 
areas. It can be expected, however, that localized tern- 



162 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



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THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



163 



irary perched water tables, requiring individual 
■eatment, will occur throughout the irrigated area. 

Plans for importation of supplemental water sup- 
lies to the "Whitewater Group provide for about 
is. 000 acre-feet per season through facilities of the 
alifornia Aqueduct System, augmented by the safe 
eld of the Coachella Valley ground water basin, 
istribution of this water would be accomplished by 
main transmission canal originating near Banning 
id terminating approximately 5 miles east of 
abazon. Water remaining in the canal at its terminus 
mid be released for percolation in the bed of the 
in Gorgonio River, to provide for augmentation of 
e ground water supply and permit subsequent re- 
lmping for use in the upper Coachella Valley. The 
ain transmission canal would be about 25 miles in 
ftgth from the point of diversion from the California 
jueduct route to the San Gorgonio River, and 
)uld be constructed with a maximum capacity of 
out 230 seconcl-feet. Four power plants with a total 
stalled capacity of 22,000 kilowatts could be located 
ong the conduit route. Of the total import of 168,000 
re-feet per season, 92,000 acre-feet would be served 
local agencies for distribution along the length of 
;^e conduit. Generation of hydroelectric energy in 
ranection with operation of the proposed works 
wld amount to about 150,000,000 kilowatt-hours 
mually. 

About 1.900 acres of the irrigable lands in the 
iiachella Valley, with an annual water requirement 

U 8,000 acre-feet, lie adjacent to the boundary be- 
tween the Colorado Desert Area and the South Coastal 

-•ea. principally at elevations of 4,000 to 5,000 feet, 

' ese tracts could be advantageously served in con- 
■ption with the service of required water supplies to 
Kjacent area in the South Coastal Area, and capacity 
■r the delivery of such supplies is provided in the 

(lifornia Aqueduct System. 

,3an Felipe Group. The San Felipe Group is lo- 
wed in the southwestern portion of the Colorado 
wsert Area and includes the Salton Sea and Imperial 
filley. The total area encompassed within the group 
|B,026,000 acres, of which about 902,000 acres are 
kpidered susceptible of ultimate water service. 

rii»- mean seasonal full natural runoff in the San 
Wipe Group is estimated to be about 32,000 acre-feet, 
pst of which results from localized thunderstorms 
ill disappears rapidly through evaporation and by 
■'eolation to ground water. San Felipe Creek, the 
ftincipal stream in the group, frequently continues as 
live stream, particularly in its upper reaches, after 
•,er drainage channels have ceased to flow, 
j. kittle agricultural development has taken place to 
lie in the area lying outside of the Imperial Irriga- 
tii District. The principal exception is found in Bor- 



rego Valley, where about 2,700 acres are presently 
under irrigation. The chief source of water supply for 
this development is the ground water reservoir under- 
lying Borrego Valley. The present pumpage in this 
area is estimated to be about 10,000 acre-feet annually, 
which is believed to approximate the safe yield. 

About 20,000 acres of irrigable lands are in scat- 
tered tracts lying along the western boundary of the 
Colorado Desert Area between the San Jacinto Moun- 
tains and the Mexican border. These lands, with an 
estimated seasonal water requirement of 52,300 acre- 
feet, are so located physically and geographically that 
they could be served with greater facility from works 
which may be constructed for service of supplemental 
water supplies in the South Coastal Area. These lands 
have therefore not been considered in plans for the 
importation of supplemental water supplies into the 
Salton Sea and Imperial Valley areas. 

Ground water in the Imperial Valley is not suitable 
for consideration as a source for required supplemen- 
tal water in the San Felipe Group, due to its poor 
quality characteristics. Water from deeper wells in 
this valley, many of which are artesian, is normally 
warm and contains high concentrations of boron, chlo- 
ride, and fluoride, and is generally considered unsuit- 
able for either agricultural or domestic use. In areas 
of the valley where subsurface drainage is good, the 
quality approaches that of the applied irrigation 
water. However, in areas where drainage is poor, total 
dissolved solids may range as high as 73,000 parts per 
million, which is more than twice as saline as sea 
water. 

Supplemental water supplies, amounting to about 
229.000 acre-feet annually, required for the probable 
ultimate development in the San Felipe Group, could 
be imported by diversion from the San Diego High- 
Line Aqueduct of the Southern California Division of 
the California Aqueduct System in the vicinity of 
Lake Henshaw. Water thus diverted would be distrib- 
uted by a system of canals, tunnels, and regulating 
reservoirs to irrigable areas in the group. At the ter- 
minus of the prospective conduits, the remaining flow 
would be percolated for augmentation of ground water 
supplies in the lower valley areas. 

Primary regulation of the imported supplies would 
be accomplished in San Felipe Reservoir. Three power 
plants with a total installed capacity of 35,000 kilo- 
watts could be operated in connection with the import 
project. Generation of electrical energy could amount 
to about 162,000,000 kilowatt-hours annually. 

Desert Valley Group. The Desert Valley Group 
comprises the vast undeveloped desert region lying in 
the northerly portion of the Colorado Desert Area. 
The group embraces a total area of about 5,900.000 
acres, of which about 517,000 acres are classed as ulti- 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



164 

mate water service areas. The group is composed of 
typical desert-type lands, with scattered mountain 
ranges interspersed by arid valleys and dry stream 
beds. There are an estimated 2,000 acres of presently 
irrigated lands, located in the Lucerne Valley area 
east of Victorville, where irrigation is accomplished 
through the utilization of ground water. 

Under The California Water Plan, supplemental 
water supplies estimated at about 840,000 acre-feet 
per season, to serve approximately 386,000 acres not 
served from the Colorado River for reasons previously 
stated, could be imported through facilities of the 
California Aqueduct System. Except for about 7,800 
acres near Desert Center, these water supplies would 
be imported into the area through lateral canals di- 
verting from the main California Aqueduct System. 
Three major conduits, branching from the proposed 
main transmission canal serving the eastern Mojave 
Desert, would comprise the principal elements of the 
plans for importation of water supplies. The conduits 
would be operated on a constant-flow basis, with regu- 
lation to demand schedules effected in the available 
ground water basins. Here again, it is pointed out that 
the cost of importing water would be high ; probably 
beyond the repayment capacity of irrigated agricul- 
ture as far as can be foreseen now. 

Colorado River Group. The Colorado River Group 
embraces all the drainage tributary to the Colorado 
River in California (other than the area draining into 
the Salton Sea) with a total area of about 3,540 square 
miles. The westerly boundary of the group roughly 
parallels the Colorado River from Mexico to the Cali- 
fornia-Nevada state line, a distance of about 175 miles. 

The major present agricultural developments in the 
Colorado River Group are located in the Palo Verde 
Valley and in the Yuma area. Water supplies required 
for the irrigation of lands in the Palo Verde area are 
furnished through the works of the Palo Verde Irri- 
gation District. The permanent Palo Verde Weir on 
the Colorado River is under construction by the 
United States Bureau of Reclamation. In the Yuma 
area, the Yuma Project is operated in both Arizona 
and California under the jurisdiction of the United 
States Bureau of Reclamation. 

About 70,000 acres of irrigable lands in the Colo- 
rado River Group lie outside the area having rights 
in and to the waters of the Colorado River. The ulti- 
mate mean seasonal water requirements of these lands 
are estimated to be about 232,000 acre-feet, of which 
about 1.000 acre-feet are presently developed from 
local sources. Of this requirement, capacity For the 
provision of about 100,000 acre-feet of water season- 
ally is provided in the California Aqueducl System. 
No plans bave been prepared for delivery of the water 
supplies to the Colorado River Group from the main 
route of the California Aqueduct System. 



Summary of Colorado Desert Area. In the Colo 
rado Desert Area, The California Water Plan woule 
provide for the development of local ground watei 
supplies to the maximum practicable extent, and th< 
importation of large supplemental water supplie 
through the facilities of the California Aqueduct Sys 
tern. Deficiencies in developed water supplies to sup 
port the existing uses in the area have increase! 
rapidly in the past few years, particularly in th 
Coachella and Imperial Valleys. Population in th 
Colorado Desert Area amounted to about 92,000 i 
1950 and is estimated to have been about 141,000 i 
1955. Much of this increase occurred in the Coachell 
Valley and Borrego Valley areas. 

Of a total water service area of about 1,856,00 
acres, the water which may be imported to the Cob 
rado Desert Area by facilities of the California Aqu 
duct System, together with the rights of the existir 
agencies in the Colorado River, could provide ft 
about 1,631,000 acres, assuming that the rights in tl 
Colorado River are sufficient for some 1,065,000 acre 
The remaining lands, totaling about 224,000 acre 
would have an estimated seasonal water requireme 
of 685,000 acre-feet. The latter lands, all within i 
miles of the Colorado River, might have been clj 
veloped, based on a water supply from that river, b 
for the ceiling on uses imposed under the Bould 
Canyon Project Act and the California Limitati 
Act, as implemented by the Seven-Party Agreemei 
In all parts of the Colorado Desert Area, local wat 
supplies are grossly deficient when considered witifT 
lation to the probable ultimate demands for water, 
the Whitewater and San Felipe Groups, works unc 
The California Water Plan for the importation of 1 
required supplemental water supplies are contl 
plated for areas not included in the lands havi 
rights in the Colorado River. It is envisioned that 4 
development of local supplies in practically all ■ 
would be accomplished by continued development 
the ground water resources. Importation of the 
quired supplemental water supplies could be acce 
plished by diversion from the California Aqued 
System. 

The difficulty and cost of providing required ^ 
supplies to meet ultimate development in the CoUj 
Desert Area underscore the essentiality to the are; 
continued availability of Colorado River water to 
full extent of California's existing rights. Works h 
already been constructed to accommodate these rf| 
which are utilized by projects comprising about | 
cent of the total Colorado Desert Area. 

General features and costs of the works nece» 
for the delivery of water supplies to portions oil 
Colorado Desert Area under The California W 
Plan are presented in Tables 27 and 28, and the 1 
tion of these facilities are shown on Sheets 24 an. 
of Plate 5. 







Colorado Desert Area— Colorado River Aqueduct Intake From Lake Havasu and Date Culture Near Indi 



166 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



CALIFORNIA AQUEDUCT SYSTEM 



The State-wide Water Resources Investigation has 
shown conclusively that, although California's water 
resources are adequate to satisfy ultimate require- 
ments on a state-wide basis, surplus water in signifi- 
cant amounts exists in only the North Coastal Area 
and Sacramento River Basin, while deficiencies in 
supply will ultimately occur in all other areas of the 
State. It has also been shown that the nature of occur- 
rence of California's water resources is extremely 
variable, both within the season and from year to 
year, thus necessitating vast amounts of reservoir 
storage for the required control and conservation. 
These large disparities in both the geographical and 
seasonal distribution could be equalized by the Cali- 
fornia Aqueduct System, which would comprise a 
complex system of works extending from the Oregon 
line to the Mexican border, providing adequate water 
supplies for all areas. 

The California Aqueduct System would be un- 
precedented in its concept and scope. It would include 
many large dams, canals, tunnels, streamways, hydro- 
electric power plants, pumping plants, drainage 
ways, and other structures proposed to supplement 
existing water resource development works. It would 
ultimately develop nearly 22,000,000 acre-feet of sur- 
plus water each year, on the average, about half of 
which would be from the North Coastal Area and half 
from the Sacramento River Basin, and would trans- 
port this water to deficient areas to the south, as well 
as providing local benefits in the areas of surplus. 
The operation of the interbasin transfer facilities of 
the aqueduct system would assume a major role in 
coordinating the operation of all features of The Cali- 
fornia Water Plan. However, as previously explained, 
the works comprising the California Aqueduct Sys- 
tem, hereinafter described, are not to be considered as 
definite project proposals. These works must be con- 
sidered as subject to such modifications in design, 
location, and function as future studies, changed con- 
ditions, improved techniques, and other presently 
unforeseen factors may indicate as necessary or de- 
sirable. 

It is further contemplated that these facilities 
would be built progressively, as needed and justified, 
to supply the water needs of the deficient areas of the 
State. Continuing, detailed study will be required in 
order to determine which unit or units should be 
built, the order in which they should be constructed, 
and the timing thereof. 

These works would provide water supplies to meet 
the ultimate requirements as determined under the 
assumption that all habitable and irrigable areas 
would be utilized. It is quite probable that it will be 
many years in the future, if ever, before some of the 
areas which have been classed as irrigable, particu- 
lar^ in the remote deseii areas, are developed for 



irrigated agriculture, especially in view of the hig 
cost of providing water for such areas. Because o 
this as well as other presently unforeseen contingei 
cies, some of the more difficult and expensive of thes 
works may never be necessary. Nonetheless, this ir 
vestigation and the facilities discussed herein demor 
strate that the capability does exist of meeting a 
foreseeable water needs in all areas of the State. 

Many of the structures discussed in the followin 
sections are of very large size, in fact nearly unpred 
dented. The preliminary designs developed for pui 
poses of this report are based upon the best info 
mation currently available. However, much moi 
geological and foundation investigation would 1 
necessary before final designs could be made. This 
particularly true for those facilities to be located : 
the North Coastal Area, where geological and found} 
tion conditions are relatively poor as compared to 
Sierra Nevada, for instance. 

For purposes of presentation in this section, 1 
immense interbasin water conservation and transp 
tation system has been divided into six componenl 
or divisions, designated as follows: Klamath-Trinii 
Division, Eel River Division, Sacramento Divisffl 
Delta Division, San Joaquin Division, and Souths 
California Division. The locations of these divisjfra 
are shown on Plate 6, entitled "The California Afp 
duct System." 



Klamath-Trinity Division 

The Klamath-Trinity Division of the Califora 
Aqueduct System comprises those features nece^ _ 
to conserve surplus waters of the Klamath, Trinit 
Van Duzen, Mad, and South Fork of the Son 
Rivers, as well as the pumping plants, conduij 
tunnels, and hydroelectric power plants required f 
the conveyance of these surplus waters to the Saci 1 
mento Valley. This division would include a series 
major reservoirs which, for the most part, would ; 
located contiguously along the Klamath and TriniJ 
Rivers upstream from the vicinity of their junctid 
It would also include : a reservoir below the conflueij 
of the two -i reams to conserve surplus flows ori 
nating below the mouth of the Trinity River ; a res<f 
voir on the South Fork of the Smith River: 
reservoirs on the headwaters of the Mad and V 
Duzen Rivers; and a reservoir on the South ForkJ 
the Trinity River. Finally, a series of dams and pov 
plants would be constructed on Clear Creek in 
Sacramento River Basin for the principal purpose* 
utilizing the considerable drop in elevation to the : 
of the Sacramento Valley for development of hyd 
electric power. 

The operation of the contemplated system of dai 
reservoirs, and conveyance facilities would be prir 
ly lor conservation of water. However, secondt 
by no means minor beneficial results from 



pai 

bin 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



167 



■ration would include hydroelectric power genera- 
t n and flood control. Additional benefits in the in- 
of fish, wildlife, and recreation would also 
; true. 

For purposes of description, the Klamath-Trinity 
1 vision is discussed in the ensuing sections under 
tree groupings of works. These consist of develop- 
ments on, or associated with, the Klamath River, the 
Thirty River, and Clear Creek. 

Klamath River Development. Structures included 
tithe Klamath River Development comprise Ham- 
bvg, Happy Camp, Slate Creek or substitute there- 
fr, and Humboldt Dams and Reservoirs on the 
Hmath River, and their associated power plants; 
Bnthook and Blackhawk Dams and Reservoirs on the 
Bith Fork of the Smith River ; Blackhawk Pumping 
ftnt at the base of Blackhawk Dam; and Beaver 
Imping Plant, located on the Trinity River immedi- 
aly upstream from its confluence with the Klamath 
Irer. Cantpeak Tunnel, connecting the Smith and 
■math Rivers, as well as Deerhorn Tunnel, connect- 
i* the Klamath and Trinity Rivers, are also included 
a features of this development. Recent geologic ex- 
piration at the Slate Creek dam site has unearthed 
Ipvorable foundation conditions which indicate that 
■lay be more economical to select an alternative site, 
■tunoff of the upper Klamath River would first be 
fculated in Hamburg Reservoir immediately below 
tJ confluence of the Scott and Klamath Rivers. It 
Ipld be a large reservoir with a net storage capacity 
■1,570,000 acre-feet. Releases from Hamburg Reser- 
fir would flow through Hamburg Power Plant and 
■p into Happy Camp Reservoir, formed by Happy 
flnp Dam located about 3 miles downstream from 
Eppy Camp. 

J ilappy Camp Reservoir, the largest reservoir of the 
mnath River Development, would have an active 
••age capacity of 3,488,000 acre-feet. Releases from 
■ reservoir would flow through Happy Camp Power 
■nt. thence downstream into the Klamath River for 
■her regulation in Slate Creek Reservoir. 
It should be pointed out that an initiative measure 
Broved by the electorate in 1924 prohibits the con- 
Miction of a dam at any point on the Klamath River 
low its confluence with the Shasta River. There is, 
Bpever. some doubt as to whether this statute applies 
■the State or its agencies. This matter will be dis- 
Ked in more detail in Chapter V. 
Burplus flows of the South Fork of the Smith River 
■Id be conserved in Canthook Reservoir, located 
But 10 miles upstream from the main stem of the 
«r. Blackhawk Dam would also be constructed on 
■ South Fork of the Smith River immediately up- 
vam from Canthook Reservoir. The primary .pur- 
Be of Blackhawk Reservoir would be to provide 
d -ct gravity diversion from the South Fork of the 
6 it li River to Slate Creek Reservoir on the Klamath 



River through a connecting conduit, Cantpeak Tun- 
nel. Waters would be lifted from Canthook Reservoir 
into Blackhawk Reservoir by Blackhawk Pumping 
Plant, located within Blackhawk Dam. 

Releases from Hamburg and Happy Camp Reser- 
voirs on the Klamath River, Canthook Reservoir on 
the South Fork of the Smith River, and surface inflow 
from drainage areas below Happy Camp Reservoir 
would be further regulated in Slate Creek Reservoir, 
located on the Klamath River about 7 miles above the 
mouth of the Trinity River. Slate Creek Reservoir 
would have an active storage capacity of 1,566,000 
acre-feet, and would impound and divert reregulated 
water in the average seasonal amount of 4,700,000 
acre-feet for conveyance by means of Deerhorn Tun- 
nel into Beaver Reservoir on the Trinity River. 

Unregulated flows of the Klamath River would be 
controlled by Humboldt Dam, located on the Klamath 
River just below its confluence with the Trinity River, 
nearly on the Del Norte-Humboldt county line. Hum- 
boldt Reservoir would back water up the river to the 
dow r nstream toes of both Beaver and Slate Creek 
Dams. The waters conserved by Humboldt Reservoir, 
amounting to about 1,205,000 acre-feet per season, 
would be lifted into Beaver Reservoir by Beaver 
Pumping Plant, located just below Beaver Dam. Thus, 
a total of 5,900,000 acre-feet per season would be de- 
livered to Beaver Reservoir from the facilities of the 
Klamath River Development, which facilities are 
shown on Sheets 1 and 3 of Plate 5. 

Trinity River Development. The Trinity River 
Development would involve the construction of Bea- 
ver, Burnt Ranch, and Helena Dams on the Trinity 
River; Eaton Dam on the Van Duzen River; Ranger 
Station Dam, or a substitute therefor, on the Mad 
River; and Eltapom Dam on the South Fork of the 
Trinity River. The development would also include 
the construction of Helena Power Plant on the Trin- 
ity River ; Sulphur Glade and Eltapom Power Plants 
on the South Fork of the Trinity River; and Burnt 
Ranch Pumping Plant on the Trinity River. Three 
major tunnels, the Sulphur Glade, War Cry, and Big 
Flat, would be required to convey conserved surplus 
waters from the proposed reservoirs to the Sacra- 
mento River Basin. 

Beaver Reservoir would receive water pumped from 
Humboldt Reservoir, located downstream on the 
Klamath River, and all water developed in the 
Klamath River above Humboldt Reservoir and con- 
veyed by means of Deerhorn Tunnel to Beaver Reser- 
voir, all as previously described under the Klamath 
River Development. In addition, Beaver Reservoir 
would conserve the natural runoff from the Trinity 
River drainage below Burnt Ranch and Eltapom 
Reservoirs. Beaver Dam would be located on the Trin- 
ity River just below Hoopa Valley, about 6 miles up- 



168 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



stream from the confluence of the Trinity and the 
Klamath Rivers. 

Burnt Ranch Pulping Plant, located at the upper 
end of Beaver Reservoir and at the downstream of 
Burnt Ranch Dam, would lift water from Beaver 
Reservoir to Burnt Ranch Reservoir. Water would be 
pumped into Burnt Ranch Reservoir on a uniform 
monthly flow basis, and off-peak electric energy would 
be utilized in the interest of minimizing power costs. 

Waters of the Van Duzen River would be developed 
by Eaton Dam and Reservoir, located about 2 miles 
downstream from the community of Dinsmores, about 
4 miles west of the Humboldt-Trinity county line. 
Surplus flows of the Mad River could similarly be 
developed by a reservoir on that stream between 
Butler Valley and the Ruth site. The Ranger Station 
site was first selected as having several advantages 
due to its strategic location. However, preliminary 
geological examination indicated conditions which 
appear somewhat unfavorable to the most economic 
construction and, in consequence, further study is in 
process to find a more favorable alternative. At this 
time (May, 1957) it appears that satisfactory alter- 
natives to Ranger Station can be found. 

The yield from Eaton Reservoir could be con- 
ducted by tunnel to the Mad River, and the yield from 
the two reservoirs could be conveyed by tunnel into 
the South Fork of the Trinity River above Eltapom 
dam site. The most advantageous location would be at 
the Sulphur Glade tunnel site, which would permit 
construction of the Sulphur Glade Power Plant to 
make use of the head differential between the Mad 
River and the South Fork of the Trinity River. 

Eltapom Dam and Reservoir, located on the South 
Fork of the Trinity River immediately downstream 
from Hyampom Valley, would regulate runoff of the 
South Fork of the Trinity River, and the releases 
from Eaton and Ranger Station Reservoirs which, 
as previously stated, would pass through the Sulphur 
Glade Power Plant. The total waters thus collected in 
Eltapom Reservoir would be released through Elta- 
pom Power Plant, located at the base of the dam, and 
thence diverted through War Cry Tunnel into Burnt 
Ranch Reservoir on the Trinity River. 

Helena Dam and Reservoir, constructed on the 
Trinity River above Burnt Ranch Reservoir, would 
conserve the natural flows of the Trinity River and 
generate hydroelectric energy by releases through 
Selena Power Plant located at the base of the dam. 
The reservoir would haw ;i capacity of 3,050,000 acre- 
feet. 

Burnt Ranch Reservoir, formed by Burnt Ranch 
Dam, located on the Trinity River about 3 miles up- 
stream from the mouth of New River, would be the 
keystone reservoir of the Klamath-Trinity Division, 
as it would serve as a point of convergence for all 
surplus water delivered from the Klamath, Smith, 



Trinity, Mad, and Van Duzen Rivers. Although thi 
reservoir would have a gross storage capacityS 
246,000 acre-feet, only 36,000 acre-feet would be util 
ized for active storage, in the interest of maintaining 
maximum water surface elevation to assure necessar; 
discharge into Big Flat Tunnel. 

Thus, Burnt Ranch Dam and Reservoir would servi 
primarily as a forebay for Big Flat Tunnel, th 
principal interbasin export conduit, which would con 
vey water to Clear Creek in the Sacramento Vallejj 
Because of the tremendous quantities of waters in 
volved under ultimate conditions and the magnitude 
of the cost of works required to transfer this wate 
from Burnt Ranch Reservoir to Clear Creek, it i| 
proposed that Big Flat Tunnel be constructed in tw( 
parallel stages, or bores, each being 35 miles in length 
The first bore would have a capacity of about 3,20| 
second-feet and the second bore would have a capacitj 
of 8,100 second-feet. Big Flat Tunnel would dischargj 
into Kanaka Reservoir on Clear Creek in the Sacraji 
mento Valley. 

Fairview and Lewiston Dams and Reservoirs, whicij 
divert water from the Trinity River to the Sacra 
mento Valley through Tower House Tunnel, are prea 
ently under construction by the United States Burea 
of Reclamation. This project, known as the Trinit: 
River Division of the Central Valley Project, is cofi 
sidered a feature of The California Water Plan. Th' 
operation of this project could be coordinated witj 
the Klamath-Trinity Division of the California Aquij 
duct System. 

Clear Creek Development. The Clear Creek D« 
velopment would involve construction of Kanaka an 
Saeltzer Dam on Clear Creek in the Sacrament 
River Basin, and an appurtenant power plant at eacj i 
of the dams. Kanaka Dam and Reservoir, impoundin 
water delivered from Burnt Ranch Reservoir as we 1 ! 
as runoff from Clear Creek, would be located on Clesl 
Creek about 8 miles east of Redding. 

Water released from Kanaka Reservoir would floil 
through the Kanaka Power Plant, located near tlj 
base of the dam, into Saeltzer Reservoir located ii 
mediately downstream. Saeltzer Dam would be sitij 
ated at the present site of the Saeltzer Diversion Dai* 
about 6 miles upstream from the confluence of Cleft t 
Creek with the Sacramento River. Saeltzer Da I 
would function primarily for development of the n I 
mainder of the power head on Clear Creek belo* 
Kanaka Dam, and the final generation of power l| i 
facilities of the Klamath-Trinity Division would ll 
accomplished by Saeltzer Power Plant, located J 
the base of Saeltzer Dam. The water released fro| || 
Saeltzer Power Plant would flow into Girvan Resf 
voir, which is a part of, and is subsequently describe, 
under, the Sacramento Division of the Calif orn 
Aqueduct System. 







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Klamath-Trinity Division— Head of Tower House Tunnel of the Trinity Diversion Project 



170 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



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THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



171 



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172 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



Summary of Klamath-Trinity Division. The 
Klamath-Trinity Division would involve the construc- 
tion of 15 major dams and reservoirs with aggregate 
active storage capacity of about 15,000,000 acre-feet ; 7 
hydroelectric power plants with installed power ca- 
pacity of about 1,700,000 kilowatts ; 3 pumping plants 
with total installed capacity of approximately 1,100,- 
000 kilowatts; and 6 tunnels having a total length of 
about 76 miles. The works would make available some 
9,055,000 acre-feet of water annually for export, in- 
eluding the exportable yield estimated at 872,000 acre- 
feet from the Trinity River Division of the Central 
Valley Project. The hydroelectric facilities of the 
Klamath-Trinity Division would generate about 6.6 
billion kilowatt-hours of electrical energy each year. 
Of this amount, 3.8 billion kilowatt-hours of energy 
would be required to pump water to Burnt Ranch 
Reservoir, from which it would flow through Big Flat 
Tunnel beneath the Trinity Divide into the Sacra- 
mento Valley. 

Construction of the facilities of the Klamath-Trin- 
ity Division would be susceptible of logical, progres- 
sive staging as the need for water and power in Cali- 
fornia develops. The major reservoirs would accom- 
plish substantial local benefits in the North Coastal 
Area in providing control of the very large rain floods 
characteristic of the area. 

The surface elevations of most of the major reser- 
voirs would fluctuate through a relatively limited 
range and, consequently, would constitute an out- 
standing recreational attraction. 

Under ultimate conditions of development, nearly 
the entire course of the Klamath River and the greater 
part of the course of the Trinity River wovdd be in- 
undated, thus necessitating the development of a new 
environment for the anadromous fish now using those 
streams. It is planned that conditions will be improved 
on other smaller coastal streams of the area through 
construction of stream flow maintenance dams and 
other measures. It is expected that this will result in 
an increased anadromous fish population in these 
streams, thereby compensating, to some extent, for 
the loss of the famed Klamath system runs. Addition- 
ally, the various reservoirs would support fish popu- 
lations that, while of a different type, would provide 
a probably greater fishing opportunity than is now 
available. 

It should be pointed out that during the earlier 
stages of development large reaches of stream channel 
could he improved by releases from initial upstream 
reservoirs. Xneli releases, in conjunction with the 
operation of tish hatcheries, could possibly improve 
tic present anadromous fishery for a substantial pe- 
riod of time, and it wonld not be until later stages of 
development that the Klamath and Trinity Rivers 
wonld be inaccessible to the migratory (ish. 

The general features of the facilities of the Klamath- 
Trinity Division are presented in Table 17. and their 



capital costs are shown in Table 18. The component 
features of the division are delineated on Sheets 1 and; 
3 of Plate 5. 

TABLE 18 

SUMMARY OF CAPITAL COSTS, KLAMATH-TRINITY , 
DIVISION, CALIFORNIA AQUEDUCT SYSTEM 



Klamath Development 

Hamburg Dam and Reservoir 

Hamburg Power Plant 

Happy Camp Dam and Reservoir.. 

Happy Camp Power Plant 

Slate Creek Dam and Reservoir 

Canthook Dam and Reservoir 

Black Hawk Dam and Reservoir.. 

Black Hawk Pumping Plant 

Cantpeak Tunnel 

Humboldt Dam and Reservoir 

Relocation of state highway 

Deerhorn Tunnel 

Beaver Pumping Plant 

Subtotal 

Trinity Development 

Beaver Dam and Reservoir 

Burnt Ranch Dam and Reservoir. . 

Burnt Ranch Pumping Plant 

Helena Dam and Reservoir 

Helena Power Plant 

Eaton Dam and Reservoir 

Mad Tunnel 

Ranger Station Dam and Reservoir 

Sulphur Glade Tunnel 

Sulphur Glade Power Plant 

Eltapom Dam and Reservoir 

Eltapom Power Plant 

Eltapom Afterbay 

War Cry Tunnel 

Big Flat Tunnel 

Relocation of state highways 

Subtotal 

Clear Creek Development 

Kanaka Dam and Reservoir 

Kanaka Power Plant 

Saeltzer Dam and Reservoir 

Saeltzer Power Plant 

Subtotal 

Total 



4 80,00(1 
030.000 

oiio.ooo 

-'KM 

230.000< 
I '.10,00(1 
000,000 



[11)11,11(111 

.K30.00I) 
.O'.'O.OOO 



05.310 
15,550 
73.150 
86,200 
6,510 
15,500 
650 



16.210 
41,210 
7,280 



,000 
,000 
,000 
,000 
,000 
,000 
,000 

s 



SI, 407,250,00c 



100,000,0(11 

2,000, 
43.070,001 



$172,570,0CK 



* At 1955 price levels. 

Eel River Division 

The Eel River Division comprises those features c 
the California Aqueduct System which would develo 
the waters of the Eel River system. This divisio 
would convey the conserved surplus waters to the S'&cj 
ramento Valley for further transport to areas 
deficiency, and would furnish water for local 
particularly in Round Valley in Mendocino Coui 
The Eel River Division would include a series c 
major conservation reservoirs and associated pumpin 
plants on the Eel River; a reservoir and power plan 
on the Middle Fork of the Eel River; a 12-mile turn* 
to convey water to Clear Lake in the Sacrainenl 
River Basin; a short diversion tunnel from Cam 
Creek to I'ntah Creek; and a series of reservoirs an. 






THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



1 73 



)wer plants along Putah Creek. Also included as 
atures of the Eel River Division are a diversion into 
e Russian River Basin for delivery of water to the 
orth Bay area, and a diversion into Napa Valley. 
The works of the Eel River Division would be oper- 
\ed primarily for water conservation, but would be 
.odified to the extent necessary to permit stabiliza- 
on of the water surface levels of Clear Lake, the 
welopment of hydroelectric energy, and the control 
' floods in the Eel River Basin. The facilities of this 
[vision would be susceptible of staged construction 
| the need for additional water arises. Initial units 
puld consist of structures on the upper reaches of 
|e Eel River and a diversion to convey the conserved 
aters to Clear Lake. The power potential of the di- 
eted waters could, at that time, be developed in the 
[■op to the floor of the Sacramento Valley. Finally, 
the need for surplus waters would increase, the re- 
aming storage units and pumping plants would be 
instructed farther downstream on the Eel River. 
As described earlier in this chapter, the South Fork 
the Eel River, as well as other nearby streams, 
[puld be developed either solely or primarily in the 
terests of enhancement of the fishery and of wildlife 
id recreational opportunities. This would compen- 
jte to some extent for the loss to the anadromous 
hery due to the major developments on the Eel 
jver. 

For descriptive purposes, proposed features of the 
el River Division are discussed herein under three 
oupings of works. These consist of the Eel River 
evelopment, the Putah Creek Development, and the 
assian River Diversion. 

Eel River Development. Facilities of the Eel 
jver Development would consist of Willis Ridge, 
41 Springs, and Sequoia Dams and Reservoirs on the 
hi River, Etsel Dam and Reservoir on the Middle 
>rk of the Eel River, and Clear Lake on the head- 
liters of Cache Creek. The associated features of this 
jvelopment would comprise Bell Springs and Willis 
dge Pumping Plants, Etsel Power Plant, Garrett 
hum'] from Willis Ridge Reservoir to a tributary of 
ear Lake, and Soda Creek Tunnel from Clear Lake 
the I'utah Creek Basin. 

Sequoia Dam and Reservoir would be the lowermost 
eility of the Eel River, being located about 10 miles 
love The confluence with the South Fork of the Eel 
ver. The reservoir would have a gross storage capae- 

• of about 5,610,000 acre-feet. Water developed by 
:quoia Dam and Reservoir would be pumped into 

11 Springs Reservoir located immediately upstream. 
Bell Springs Dam, located about 5 miles south of 
e Mendocino-Trinity county line, would develop a 
•rage capacity of about 2,860,000 acre-feet in Bell 

• rings Reservoir. Water would be pumped from 
quoia Reservoir into Bell Springs Reservoir by Bell 



Springs Pumping Plant, located at the base of Bell 
Springs Dam. 

Etsel Reservoir would be located on the Middle 
Fork of the Eel River immediately upstream from the 
easterly arm of Bell Springs Reservoir. The reservoir 
would have a capacity of about 1,180,000 acre-feet. 
Franciscan Dam would be required on Short Creek to 
prevent flooding of lands in Round Valley. This aux- 
iliary dam, which was discussed earlier in this chapter 
as the initial development on the Middle Fork, would 
furnish a water supply for Round Valley. Water re- 
leased from Etsel Reservoir would pass through 
Etsel Power Plant, located at the base of the dam. 
and discharge into Bell Springs Reservoir for regu- 
lation. 

Willis Ridge Reservoir, located on the main stem of 
the Eel River directly upstream from Bell Springs 
Reservoir, would impound water pumped from Bell 
Springs Reservoir, and would develop natural tribu- 
tary runoff. The reservoir would have a capacity of 
2,230,000 acre-feet and would be formed by Willis 
Ridge Dam. Willis Ridge Pumping Plant, located at 
the base of Willis Ridge Dam, would lift the water 
developed in downstream reservoirs from Bell Springs 
Reservoir into Willis Ridge Reservoir. 

Waters developed on the Eel River and collected in 
Willis Ridge Reservoir would be conveyed in Garrett 
Tunnel from Willis Ridge Reservoir to Middle Creek, 
a tributary of Clear Lake. Garrett Tunnel would be 
about 12 miles in length and have a capacity of about 
2,900 second-feet. About 2,140,000 acre-feet annually 
could be exported from the Eel River to Clear Lake 
through this tunnel. 

Clear Lake would be utilized to convey water re- 
leased from Garrett Tunnel to the portal of Soda 
Creek Tunnel at Clear Lake Dam. Actually, Clear 
Lake would serve as a forebay to Soda Creek Tunnel. 
The present outlet of Clear Lake would be improved 
to permit reduced fluctuations of the water surface 
of the lake, thus effecting flood control around the 
rim of the lake, if existing court decrees can be mod- 
ified. 

Soda Creek Tunnel would convey the Eel River 
water from Clear Lake to Stienhart Reservoir, located 
on Soda Creek, a tributary to Putah Creek. Soda 
Creek Tunnel would be about 2.6 miles in length and 
would be initially constructed to its ultimate capac- 
ity of about 2,900 second-feet. As stated, a total of 
about 2,140,000 acre-feet per season would be de- 
livered from the Eel River to the Putah Creek Basin 
in the Sacramento Valley Area by facilities of the 
Eel River Development, which facilities are shown on 
Sheets 3, 5, and 7 of Plate 5. 

Putah Creek Development. The primary purpose 
of the Putah Creek Development would be for pro- 
duction of hydroelectric energy by development of 
the available head in the drop to the floor of the 



174 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



Sacramento Valley. The features of this development 
would include Stienhart, Jerusalem, Noyes, Snell, and 
Monticello Dams and Reservoirs, and power plants 
below each of the dams. An afterbay to reregulate 
releases from Monticello Reservoir, the lowermost of 
the chain of reservoirs along Putah Creek, would also 
be provided below Monticello Dam. 

"Water conveyed from Clear Lake through Soda 
Creek Tunnel would be reregulated in Stienhart Res- 
ervoir, located on Soda Creek about 7 miles southeast 
of the town of Lower Lake. Stienhart Reservoir would 
serve primarily as a forebay to Stienhart Power Plant, 
located at the base of the dam. Releases from Stien- 
hart Power Plant would be discharged into Jerusalem 
Reservoir, located immediately downstream. 

Jerusalem Dam would be constructed on Soda 
Creek about 1 mile upstream from its confluence with 
Putah Creek. Additional hydroelectric energy would 
be developed by Jerusalem Power Plant, located at 
the base of Jerusalem Dam. Water released from 
Jerusalem Power Plant would be further regulated in 
Noyes Reservoir, located on Putah Creek about 2 miles 
west of the Napa-Lake county line. Noyes Reservoir 
would similarly serve as a forebay to the Noyes Power 
Plant located at the base of the dam. 

Water discharged from Noyes Power Plant would 
flow a short distance down Putah Creek to Snell 
Reservoir, formed by Snell Dam about 3 miles above 
Berry essa Valley. Additional hydroelectric energy 
would be developed by releasing the water through 
the Snell Power Plant at the base of Snell Dam. From 
Snell Power Plant, the water from the Eel River 
would be released into Monticello Reservoir. 

Monticello Dam and a downstream diversion struc- 
ture, presently under construction by the United 
States Bureau of Reclamation, would be integrated 
with the Eel River Division as a feature of the Cali- 
fornia Aqueduct System. The operation for conserva- 
tion contemplated by the Bureau of Reclamation 
would not be interfered with under The California 
Water Plan. However, a power plant would be con- 
structed at a future time at the base of the dam, to 
develop the energy potential of the water transported 
from the Eel River. 

The final development on Putah Creek would con- 
sist of Monticello Afterbay, formed by a dam about 
5 miles below Monticello Dam. This afterbay would 
provide reregulation of power releases from Monti- 
cello Power Plant, and would develop the last incre- 
ment of energy from the Eel River water by releasing 
it through a power plant located at the base of the 
dam. The water from this point would flow down 
Putah Creek to bo diverted into the Sacramento West 
•Side ( 'an;d, a feat lire of the Sacramento Division next 
described. 

Napa Valley would be supplied with 224,000 acre- 
feel of water a mi na I \y by a diversion from Monticello 
Reservoir and conveyance westerly by a tunnel 



through Cedar Roughs Ridge to Conn Creek in Napa 
Valley. The Cedar Roughs Tunnel would be about 7 
miles long and have a capacity of 290 second-feet. It 
would deliver water from the west shore of Monticelk 
Reservoir to Lake Hennesey, formed by Conn Creek 
Dam on Conn Creek. The operation of Lake Hen 
nesey, owned and operated by the City of Napa 
would be coordinated with that of the Cedar Roughs 
Diversion. 

Conveyance of Eel River water from Clear Lake tc| 
the floor of the Sacramento Valley by way of Cache 
Creek has been considered as a possible alternative t< 
the Putah Creek Development. However, the planning 
relative to this conveyance is quite preliminary, anc 
would require considerable geologic exploratory worl- 
as well as further engineering studies before its feasi 
bility could be established. The alternative develop 
ment would consist of a series of dams and powei; 
plants down the course of Cache Creek in stairstej 
fashion, very similar to the Putah Creek system 

Briefly, the alternative proposal would consist o 
five dams on Cache Creek consisting, in descendin< 
order down the creek, of Dead Man, Wilson Vallej 
Glascock, Rumsey, and Guinda Dams and Reservoirs 
A power plant would be constructed at the base o 
each dam, and a canal and flume would convey th 
water from the Guinda Power Plant along the eas 
side of Cache Creek to a power plant just east o 
Brooks, thence to a diversion structure and cans 
leading through the Hungry Hollow area north a 
Cache Creek to a final power plant on Oat Creek 

Facilities of the Putah Creek Development and o 
the alternative possibilities on Cache Creek are cU 
lineated on Sheets 5, 7, and 8 of Plate 5. 

Russian River Diversion. Supplemental require 
ments for water in Marin and Sonoma Counties in th 
seasonal amount of 422,000 acre-feet would be sup 
plied by a diversion from Willis Ridge Reservoir o 
the Eel River through an enlarged Potter Valle 
Tunnel to the East Fork of the Russian River, and 
rediversion from the Russian River near Geyservill 
and conveyance via the Sonoma Aqueduct to th 
North San Francisco Bay area. In addition to pr« 
viding supplemental water, hydroelectric energ 
could be generated by utilizing the drop from Will 
Ridge Reservoir to the East Fork of the Russia 
River in the operation of an enlarged Potter Valle 
Power Plant. 

The new Potter Valley Tunnel would be about 
mile in length and would convey a continuous flow< 
about 740 second-feet from Willis Ridge Reservoir 
the new Potter Valley Power Plant, located in PotU 
Valley at the site of the existing power plant, which 
owned and operated by the Pacific Gas and Electr 
Company. The releases from the new Potter Vj 
Power Plant would be reregulated in an afterbay | 
conveyed by canal along the east side of if 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



175 



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THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



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THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



177 



'alley, where the water would drop through the East 
pork Power Plant, located on the shore of Coyote 
'alley Reservoir. 

The operation of the Russian River Diversion would 
le coordinated with the operation of Coyote Valley 
leservoir, presently under construction by the Corps 
f Engineers, U. S. Army, as a conservation and flood 
ontrol project. Water would pass through Coyote 
'alley Reservoir and be released into the East Pork 
f the Russian River, where it would flow down the 
atural channel to a point near Geyserville. 
A diversion structure on the Russian River about a 
die north of Geyserville would transfer the com- 
lingled Eel River water into the Sonoma Aqueduct, 
hich would convey the water in a general southerly 
irection about 40 miles in canal, tunnel, and pipe 
lie. where it would finally be pumped into a terminal 
servoir on Stemple Creek about 3 miles south of 
ie community of Cotati. 

Stemple Dam and Reservoir on Stemple Creek 
ould be operated for terminal storage only. There 
-ould be two outlet works, one for release of water 
estward to the Tomales-Bodega area, and one for 
■lease of water southward to the San Francisco Bay 
Urea. 

Summary of Eel River Division. The Eel River Di- 
ision would consist of 10 reservoirs, including 4 ma- 
il' conservation reservoirs on the Eel River, 5 regula- 
on reservoirs for power generation on Putah Creek, 
nd a terminal reservoir in the Russian River Basin; 
hydroelectric power plants, including 1 on the Eel 
iver. 6 on Putah Creek, and 2 on the East Fork of 
ie Russian River; 3 pumping plants, including 2 on 
ie Eel River and 1 on the Sonoma Aqueduct ; and 4 
innels having a total length of 22 miles. The four 
ajor conservation reservoirs on the Eel River would 
ave a gross storage capacity of 11,880,000 acre-feet 
id a net storage capacity of 8,676,000 acre-feet, and 
ould develop a yield of 2,566,000 acre-feet annually. 
he nine hydroelectric power plants would have an 
[stalled power generating capacity aggregating about 
|50,000 kilowatts and would generate about 2.7 billion 
ilowatt-hours of electric energy per season. The 
Hree pumping plants would have a total installed 
tpacity of about 522,000 kilowatts and would require 
vint 1.9 billion kilowatt-hours of electric energy 
mually to lift the water over the divide to the 
fieramento Valley and the San Francisco Bay Area. 
The Eel River Division would be adaptable to 
gical staged construction as the need for water and 
iwer in California develops. The initial stages would 
irnish water for domestic, agricultural, and in- 
iistrial purposes in the Eel River Basin, and would 
mtrol the large rain floods such as occurred during 
ecember, 1955. Furthermore, a large block of hydro- 
ectrie power would be developed locally in the area 
> facilitate industrial growth and development. 



Reservoir releases would also be made to maintain 
summer and fall stream flow to enhance fish, wildlife, 
and recreational values. The foregoing objectives do 
not include the operation of Monticello and Coyote 
Valley Reservoirs which are under construction by 
federal agencies. 

Pertinent features of the Eel River Division are 
presented in Table 19, and the capital costs of its com- 
ponent facilities are shown in Table 20. The facilities 
of the Eel River Division are delineated on Sheets 5, 
7. and 8 of Plate 5. 



SUMMARY OF CAPITAL COSTS, EEL RIVER DIVISION, 
CALIFORNIA AQUEDUCT SYSTEM 



Item 


Capital 
cost* 


Eel River Development 

Sequoia Dam and Reservoir 

Bell Springs Pumping Plant 


$96,820,000 
23,270,000 
102,7.50,000 








47,530,000 


Willis Ridge Pumping Plant 


61,510,000 
112,200,000 




107,000,000 










Putah Creek Development 


$67,670,000 




500,000 




10,120,000 




10,060,000 




16,240,000 








11,850,000 




7,630,000 




16,180,000 




28,470,000 




12,310,000 








11,070,000 




4,120,000 




2,900,000 




6,600,000 








$220,830,000 


Russian River Diversion 

Potter Valley Tunnel and Power Development 


$9,590,000 
22,370,000 




4,090,000 








$36,050,000 








$812,250,000 







* At 1955 price levels. 

Sacramento Division 

The Sacramento Division of the California Aque- 
duct System comprises the works in the Sacramento 
River Basin necessary to develop and regulate the 
surplus waters of the basin for export, and the nat- 
ural and artificial channels required to convey these 
waters, together with imports from the North Coastal 
Area, to Montezuma Reservoir and to the Delta for 
further transport to areas of deficiency. Part of the 
export supply developed on the American River by 
features of the Sacramento Division would be di- 



178 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



verted directly from that stream before reaching the 
Delta. Similarly, a small quantity of export water 
developed in Monticello Reservoir of the Eel River 
Division would be diverted directly from Putah Creek 
before entering the Delta. The power plants associated 
with the export reservoirs of the Sacramento Division 
and certain conduits associated with delivery of 
export water to nearby deficient areas are also in- 
cluded as features of the division. The provision of a 
trunk line waste conduit along the trough of the 
valley to prevent pollution of the local and export 
water supply is considered earlier in this chapter 
under the discussion of local works. 

In the following discussion, consideration is given 
first to the works above and along a main west side 
conduit route that would develop surplus waters of 
the Sacramento River Basin above Red Bluff, and 
convey these and imported supplies southward along 
the west side of the Sacramento Valley into Monte- 
zuma Reservoir for further disposition. Other fea- 
tures of the Sacramento Division, not directly on the 
main west side conduit route, are discussed under a 
separate heading. Except for the direct diversions 
from the American River and Putah Creek, water 
developed for export by these latter features would 
flow through the natural drainage system of the 
Sacramento Valley to the Delta for further disposi- 
tion, with the Sacramento River serving as the main 
conduit. The discussion concludes with a resume of 
the works of the division and their costs and accom- 
plishments. 

Main West Side Conduit Route. The Main West 
Side Conduit Route of the Sacramento Division would 
originate below Keswick Dam at a diversion point on 
the Sacramento River near the mouth of Salt Creek 
west of Redding. Here, the Redding Diversion Dam 
would be constructed and operated to divert the 
stream flow southward 7 miles through the Redding 
Conduit to Girvan Reservoir on Clear Creek, where a 
junction would be made with the imported waters of 
the Klamath-Trinity Division. From Girvan Reservoir 
the combined flow Avould be further conveyed about 
11 miles southeasterly through the Anderson Conduit, 
skirting the foothills south of Redding and west of 
1'. S. Highway 99, to the headworks of the Cotton- 
wood Power Plant, located about 2 miles northeast 
of tin' town of Cottonwood. Releases from the Cotton- 
wood Power Plant would enter the Cottonwood arm of 
Iron Canyon Reservoir through an excavated tailraee 
channel aboul a mile in length. The water would then 
flow through the reservoir' about IS miles to Iron 
Canyon Dam and through Iron Canyon Power Plant, 
near the base of the dam, into the proposed Redbank 
Diversion Reservoir of the United States Bureau of 
Reclamation, all on the Sacramento River near Red 
Bluff. 



After releases of mandatory requirements to the 
Sacramento River below the Redbank Diversion Dam 
and to the Tehama-Colusa and Corning Canals of the 
Bureau of Reclamation, the remaining water w^ould 
be diverted into the Sacramento West Side Canal and 
conveyed southward along the west side of the Sacra- 
mento Valley about 146 miles to a junction with the 
imported waters of the Eel River Division of the Cali- 
fornia Aqueduct System at Putah Creek near Davis. 
Power drops would be taken along the route of the 
canal at Willows and Dunnigan. From the Putah 
Creek junction, the combined waters of the upper 
Sacramento River Basin and the North Coastal Area 
would be further conveyed by canal about 21 miles 
southerly to Montezuma Reservoir in southern Solano 
County. There they would be available for export 
westward through the North Bay Aqueduct of the 
Sacramento Division and southward through an ele- 
ment of the Delta Division of the California Aque- 
duct System. In the reach between the Redbank 
diversion point and the junction with the Eel River 
Division near Davis the Sacramento West Side Canal 
would, at times, receive inflow of surplus water from 
streams draining the easterly slope of the Coast; 
Range. 

With the exception of Iron Canyon Dam and the 
950,000 acre-foot reservoir it would create under The 
California Water Plan, none of the foregoing works 
would present unusually difficult construction or con- 
sequent problems. Because of especially adverse 
foundation conditions at the Iron Canyon site, earth- 
fill dam construction would probably be employed. 
with the reservoir area blanketed near the dam to 
reduce seepage to safe limits. In the design of the 
dam and appurtenant works, the first and paramount 
consideration would be that of safety. Inundation of 
upstream lands would be limited, insofar as possible 
by construction of dikes, with new lands brought 
under irrigation by the construction of associated 
local reservoirs on Cottonwood Creek and other 
streams draining into Iron Canyon Reservoir. The 1 
anadromous fishery would be preserved to the highest 
possible degree by construction of a large hatchery 
downstream and a fish ladder around the dam, to- 
gether with development of spawning gravels at the 
hatchery site and along regulated streams entering 
the reservoir. All of these measures are considered to 
he warranted because of the strategic location of the 
reservoir and its importance in any truly comprehen- 
sive water development and flood control plan. Al- 
though no satisfactory alternative to the use of the 
Iron Canyon site has as yet been found, continued 
study in this direction should he undertaken in any 
future, more detailed investigation of Iron Canyon 
Reservoir. 

The Redding Conduit, consisting of 2 miles of tun- 
nel followed by 5 miles of open channel, would have 
a capacity of about 13,000 second-feet, and would con- 




Putah Diversion Dam, Putah Creek 
Sacramento Division— Constructed Features of the California Aqueduct System 



180 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



vey an average of about 5,600,000 acre-feet of water 
per year to Girvau Reservoir. The Anderson Conduit 
would be an open channel with a capacity of about 
40,000 second-feet, corresponding to the peaking re- 
quirements of the Cottonwood Power Plant. It would 
convey an average of about 13,800,000 acre-feet of wa- 
ter per year to this 400,000-kilowatt power plant and. 
by intercepting local drainage, would also afford 
flood protection for the Anderson-Cottonwood area. 
The Cottonwood Power Plant would generate an aver- 
age of about 1.5 billion kilowatt-hours per year. 

Operating through a range of only 50 feet, Iron 
Canyon Reservoir would be utilized for power, con- 
servation, and flood control. Because of this narrow 
operating range it would also afford unusual oppor- 
tunities for fishing and recreational development. 
After accounting for ultimate local water use in up- 
stream areas and the regulatory effects of existing and 
prospective upstream storage works, as well as unreg- 
ulated local inflow and imports, releases from Iron 
Canyon Reservoir would average about 16,850,000 
acre-feet per year. Of this, about 13,300,000 acre-feet 
would be a firm supply, 2,700,000 acre-feet would be 
secondary yield obtained through the beneficial use of 
regulated flood releases, and 850,000 acre-feet would 
be classified as spill. All of this water, except spill, 
would be released through the Iron Canyon Power 
Plant. This would be a base load plant with an in- 
stalled capacity of about 200,000 kilowatts and an an- 
nual generation of about 1.7 billion kilowatt-hours. 

At the Redbank diversion point on the Sacramento 
River about 9,850,000 acre-feet per season of the firm 
water supply would be diverted into the Sacramento 
West Side Canal, for further conveyance southward 
along the west side of the Sacramento Valley. This 
canal would have a capacity of about 15,000 second- 
feet to its junction with the Eel River Division at 
Pntah Creek, and about 18,000 second-feet between 
that point and Montezuma Reservoir. The' Willows 
and Dunnigan Power Plants along the canal would 
have capacities of about 90,000 and 76,000 kilowatts 
respectively and would generate an average of some 
0.7 and 0.6 billion kilowatt-hours per year, respec- 
tively. 

With the Eel River import, and with accretions en- 
route assumed to balance losses, the Sacramento West 
Side Canal would deliver about 11,770,000 acre-feet of 
water per year to Montezuma Reservoir. Of this, about 
11,250,000 acre-feet would be released to the Delta 
Division of the California Aqueduct System for fur- 
ther conveyance southward; 208,000 acre-feet wonld 
be diverted for local use; and 308,000 acre-feet would 
be released to the North Bay Aqueduct for delivery 
to the North Bay area, comprising lands in Solano, 
Napa, Sonoma, and Marin Counties. The North Bay 
Aqueduct, consisting of alternating sections of canal 
and pipe Line, with a few miles of tunnel, would ex- 



tend westward about 59 miles past Fairfield and Cor-, 
delia to a small terminal reservoir about 2 miles north-! 
east of Novate Its capacity would progressively de- 
crease from about 900 second-feet at the point of di- 
version to about 100 second-feet at the terminal near' 
Novato. 

The reservoirs along the main conduit route,! 
namely, Redding Diversion, Girvan, Iron Canyon,! 
Redbank Diversion, and Montezuma, would have a 
combined gross storage capacity of 1,336,000 acre-feet,^ 
of which about 355,000 acre-feet would be inactive.; 
and 250,000 acre-feet would be reserved in Iron (an 
yon Reservoir for flood control. Additional flood con- 
trol storage space, in the amount of about 300,000 
acre-feet, would be available in Kanaka Reservoir 
Clear Creek and in the local reservoirs of the Redding 
Stream Group, all draining into Iron Canyon Reser- 
voir. The reservation of a total of 550,000 acre-feet* 
of storage space for flood control in the reservoirs be-* 
tween Red Bluff and Shasta Dam may make it 
sible in the future to reduce the amount of such space 
now reserved in Shasta Reservoir, with consequent 
increased power and conservation benefits. The fouri 
power plants along the Main West Side Conduit Route, 
would have a combined installed capacity of about 
766,000 kilowatts and would generate an average of, 
about 4.5 billion kilowatt-hours per year. The con-, 
tinuance of mandatory releases to the Sacramento 
River below Redbank Diversion Dam, together with 
the conveyance of sewage and industrial wastes from 
the Redding area by separate channel, would preserve, 
the quality of water in the river and maintain its 
highly important fishery and recreational status. 



Other Features of Sacramento Division. 

works considered under this heading comprise 
existing and prospective surface and ground water 
storage reservoirs in the Sacramento River Basin that 
would develop and regulate water for export from the 
Delta and from the American River; the power plan 
associated with these reservoirs; the Sacramento River 
and streams tributary thereto, through which the re 
ulated water would flow to the Delta ; and the Fols 
South Canal, diverting from Lake Natoma on 
American River into the lower east side of the 
Joaquin Valley. Water supplies for export are pi 
ently or will in the near future be developed 
Shasta, Folsom, and Monticello Reservoirs. These 
ervoirs and the new reservoirs considered here 
would also perform important local as well as exj 
functions. They have been described, together 
their associated power plants, earlier in this chai 
under the heading of "Development to Meet Lo 
Requirements." 

Prospective new reservoirs would consist of Gui 
on Cache Creek, or alternative thereto, Wilson 
ley or Bine Ridge, both on Cache Creek; Black But 
on Stony Creek; Brush Creek Basin comprising ofl 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



181 



Stream storage principally for Mill and Deer Creeks; 
Jastle Rock on Butte Creek, with connecting diver- 
sion tunnel from Big Chico Creek ; Oroville on the 
Feather River, including afterbay power and regula- 
ory facilities; Parks Bar on the Yuba River; Waldo 
>n Dry Creek, a tributary of the Bear River, provid- 
ng off-stream storage for Yuba River water ; Camp 
Par West on the Bear River ; Auburn on the North 
Pork of the American River; and Salmon Falls on 
he South Fork of the American River or, alternative 
fhereto, Nashville on the Cosumnes River which would 
)rovide off-stream storage for Avater from the South 
Fork of the American River. All of these reservoirs 
Would be located at or near the foothill line. On 
lie major streams they would be large multipurpose 
•eservoirs; and on less important streams their prin- 
cipal local function would be irrigation and/or flood 
••ontrol. Together with Folsom and Shasta, these reser- 
voirs would have a combined capacity of nearly 
2,000.000 acre-feet, of which about 1,250,000 acre- 
eet would be inactive and 2,700,000 acre-feet would 
>e reserved for flood control. Additional flood control 
torage space in the amount of about 1,000.000 acre- 
r 'eet would be reserved in all other reservoirs of the 
Sacramento River Basin, including the 550,000 acre- 
'eet previously accounted for in Iron Canyon and as- 
sociated reservoirs. 

After taking into account the requirements for local 
ise in upstream areas and on the Sacramento Valley 
loor, the existing and prospective reservoirs cou- 
riered under this heading would make available for 
ise in the Delta and for export from the Delta and 
rom the American River, an average of about 9,300,- 
100 acre-feet of water per year. Depending upon the 
nanner in which the reservoirs may eventually be 
iperated in conjunction with ground water storage in 
lie alluvium of the Sacramento Valley, 60 to 80 per 
enl of the water would be made available for export 
hi a firm basis each year, while the remainder would 
te a variable supply available only in years of heavy 
•imofV. Further firming of the variable supply would 
>e accomplished by operation of ground water storage 
D the San Joaquin Valley. The subject of conjunctive 
rperation has been briefly considered earlier in this 
hapter in connection with developments to meet local 
equirements in the Sacramento River Basin. The sub- 
ect is also discussed more fully later in this chapter 
inder the heading "Utilization of Ground Water 
Storage." 

New power plants associated with the prospective 
eservoirs would be located at the bases of Oroville, 
'arks Bar, Auburn, and Salmon Falls or Nashville 
)ams. The Parks Bar Power Plant, however, would 
Ltilize water diverted by tunnel from Englebright 
teservoir, instead of a direct connection to Parks 
5a r Reservoir. The power head available below Oro- 
ide Dam would be developed by one or more power 



plants located on the Thermal ito Power Canal, be- 
tween a diversion clam on the river below the main 
Oroville Power Plant and an off-stream afterbay res- 
ervoir. The new power plants would have a combined 
installed capacity of about 710,000 kilowatts and 
would generate an average of about 2.9 billion kilo- 
watt-hours per year. Of this amount about 0.6 billion 
kilowatt-hours would be required for operation of 
ground water pumping facilities. New power devel- 
oped by releases from Shasta Reservoir at the Cotton- 
wood and Iron Canyon Power Plants is credited to 
works along the Main West Side Conduit Route. 

About 640,000 acre-feet per season of the export 
supply would be diverted from Lake Natoma, after- 
bay for Folsom Reservoir, into the lower east side of 
the San Joaquin Valley through the Folsom South 
Canal, currently proposed for construction by the 
United States Bureau of Reclamation. This canal 
would divert with a capacity of about 3,550 second- 
feet and terminate at Lone Tree Creek, 63 miles to 
the south, with a capacity of 330 second-feet. An addi- 
tional quantity of water amounting to about 76,000 
acre-feet per season would be diverted from the South 
Fork of the American River into the upper Cosumnes 
River Basin. 

If off-stream storage for water from the South Fork 
of the American River is obtained in Nashville Res- 
ervoir on the Cosumnes River instead of in Salmon 
Falls Reservoir, a far larger quantity of water would 
be diverted from the South Fork into the upper 
Cosumnes River Basin. Similarly, subsequent studies 
may indicate the desirability of doubling the diversion 
southward from Lake Natoma; but it is assumed for 
purposes of this report that the bulk of the export 
supply from the American River would flow to the 
Delta for further conveyance to other areas of the 
State. All of the remaining export supply of the 
Sacramento River Basin, not previously accounted for, 
would flow to the Delta through the Sacramento River 
and tributary channels. Releases from Shasta Reser- 
voir, for example, after further regulation in Iron 
Canyon Reservoir, would flow down the Sacramento 
River to the Delta with diversions enroute for local 
use, as at present. In this connection, it is pertinent 
to note that the present deleterious effects of seepage 
from the river may be alleviated to a considerable de- 
gree by lowering of ground water levels along the 
river as a consequence of the planned utilization of 
ground water storage. 

Summary of Sacramento Division. The Sacra- 
mento Division comprises the storage, power, and con- 
veyance facilities in the Sacramento River Basin that 
would conserve and regulate the surplus waters of the 
basin and convey these and imported supplies to ter- 
minal diversion points for export. There would be 15 
major reservoirs, including Shasta and Folsom which 
presently serve these purposes; 4 diversion dams and 




Sacramento Division— Constructed Features of the California Aqueduct System, Folsom and Nimbus Dams (top and bottom) 

on the American River 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



183 



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THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



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THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



185 



terbays; fl or 10 hydroelectric power plants; 185 

Ilcs of large-capacity conduit that would convey 
rt of the surplus waters of the basin and imports 
mi the North Coastal Area to Montezuma Reser- 
ir; 117 miles of delivery conduit; and the Sana 
;nto River and other natural channels of the basin 
ed for conveyance of water to the Delta. 
The reservoirs of the Sacramento Division would 
[ve a combined storage capacity of about 13,300,000 
Ire-feet, of which about 1,600,000 acre-feet would 
inactive and 11.700,000 acre-feet would be used for 
nservation and flood control. These reservoirs would 
\ operated in conjunction with local storage works 
id eventually with part of the available ground wa- 
r storage in the Sacramento Valley. After allowing 
i- ultimate requirements in upstream areas and on 
ie Sacramento Valley floor, and taking into account 
>■ availability of return flow, these reservoirs would 
I instrumental in developing an average of about 
,280,000 acre-feet of water per season for export. Of 
is amount, about 790,000 acre-feet would be diverted 
mi the Sacramento River near Red Bluff and con- 
lyed, together with imported supplies from the North 
lastal Area, to Montezuma Reservoir for further dis- 
' bution. About 720,000 acre-feet of the remaining 
ipor1 supply would be diverted from the American 
'ver. and about 8. 700, 000 acre-feet would serve pres- 
■t and future local and export requirements at the 
;lta. Another 55,000 acre-feet per season, not pre- 
' uislv accounted for in this discussion, would be di- 
jrted from Put ah Creek below Monticello Reservoir 
< the Eel River Division. Local and imported water 
applies made available for export from Montezuma 
Qeservoir would aggregate about 11,770,000 acre-feet 
Ur year. In their local function the reservoirs of the 
neramento Division would provide opportunities for 
rereational development, regulate water supplies for 
*al use, enhance and improve stream flow for fish, 
'ldlife. and recreation, and maintain navigable 
Wpths on the Sacramento River, as required by law. 
•The new power plants of the Sacramento Division 
jbuld have a combined installed capacity of about 
T7(i.()00 kilowatts. They would generate an average 
« about 7.4 billion kilowatt-hours per year, of which 
»out 0.6 billion killowatt-hours would be required 
i operate the ground water pumping facilities in the 
kkcramento Valley associated with development of 

e export supply. 
IjFeatures of the Sacramento Division could be con- 
ducted singly or in combination, on a logical and 
Ijderly basis, as demands for water, power, and flood 
Hntrol develop. The works of the Main West Side 
mduit Route, for example, between the Redding and 
'd Bank diversions, could be undertaken to conserve 
e local water supply, develop the present power po- 
jntial between these points, provide flood protection 
r the Sacramento Valley, and afford opportunities 



for recreational development. These facilities would 
then be available to accommodate the future imports 
from the Klamath-Trinity Division if and when these 
works become necessary. 

The general features of the Sacramento Division 
are presented in Table 21, and the capital costs are 
summarized in Table 22. The facilities comprising the 
Sacramento Division are shown on Sheets 3 through 
8 of Plate 5. 



SUMMARY OF CAPITAL COSTS, SACRAMENTO DIVI- 
SION, CALIFORNIA AQUEDUCT SYSTEM 



Features Along Main West Side Conduit Route 

Redding Diversion Dam 

Redding Conduit 

Girvan Dam and Reservoir 

Anderson Conduit (including measures to prevent 

seepage) 

Cottonwood Power Plant 

Iron Canyon Dam and Reservoir 

Fish facilities at and below Iron Canyon Dam 

Iron Canyon Power Plant ._. 

Redbank Diversion Dam 

Sacramento West Side Canal- 
Willows Power Plant 

Dunnigan Power Plant 

Montezuma Dam and Reservoir 

North Bay Aqueduct . . 

Local diversions from Montezuma Reservoir 

Other Features 

Guinda Dam and Reservoir, or alternative at Wilson 

Valley or Blue Ridge 

Black Butte Dam and Reservoir 

Brush Basin Dam and Reservoir, including Hoodway 

channels from Mill, Deer, and Rock Creeks 

Castle Rock Dam and Reservoir, including diversion 

tunnel from Big Chico Creek 

Oroville Dam and Reservoir 

Oroville Power Plant 

Oroville Diversion Dam 

Oroville Afterbay Dam and Reservoir 

Thermalito Power Plant 

Thermalito Power Canal 

Parks Bar Dam and Reservoir 

Parks Bar Power Plant 

Waldo Dam and Reservoir, including diversion conduit 

from Yuba River and Deer Creek Diversion 

Camp Far West Dam and Reservoir 

Auburn Dam and Reservoir 

Auburn Power Plant 

Salmon Falls Dam and Reservoir- . . 

Salmon Falls Power Plant . . 

Folsom South Canal 

Ground water pumping facilities 

Total 



Capital cost* 



SI. 000.000 
18,750.000 
4,650,000 

14,700.000 
55,000.000 
61,000,000 
12,500,000 
32,000,000 

5,600,000 
293,030,000 
24,200,000 
23.100.000 
14 600 000 
26,700,000 

1,900.000 



12,200,000 

8,7C0,030 
374,003,000 
37,000,000 

5,000,000 

5,500,000 
13,000,000 

9.000,000 
16.900,000 

3,000,000 

14,450,000 
15,550,000 
36,000.000 
11,000,000 
22.500,000 
5,100.000 
40,000.000 
36,400,000 



$1,285,000,000 



Delta Division 

The Delta Division of the California Aqueduct Sys- 
tem would accomplish the transfer of water across the 
Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta on its journey from 
northern areas of water surplus to central and south- 
ern areas of deficiency. It would be the "hub" of the 
California Aqueduct System, bringing together the 
surplus waters developed by the Klamath-Trinity. Eel 
River, and Sacramento Divisions, and lifting these 
waters from the southerly side of the Delta into major 



186 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



conduits for conveyance southward and westward. It 
would also provide urgently needed flood protection 
and salinity control for the Delta lands. 

The major works of the Delta Division would con- 
sist of two features: first, the Cross-Delta Canal of 
the Biemond Plan, utilizing natural and modified 
channels hydraulically isolated from the remainder of 
the Delta, and a siphon under the San Joaquin River 
to transfer the greater portion of the water developed 
in the Sacramento River Basin ; and second, a conduit 
leading from Montezuma Reservoir to the southerly 
edge of the Delta, and including a siphon beneath the 
Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers near Antioch to 
transfer the water developed in the North Coastal 
Area and the upper Sacramento River Basin and de- 
livered to the Delta by the Sacramento West Side 
Canal. Hydraulic separation is necessary to prevent 
undue loss in transit and impairment in quality. Asso- 
ciated facilities of the Biemond Plan would include 
control structures on the Sacramento River and 
Steamboat Slough, a system of master levees along 
flood channels, floodways and control structures at 
several locations, barge locks, and fishways to pass 
anadromous fish. These facilities are described herein 
under the heading "Trans-Delta System." 

Other features of the Delta Division are the South 
Bay Aqueduct and the Kirker Pass Aqueduct, which 
would serve the southern portions of the San Fran- 
cisco Bay Area and the northern portions of the 
Central Coastal Area. Both of these aqueducts are 
distribution features of the Delta Division, as con- 
trasted with other features designed as primary trans- 
mission facilities. They are subsequently discussed in 
this section under their respective headings. 

The general location of the Delta Division is shown 
on Plate 6, and its component facilities are delineated 
on Sheets 8, 10, and 13 of Plate 5. 

Trans-Delta System. Facilities of the Trans- 
Delta System would ultimately transfer some 18,- 
330,000 acre-feet of water per season, on the average, 
across the Delta for conveyance to areas of deficiency 
in central and southern California and in the San 
Francisco Bay Area. The ultimate transfer across the 
Delta of water developed in the Sacramento River 
Basin would be accomplished by construction of an 
isolated canal and control structures, as hereinafter 
explained. As unregulated flows of the Sacramento 
and San Joaquin Rivers are reduced in the future by 
increased upstream storage developments for local use 
and for export of water, it will become necessary to 
segregate and prevent commingling, during transit, 
nl' the imported and locally developed waters of high 
quality with the drainage and flushing waters of poor 
quality which occur in and drain to the Delta. Segre- 
gation of these waters would be accomplished by 

facilities of the Biemond Plan. Controlled releases of 



„ 



water to Suisun Bay for salinity repulsion would lik< 
wise be reduced. 

1. Biemond Plan. Alternative barrier plans f< 
salinity control in the Delta and for transfer of wat( : 
across the Delta were studied under authorization ( 
the Abshire-Kelly Salinity Control Barrier Act c 
1953. Ir. Cornelus Biemond, Consulting Engineer froi 
The Netherlands, who was retained during that h 
vestigation, recommended a plan with facilities fc 
fresh-water transfer in an isolated system of channe 
and a master levee system along principal floo; 
channels for flood protection to the Delta islands. Tb 
details of that investigation are presented in th 
report of the Water Project Authority of Calif onw 
entitled ' ' Feasibilty of Construction by the State d 
Barriers in the San Francisco Bay System," datei 
March 1955. In 1955, the Legislature enacted tlj 
Abshire-Kelly Salinity Control Barrier Act of 195i 
which directed further study of barrier plans, an' 
the Biemond Plan, as presently proposed, was devej 
oped during this investigation, currently (1957) ij 
progress. Details of this investigation are presents 
in a report of the Department of Water Resource] 
Bulletin No. 60, entitled "Salinity Control Barri 
Investigation." 

The Biemond Plan was designed to transfer wa 
across the Delta, to provide flood protection to tl 
Delta, and to conserve salinity control flows. So 
flood flows would be conveyed through the C: 
Delta Canal, thereby reducing the lengths of masto 
levees and the costs of construction and maintenam 

The Biemond Plan would have control struetun 1 
on the Sacramento River and Steamboat Slough i 
divert water through the existing Delta Cross Chaim! 
into the proposed Cross-Delta Canal, and to provi 
sufficient hydraulic gradient in the canal to conv 
water to the major pumping plants on the southe 
fringe of the Delta. A barge lock and fishway wou 
be located at the Sacramento River control struct!^ 
The Cross-Delta Canal would follow improved exia 
ing channels, and water would pass under the Stoo 
ton Deep Water Channel in large, inverted sipho 
located near Little Venice Island in the center of I 
Delta. Flood flows of the Mokelumne and Cosu: 
River would be conveyed in the Cross-Delta Canal 
Little Venice Island where the flood waters would 
discharged through a floodway structure into the^ 
Joaquin River. All or a portion of these flows con 
be conveyed to the major pumping plants. A fishw; 
would also be provided at Little Venice Island. A pc 
tion of the flood flows of the San Joaquin River wou 
be diverted via Paradise Cut and Grant Line Can 
to the major pumping plants. The portion of the 
not required for diversion by the major pumpil 
plants would be discharged from the Cross-Delta C 
nal through a floodway structure into Franks Tit 
and then into the San Joaquin River. A barge h 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



187 



oiiM also be located at this structure. The structure 
the head of Paradise Cut would be designed to 

I vert San Joaquin River water whenever the quality 
satisfactory. The portion of the flood flows not 
verted into Paradise Cut would be carried in the 
an Joaquin River channel. 

A system of master levees would be constructed on 
^e Cross-Delta Canal, on Paradise Cut, on Grant 

}ne Canal, and on the San Joaquin River. Bear 
•eek would be diverted to the Calaveras River which 
scharges into the San Joaquin River near Stockton. 
aster levees would also be constructed on the Cala- 
»ras River. During flood periods on the Sacramento 
iver, the control structure on the river and on 
teamboat Slough would be opened to permit unim- 
>ded passage of flood waters. A system of master 
vees would restrict the flood water of the Sacra- 
'iento River system to the river, to Steamboat Slough, 
nd to the Yolo By-Pass. 

1 The system of master levees throughout the Delta 
ould reduce the length of levees now requiring 
aintenance against flood and tidal forces from about 
(000 miles to 450 miles. The interior channels, which 
ould be severed during construction of the master 
tvee system and would not be subject to tidal or 
>o(l waters, would continue to serve as irrigation 
id drainage channels. Water would be released into 
lese channels from the Cross-Delta Canal, and fa- 
lities would be provided for pumping drainage 
ntcv out of the channels. Operation of the Biemond 
Ian would provide adequate circulation and high- 
tality water in the interior channels. 
i. Salinity intrusion into the Delta from sea water 
jjould be controlled under operation of the Biemond 
Ian by regulated outflows into Suisun Bay. Under 
>eration of the Biemond Plan, salinity could be con- 
oiled at the western end of the Delta with an aver- 
se outflow of about 1,200 second-feet as compared to 
i average outflow of about 3,800 second-feet for com- 

(irable control under present conditions. This major 
duction in outflow would result from the reduction 
\ the tidal prism, or the volume of water which flows 
Ito and out of the Delta during a tidal cycle, by 
vering many Delta channels from tidal action. The 
Eduction in required outflow under operation of the 
iemond Plan would be a measure of the con- 
ization by that plan. This conserved water would 
■ available for distribution to water-deficient areas. 

The Biemond Plan would ultimately transport some 
080,000 acre-feet of water per season, on the aver- 
se, across the Delta. Facilities also would be provided 

distribute some 756,000 acre-feet per season to meet 
fnsumptive use requirements of agricultural lands 

the Delta. Finally, it would provide releases of 
atcr averaging 876,000 acre-feet per season, for re- 
llsion of sea water from the Delta, which would be 



substantially less than the presently required releases, 
as previously explained. 

2. Antioch Crossing. The Antioch Crossing, com- 
prising the second major feature of the Trans-Delta 
System, would provide the means by which waters 
developed in the North Coastal Area and the upper 
Sacramento River Basin, and conveyed through the 
Sacramento Valley in the Sacramento West Side 
Canal, would be transported across the Delta. It 
would convey the water in a canal from Montezuma 
Reservoir, the terminus of the Sacramento West 
Side Canal, southeasterly to the Sacramento River 
about 4 miles east of Collinsville. It would then pass 
beneath the Sacramento River in a 3,000-foot siphon 
consisting of four 25-foot diameter concrete pipes. 
After crossing the western portion of Sherman Island 
it would pass beneath the San Joaquin River in a 
similar siphon, discharging into two parallel, con- 
crete-lined canals near the town of Antioch. 

The Antioch Crossing would then skirt the south- 
westerly edge of the Delta, finally terminating in the 
intake channel of the Mountain House Pumping 
Plant at approximately sea level elevation. The total 
length of the crossing would be 33 miles. It would 
have a capacity of 17,000 second-feet, and would 
transport about 11,250,000 acre-feet per season. In- 
stallation of identical parallel conduits would lend 
itself to staged construction of the Antioch Crossing. 

3. Delta Pumping Plants. Virtually all water con- 
veyed across the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta by 
the Trans-Delta System would be lifted from the 
Delta by three pumping plants: the existing Tracy 
Pumping Plant which is a part of the Central Valley 
Project; the proposed Delta Pumping Plant of the 
Feather River Project; and the Mountain House 
Pumping Plant. All three would be located in close 
proximity to each other in an area about 10 miles 
northwest of the town of Tracy. Water transported 
through the Biemond Plan facilities would be lifted 
into the Delta-Mendota Canal and the Feather River 
Aqueduct by the Tracy and Delta Pumping Plants, 
respectively. The Mountain House Pumping Plant 
would lift water from the Antioch Crossing into the 
San Joaquin West Side Conduit. The Feather River 
Project Aqueduct and the San Joaquin West Side 
Conduit are described as part of the San Joaquin 
Division of the California Aqueduct System. 

In summary, the Trans-Delta System would be 
comprised of three major facilities. These are: (1) the 
Biemond Plan, which would transfer water across 
the heart of the Delta in an isolated channel, and pro- 
vide flood protection and salinity control for the 
Delta, (2) the Antioch Crossing, which would convey 
water beneath the Sacramento and San Joaquin 
Rivers by siphon, and (3) the Delta Pumping Plants, 
which would lift some 18,020,000 acre-feet per season, 
into facilities of the San Joaquin Division. 







. 




w w n 




r jr r rrj' 




Delta Division— Constructed Features of the California Aqueduct System. Delta Cross-Channel Headworks on the 
Sacramento River and the Tracy Pumping Plant on Old River 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



189 



Kirker Pass Aqueduct. The Kirker Pass Aque- 
m ct would consist of those facilities necessary to 
I've areas in Contra Costa County not considered 
esceptible to service by the East Bay Municipal 
1 ility District or the Contra Costa Canal. This 
iiieduet would convey about 164,000 acre-feet of 
Iter per season from the Antioch Crossing of the 
llta Division in a general southwesterly direction 
I out 21 miles to a terminal storage reservoir located 
l out 2 miles west of the community of Clayton. 
In pipe line and canal, water would be pumped 
i>m the Antioch Crossing siphon on the south shore 
I the San Joaquin River, about 4 miles east of Anti- 
li, through a series of three pumping plants to an 
■vation of 500 feet to the portal of a tunnel through 
Irker Pass, generally south of Camp Stoneman. 
• [The water would flow by gravity through the 2 
I les of Kirker Pass Tunnel, and then would be con- 
wed by canal to Lime Ridge Reservoir. Lime Ridge 
Iservoir would be a terminal reservoir, with water 
I rface elevations varying from a maximum of about 
I ) feet to a minimum of 370 feet, which would be 
■Bcient to serve most of the water service areas by 

South Bay Aqueduct. The South Bay Aqueduct 
lithe Delta Division would pump and deliver 755,000 
hre-feet of water per season from the Feather River 
■oject Aqueduct to the service areas in the South- 
lit Bay Group of the San Francisco Bay Area and 
lithe San Benito and Santa Cruz-Pajaro Groups of 
m Central Coastal Area. The necessity of avoiding 
Inflict or duplication between the service area of the 
liy of San Francisco for municipal and industrial 
Alter and the proposed service area of the South Bay 
flueduct is recognized. Any deviation from the fore- 
ting should be made only after a showing of con- 
Ipienee and necessity. The aqueduct would be 
Wit in two stages. The initial stage would comprise 
D Alameda-Contra Costa-Santa Clara-San Benito 
Binties Branch of the authorized Feather River 
ipject Aqueduct, Deliveries of water would be in- 
C ased to the ultimate stage by subsequent construc- 
fli of additional diversion and conveyance works 
■eh would parallel the facilities of that branch. 
Iphe initial stage of the South Bay Aqueduct would 
«ert water from the Feather River Project Aque- 
ftt about 2 miles south of the aqueduct headworks, 
But 8 miles west of Tracy. A re-lift pumping plant 
What location would lift the water from the Feather 
Fj-er Project Aqueduct to a tunnel through Brushy 
ftk in the Coast Range at an elevation of about 
■ feet. From Brushy Peak Tunnel water would be 
liveyecl by canal, tunnel, and pipe line around the 
ejt and south sides of Livermore Valley, through Mis- 
s i Pass. The conduit, in pipe line, would then con- 
fine southerly, passing to the east of Mission San 
J;e and Warm Springs to the proposed Airpoint Res- 



ervoir on Arroyo de las Codies, 2 miles cast of Mil- 
pitas, and to Evergreen Reservoir on Silver Creek, 
about 6 miles southeast of San Jose. These reservoirs, 
with storage capacities of 23,000 and 32,500 acre-feet 
respectively, would be constructed for regulation of 
the continuous diversion to the variable monthly de- 
mands in the Santa Clara Valley and San Benito 
County. Recent subsurface exploration at Airpoint 
dam site indicates that considerable leakage might 
develop through the fractured rocks that comprise its 
abutments. Further investigation of this site may in- 
dicate the desirability of selecting an alternative res- 
ervoir. 

A conduit, principally canal section, would extend 
southeasterly along the base of the hills on the east 
side of Santa Clara Valley to a terminus near Pa- 
checo Creek north of Hoi lister. Water would be re- 
leased into Pacheco Creek from the terminus of the 
South Bay Aqueduct for use in the San Benito and 
Santa Cruz-Pajaro Groups in the Central Coastal 
Area. 

The initial stage of the South Bay Aqueduct would 
deliver 195,000 acre-feet per season to units of the 
Southeast Bay Group and 50,000 acre-feet to the San 
Benito and Santa Cruz-Pajaro Groups in the Central 
Coastal Area. The remaining ultimate supplemental 
requirements in those units, amounting to an esti- 
mated 510,000 acre-feet per season, would be pro- 
vided by construction of additional diversion and con- 
veyance facilities which would parallel and supple- 
ment deliveries bj r the initial stage. The additional 
works would comprise a diversion from the Feather 
River Project Aqueduct and conveyance facilities of 
the same types, lengths, and locations previously de- 
scribed for the initial stage between the point of diver- 
sion and Evergreen Reservoir. 

Water for the San Benito and Santa Cruz-Pajaro 
Groups would be conveyed at a uniform rate in the 
canal of the initial stage of the South Bay Aqueduct 
southward to the Harper Canyon regulatory storage 
reservoir on Pacheco Creek. At a future time the canal 
of the initial stage of the South Bay Aqueduct would 
be extended 7 miles to Harper Canyon Reservoir. 
Additional regulatory storage would also be con- 
structed on Arroyo del Valle in Livermore Valley. 

Under ultimate operation of the South Bay Aque- 
duct, the major portion of storage in Sanatorium Res- 
ervoir on Arroyo del Valle would be utilized to reg- 
ulate the continuous flow to the variable monthly 
demand schedule in Livermore Valley and southern 
Alameda County. Deliveries to the San Benito and 
Santa Cruz-Pajaro Groups in the Central Coastal 
Area would be increased from the initial quantity of 
50,000 acre-feet per season, to an ultimate quantity of 
128,000 acre-feet per season, and would be regulated 
in Harper Canyon Reservoir on Pacheco Creek about 
12 miles east of Gilroy. Harper Canyon Reservoir 



190 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



3 .« 

Q o 

a g 

< • 

<l 

1^ 
2j 

R < 3 

< z! 

O S 
2 I 

> -° 
5 I 






i O r-i •* 



I! 



2 S. ? 



CO a S 



I' 1 1 1 



a a 



- a 



S ca spa 



!S5 



go 

_ - 



"3^ 



9. J odd 



3 7 



I i 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



191 



juld permit the conveyance of water to the Central 
•astal Area on a continuous-flow basis, rather than 
4 a variable monthly demand schedule. 
Should the need be indicated, water could be de- 
,-eml to the northern portion of Livermore Valley 
id the southern portion of Contra Costa County by 
i alternative route of the South Bay Aqueduct. This 
ternative would convey water from Brushy Peak 
innel along the northern edge of Livermore Valley 
a regulatory reservoir in Doolan Canyon, and 
iuld then proceed southwesterly across the valley to 
e main alignment west of La Costa, as shown on 
;ieet 10 of Plate 5. 

Summary of Delta Division. The Delta Division 
iuld transfer some 18,330,000 acre-feet of water 
veloped in the North Coastal Area and Sacramento 
Iver Basin, across the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta 
Mr further conveyance to areas of deficiency. The 
tossing of the Delta would be accomplished by facil- 
les of the Trans-Delta System, utilizing two major 
Hutes. One route, the Biemond Plan, would consist of 
k isolated fresh-water channel and flood channels, 
~th master levees, and control structures at several 
■fcations to facilitate the transfer of water and the 
■patrol of flood flows. Salinity intrusion into the 
Idta would be controlled by regulated outflow into 
Jiisun Bay. About 7,080,000 acre-feet of water per 
.'ason would be conveyed across the Delta by this 
iftite. The other route, the Antioch Crossing, would 
insist of a canal from Montezuma Reservoir to the 
Ibinity of Collinsville, a number of siphons under the 
t.cramento and San Joaquin Rivers to the vicinity of 
Iptioch, and a canal skirting the edge of the Delta to 
■terminus at Mountain House Pumping Plant. About 
11250,000 acre-feet of water per season would be 
Insferred across the Delta by this route. 
"Water delivered to the southern edge of the Delta 
1 facilities of the Trans-Delta System would be lifted 
ita conduits of the San Joaquin Division by three 
itjor pumping plants, namely (1) the Tracy Pump- 
i? Plant of the Central Valley Project, (2) the 
Mta Pumping Plant of the authorized Feather River 
loject, and (3) the Mountain House Pumping Plant, 
ftese pumping plants would lift 1,780,000 acre-feet, 
055.000 acre-feet, and 10,185,000 acre-feet, respec- 
t ely, from the Delta to facilities of the San Joaquin 
Ilvision. 

An additional 164,000 acre-feet per season would 
1 diverted from the Antioch Crossing and conveyed 
t the Kirker Pass Aqueduct to service areas in 
Kntra Costa County not considered susceptible of 
■•vice by the East Bay Municipal Utility District or 
h Contra Costa Canal. Finally, the South Bay Aque- 
fcct would pump and deliver about 755,000 acre- 
Pet of water per season to the Southeast Bay Group 
$ the San Francisco Bay Area and to the San 



Benito and Santa Cruz-Pajaro Groups of the Central 
Coastal Area. 

The general features of the Delta Division are pre- 
sented in Table 23 and the capital costs of its com- 
ponent facilities are shown in Table 24. The facilities 
comprising the Delta Division are shown on Sheets 8, 
10, and 13 of Plate 5. 



SUMMARY OF CAPITAL COSTS, DELTA DIVISION, 
CALIFORNIA AQUEDUCT SYSTEM 



Item 


Capital cost* 


Trans-Delta System 
Biemond Plan 














1,170,000 




212,840,000 


Pumping Plants 




Delta Pumping Plant (Feather River 


Project) 


37.260,000 
57,300,000 












$377, 240,000 


Kirker Pass Aqueduct 










4,340,000 














South Bay Aqueduct 

Initial stage (Alameda-Contra 
Benito Counties Branch of 
Aqueduct) 


Costa-Santa Clara-San 
Feather River Project 


$3,510,000 




37,440,000 




8,820,000 




7,090,000 


Additional works under ultimate stage 


5,780,000 




27,980,000 












7,560,000 












$98,180,000 












$488,400,000 







At 1955 price lev 
1956 levels. 



nth exception of Biemond Plan which is based on 



San Joaquin Division 

The San Joaquin Division of the California Aque- 
duct System would accomplish two objectives in the 
disposition of regulated surplus waters from the 
northern part of the State, delivered to the southerly 
end of the Delta by the previously described Delta 
Division. First, it would convey and deliver supple- 
mental water to deficient areas in the San Joaquin 
Valley and the Central Coastal Area; and second, it 
would transport water to the Buena Vista Forebay 
of the Southern California Division for delivery to 
areas south of the Tehachapi Mountains. In the de- 
livery of water to the San Joaquin Valley, substantial 
use would be made of the extensive ground water stor- 
age capacity beneath the valley floor, particularly for 
providing final regulation of the variable seasonal 



192 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



secondary waters imported from the Sacramento 
River Basin during wet years. 

The San Joaquin Division would consist of the 
existing- Delta-Menclota Canal of the Central Valley 
Project and the authorized Feather River Project 
Aqueduct as its initial features, and an additional 
conduit under ultimate operation. These facilities will 
be described herein under the heading' "Main Aque- 
duct Route. ' ' Also included as features of the division 
are the Central Coastal Aqueduct, which would divert 
water from the Main Aqueduct Route in Kings 
County near Devils Den to serve San Luis Obispo and 
Santa Barbara Counties, and the Carrizo-Cuyama 
Aqueduct, which would divert water from the Cali- 
fornia Aqueduct about 5 miles south of Buena Vista 
Lake to serve lands in southeastern San Luis Obispo 
County and the eastern portion of Santa Barbara 
County. It should be pointed out that the Carrizo- 
Cuyama Aqueduct would actually divert water from 
facilities of the Southern California Division ; but 
since the aqueduct would serve the Central Coastal 
Area, it has been included as a feature of the San 
Joaquin Division. These additional features of the 
San Joaquin Division will be described herein under 
their respective titles. 

Further and more detailed investigations of the 
Feather River Project Aqueduct System are cur- 
rently (May, 1957) in progress as part of the final 
engineering studies looking toward construction of 
the project. These studies may result in substantial 
modification of the system as it relates to service of 
water to lands south of Devils Den in the San 
Joaquin Valley and to southern California, from that 
described herein. Water may be supplied to central 
coastal areas from the Feather River Project if justi- 
fied by the demand there. These studies have not yet 
been sufficiently completed to enable the inclusion of 
any results herein. 

The general location of the San Joaquin Division 
is shown on Plate 6, and its component facilities are 
delineated on Sheets 8, 10, 13, 14, 16, 17, and 20 of 
Plate 5. 

Main Aqueduct Route. In addition to the exist- 
ing Delta-Mendota Canal, features of the Main Aque- 
duct Route would ultimately include three parallel 
concrete-lined canals extending some 250 miles south- 
ward from the Delta Pumping Plants to the Buena 
Vista Forebay near Taft in the upper end of the 
San Joaquin Valley. These arc the Feather River 
Project Aqueduct, comprising the initial stage, and 
two additional parallel canals, designated the "San 
Joaquin West, Side Conduit," winch would complete 
the Main Aqueduct Route to its ultimate stage. San 
Luis Reservoir would be operated to provide required 
regulation in conjunction with all these facilities. 

The location of the Feather River Project Aque- 
duct, and of the two canals of the San Joaquin West 



Side Conduit between San Luis Reservoir and Buena 
Vista Forebay, as shown on Sheets 11, 13, 16, aud 17J 
of Plate 5, is tentative only, and is possibly subjeel 
to considerable future modification. Subsidence of the 
land surface on west side lands has been observed ir 
several areas and could markedly affect the fina. 
selection of the route and detailed location of these 
canals. Further geological, topographic, engineering 
and cost investigations and studies will be necessarj 
to resolve the problem and to provide the basic in 
formation for selecting the most economic locatior 
for construction. 

The Delta-Mendota Canal presently conveys wateij 
from the Tracy Pumping Plant south along the wesj 
side of the San Joaquin Valley to Mendota Pool on thi 
San Joaquin River near the community of Mendota 
The design capacity of the canal at its head is abou 
4,600 second-feet. It is contemplated that the cana 
would convey about 1,780,000 acre-feet per season foi 
use in the San Joaquin Valley under ultimat 
operation. 

The authorized Feather River Project Aquedue 
will begin at the Delta Pumping Plant, located abou 

11 miles northwest of Tracy. The aqueduct will be 
concrete-lined canal with a capacity of 11,000 second 
feet, and will generally parallel the Delta-Mendot 
Canal southerly to San Luis Creek. Water will b 
delivered by gravity to the San Luis Forebay on Sai 
Luis Creek at an elevation of about 225 feet, Th 
forebay will extend upstream along San Luis Cree 
to a pumping plant located near San Luis Dam, wher 
pumping units will lift the water into San Luis Res 
ervoir or directly into the extension of the Feathe 
River Project Aqueduct at an elevation of about 36 
feet, for further conveyance southward. 

San Luis Dam and Reservoir will be located abou 

12 miles west of the City of Los Banos, and have a 
ultimate storage capacity of about 2,100,000 acre-fee 
with a water surface elevation of 550 feet, This resei 
voir will regulate the variable flows pumped from th 
Delta to the irrigation demand schedule in the Sa 
Joaquin Valley and to a continuous flow in the 
duct to southern California. In the operation of 
Feather River Project Aqueduct, the bulk of 
water delivered to the San Luis Forebay will 
pumped directly into the southerly continuation 
the aqueduct which will originate at San Luis 
voir. The remainder of the water delivered to 
forebay, or that quantity exceeding the demand] 
the particular time, will be pumped into San 
Reservoir where it will be held in storage until 
time as diversion from the Delta is insufficient 
meet the demand. Releases of water from San 
Reservoir will be made directly into the eontiuuati 
of the aqueduct, 

The operation of the San Luis Forebay in conjun 
tion with San Luis Reservoir will enable the utilia 
tion of off-peak power for pumping into the reservoi' 







San Joaquin Division— The Delta-Mendota Canal and the Irrigated San Joaquin Valley 



194 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



with resultant reduction in pumping costs. The San 
Luis Afterbay, located near San Luis Reservoir at an 
elevation of about 352 feet, will similarly enable the 
utilization of off-peak power for pumping water di- 
rectly into the continuation of the Feather River 
Project Aqueduct. 

From San Luis Reservoir the Feather River Project 
Aqueduct will continue southward along the west side 
of the San Joaquin Valley, passing west of Westhaven, 
Kettleman City, Lost Hills, and Tupman to the Buena 
Vista Hills. At this point it will discharge into the 
Buena Vista Forebay at an elevation of about 310 
feet. As previously noted, further studies of the 
Feather River Project Aqueduct system are now 
(1957) in progress, which may lead to some modifi- 
cations as to locations and areas served. Lands in the 
San Joaquin Valley along the aqueduct route, and 
those above the aqueduct, will be served directly from 
the aqueduct, while lands lying at lower elevations 
will be served by easterly extending laterals. 

The San Joaquin West Side Conduit would com- 
plete the Main Aqueduct Route to its ultimate stage. 
This conduit would comprise two parallel concrete- 
lined canals, each with a capacity of 7,200 second-feet, 
which would originate at the Mountain House Pump- 
ing Plant at an elevation of about 167 feet. The con- 
duit would convey about 10,185,000 acre-feet of water 
per season, on a continuous-flow basis, for use in the 
San Joaquin Valley and Central Coastal Area and 
for further delivery to southern California. It would 
follow, on grade, the general route of the Feather 
River Project Aqueduct, but at a slightly lower ele- 
vation. 

A pumping plant located near the San Luis Forebay 
at an elevation of about 150 feet would lift the 
water from the San Joaquin West Side Conduit into 
the forebay. An additional plant located on the fore- 
bay would lift the water further to an elevation of 
350 feet into the continuation of the conduit, which, 
in parallel canals, would convey the water by gravity 
to the base of the Buena Vista Forebay at an elevation 
of about 300 feet. At this point a pumping plant 
would lift the water into the Buena Vista Forebay 
for further conveyance over the Tehachapi Mountains. 
Initial operation of the Main Aqueduct Route would 
be as proposed for the Feather River Project Aque- 
duct. About 3,700,000 acre-feet would be taken from 
the Delta on a constant seasonal basis, but on a "when 
available" monthly basis. Storage space in San Luis 
Reservoir would be utilized to regulate the variable 
monthly deliveries to the monthly demand schedule 
satisfactory to the needs of the San Joaquin Valley, 
and for delivery at a uniform rate to the Buena Vista 
Forebay for further conveyance to southern Cali- 
fornia. 

Under ultimate operation, conveyance of water in 
the Feather River Projecl Aquedud would be in- 
creased from the initial operation of 3,700,000 to 



5,300,000 acre-feet per season. The Delta-Mendota 
Canal would be coordinated with the Feather Rivei 
Project Aqueduct, and would deliver 1,780,000 acre 
feet per season into the San Joaquin Valley, a portior 
of which would be lifted into San Luis Forebay bY 
means of a pumping plant and conduit. Thus, the twi 
interconnected systems would ultimately convey ar 
average of about 7,080,000 acre-feet per season froir 
the Delta to the San Luis Forebay. Delivery of a por 
tion of this water would occur on a variable yearlj 
schedule, because of the irregularity of occurrence of 
surplus secondary waters in the Sacramento Valley 
While temporary regulation of these waters would b< 
provided in San Luis Reservoir, final regulation wouli 
be accomplished by the vast natural underground stor 
age of the San Joaquin Valley. 

Detailed studies of the growth of irrigation de 
mands, the economic staging of construction, and th< 
routing of seasonally variable water imported fron 
the Sacramento River Basin are necessary to a fina 1 
determination of the amount of regulatory surfaci 
storage required in the San Joaquin Basin. Thes< 
studies were beyond the scope of the current investi 
gation. Should the requirement for regulatory surfaci 
storage exceed that which can be furnished at Sai 
Luis Reservoir, it may be necessary to utilize a reser 
voir site at Avenal Gap, capable of maximum storagi 
of 500,000 acre-feet. The operation of Avenal Gap Be* 
ervoir for regulation would be similar to that de 
scribed for San Luis Reservoir. Avenal Gap Forebay 
presently included as a feature of the Central Coasta- 
Aqueduct, would, in such an eventuality, serve aij 
a forebay for off-peak pumping to Avenal Gap Reser-; 
voir. Necessary diversions through the Central Coasta^ 
Aqueduct would then be made directly from Avena J 
Gap Reservoir. 

As future water demands in the San Joaquin Valley 
and southern California increase to their ultimate poj 
tential, the Antioch Crossing and Mountain Ilousii 
Pumping Plant of the Delta Division would deliver ai; 
additional 10,185,000 acre-feet per season which wouk 
be transported southward along the west side of th: 
San Joaquin Valley by the San Joaquin West Sidt-i 
Conduit. This water would be conveyed on a confirm 
ous-flow basis, both monthly and from year to year! 
and would require no regulatory storage. 

Folsom South Canal, previously described as ; 
feature of the Sacramento Division, would deliver ai' 
additional 640,000 acre-feet per season, on the average 1 
to the eastern portion of the lower San Joaquin VahV 
on a variable yearly schedule. Ground water storagi 
in the valley would be utilized to accomplish the finaj 
regulation of the water delivered by that conduit. 

Central Coastal Aqueduct. The Central Coasta, 
A(|ueduct of the San Joaquin Division would diver, 
from the Main Aqueduct Route in the San Joaquh 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



I!).") 



" illey near Devils Den, and would deliver a seasonal 
j lount of 760,000 aere-f eet of water to deficient areas 

San Luis Obispo and Santa Barbara Counties. This 

|i livery would meet the ultimate supplemental water 

iquirements in those counties, with the exception of 

ie (/mama Valley and Carrizo Plain. Possible serv- 

to the Central Coastal Area under the Feather 

ver Project is now (1957) being studied. 

The Central Coastal Aqueduct would beg-in at a di- 
•l'siuii from the San Joaquin West Side Conduit near 
.renal Gap. Water would be pumped from the con- 
Bit and conveyed westerly to Avenal Gap Forebay, 
ibm which it would be lifted through a series of 
, imping plants and short canals up the easterly slope 
. the Cholame Hills to a 5.5-mile tunnel passing west- 
Uy through the hills into the Salinas Basin at an el- 
llation of about 1,180 feet. From the westerly portal 
( i the tunnel the aqueduct, in canal, would pass south 
H the communities of Shandon and Cholame and 
rjrald discharge into Shedd Canyon Reservoir on Li- 
lian Creek. An irrigation supply of 60,000 acre-feet 
ip season would be released for use on lands near the 
■Immunity of Cholame. The capacity of this initial 
j^ach of the aqueduct would be 2,200 second-feet, or 
'•fice the average flow rate, in order to utilize off- 
.}ak power, with resultant reduction in costs of elec- 
tee energy. 

iShedd Canyon Reservoir would provide regulation 

Ir delivery of 160,000 acre-feet per season for irriga- 
ftn of lands along the easterly slope of upper Salinas 
Hdley. The aqueduct would continue westerly from 
Bedd Canyon Reservoir to a crossing of Huerhuero 

•reek where a release of 115,000 acre-feet would be 
cpde to Huerhuero Reservoir, which would regulate 

Ie supply to a suitable demand schedule for delivery 
■ lands along the upper Salinas River. 

'The Central Coastal Aqueduct would then continue 
Wbm Huerhuero Creek westerly and southerly, pass- 
fib east of Templeton, Atascadero, and Santa Mar- 
■jrita. An extended series of tunnels, totaling about 
III miles in length, would convey the water from the 
Rinity of Santa Margarita through the Santa Lucia 
■nge to Tar Springs Reservoir, located on a tributary 
■ Arroyo Grande Creek, about 8 miles east of Arroyo 
ffande. Tar Springs Reservoir would provide regula- 
«m for delivery of 30,000 acre-feet per season to the 
llrroyo Grande Valley and Nipomo Mesa on a monthly 
Bmancl schedule. The aqueduct would then continue 

fatherly, releasing 35,000 acre-feet per season for 
■livery to lands in the Nipomo Valley. After cross- 

jg the Cuyama River about 8 miles southeast of 
■porno, the aqueduct would convey water southeast- 
Ky along the edge of Sisquoc Valley to the Sisquoc 
fiver. Here 105.000 acre-feet per season would be 
■leased into Round Corral Reservoir for regulation 

j'd deliverv to the Santa Maria Valley. 



From the Sisquoc River the Central Coastal Aque- 
duct would pass southward through the Solomon Hills 
to San Antonio Creek, where a seasonal amount of 
50,000 acre-feet would be released into the creek for 
delivery to lands in San Antonio Valley, thence south- 
ward an additional 12 miles to the vicinity of Los 
Olivos, where 100,000 acre-feet per season would be 
released in the Santa Rita Valley and in the Santa 
Ynez upland. The aqueduct would finally terminate 
at the existing Cachuma Reservoir, into which it 
would deliver a seasonal amount of 105,000 acre-feet. 
Cachuma Reservoir would reregulate this water and 
deliver it through the existing Tecolote Tunnel to the 
south slope of the Santa Ynez Mountains on a monthly 
demand schedule. Passage of peak flows through the 
tunnel would require installation of pumping facili- 
ties which would subject the tunnel to a 95-foot head, 
corresponding to the present operating head on the 
tunnel when water levels in Cachuma Reservoir are 
at maximum stage. 

In providing the foregoing seasonal deliveries of 
760,000 acre-feet of water to the Central Coastal Area, 
the Central Coastal Aqueduct would successively de- 
crease from an initial capacity of 2,200 second-feet, 
representing an average flow of 1,100 second-feet, to 
a capacity of 300 second-feet at its terminus at 
Cachuma Reservoir. The total length of the aqueduct 
from the diversion point on the Main Aqueduct Route 
in the San Joaquin Valley to the terminus at Cachuma 
Reservoir would be about 207 miles. 

Carrizo-Cuyama Aqueduct. The Carrizo-Cuyama 
Aqueduct would divert from the California Aqueduct 
route in the San Joaquin Valley about 5 miles south 
of the Buena Vista Forebay, and would deliver a 
seasonal amount of 325,000 acre-feet to water-deficient 
areas in the Cuyama Valley and Carrizo Plain, which 
delivery would meet the ultimate supplemental water 
requirements in those areas. 

The Carrizo-Cuyama Aqueduct would begin at a 
canalside pumping plant located about 2 miles north- 
east of Maricopa. Water would be lifted up the east- 
erly slope of the Temblor Range to an elevation of 
2,500 feet by a series of four pumping plants so de- 
signed that they would operate only during periods 
of off-peak power demand. The final pumping plant 
would discharge water into two separate pipe lines. 
One line, the Carrizo Lateral, would continue west- 
ward and would discharge into a channel leading 
through the Elkhorn Plain to Elkhorn Reservoir about 
8 miles southwest of Taft. The other line, the Cuyama 
Lateral, would turn southward to Bitterwater After- 
bay on Bitterwater Creek, about 5 miles southwest 
of Maricopa. From this afterbay a 4-mile tunnel 
would pass southwesterly through the ridge to the 
Cuyama Valley. 

Water would be diverted into the Cuyama Lateral 
only when needed and only in the amounts needed. 
Daily and weekly flow variations due to off-peak 



] 



196 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



operation would be regulated in Bitterwater After- 
hay. A total of 80,000 acre-feet of water per season 
would be delivered to Cuyama Valley, comprising 53,- 
000 acre-feet for consumptive use, 4 000 acre-feet for 
evaporative losses, and 23,000 acre-feet for over- 
applications of irrigation water. These over-applica- 
tions would return to the Cuyama River, thereby 
maintaining a favorable salt balance in the Cuyama 
Basin, and would become available for use down- 
stream in the Santa Maria Valley. 

The remaining 245,000 acre-feet of water per season 
delivered by the Carrizo-Cuyama Aqueduct would be 
conveyed in the Carrizo Lateral to Elkhorn Reser- 
voir which would regulate the supply to a monthly 
demand schedule for the Carrizo Plain. 



In order to provide for off-peak operation, the con- 
veyance capacity of the Carrizo-Cuyama Aqueduc 
would be 900 second-feet, or twice the average diver- 
sion rate of 450 second-feet. 

Summary of San Joaquin Division. The San Joa 1 
quin Division would deliver some 8,165,000 acre-fee. 
per season of regulated waters from northern areas o: : 
surplus to the San Joaquin Valley and Central 
Coastal Area, and would transport an additional 
9,100,000 acre-feet of water to the Buena Vista Fore ( 
bay for delivery to areas south of the Tehachapi 
Mountains. Facilities of the division would consist o* 
the Main Aqueduct Route, the Central Coastal Aque 3 
duct, and the Carrizo-Cuyama Aqueduct. The Mai;' 



TABLE 25 

SUMMARY OF SAN JOAQUIN DIVISION, CALIFORNIA AQUEDUCT SYSTEM 

(These works show future development possibilities. They are not project proposals.) 



Conveyance facilities 



Main Conduit Route 

Delta-Mendota Canal 

Feather River Project Aqueduct. 
San Joaquin West Side Conduit, 

Central Coastal Aqueduct 



Carrizo-Cuyama Aqueduct 

Cuyama Lateral 

Carrizo Lateral 



( 'onduits 



Maximun: 
capacity, 



4,600 
11,000 
14,400 



103 

264 
245 

206.7 

7.2 
4.8 
1.2 



Pumping plants 



Total 

installed 

capacity, 

in kilowatts 



16,000 
450,000 
409,000 

224,000 

177,000 



Total seasonal 
energy required, 



920,000,001 
,100,000,00' 

985,000,00| 

776,000,00,1 



:.,«.-» 1.(100,1 



Main Conduit Route 

San Luis Forebay b . 
San Luis Reservoir- 
San Luis Afterbay b . 



Central Coastal Aqueduct 

Avcnal Cap Forebay 1 * 

Shedd Canyon Reservoir, 

Iluerhuero Reservoir 

Tar Springs Reservoir 



Round Corral Reservoir, 

Carrizo-Cuyama Aqueduct 

Elkhorn Reservoir 

Hitterwater Afterbay 



Location, MDB&M, and 

sheet of Plate 5 on which 

shown 



Sec. 1, 12, T10S, R8E 
Sec. 15, T10S, R8F 



Sec. 15, T10S, RsE 



Sec. 16, T24S, R19E 
See. 26, T26S, R14E 
Sec. 9, T27S, R13E 
Sec. 15, T32S, R14E 



Sec. 4, 5, T32S, R22E 17 
Sec. 6, T10N, R24W, 20 
SBB&M 



SI, (II III 
40,000 
10,01)0 



134,000 
1,000 



Normal 

pool 

elevation, 

in feet 



2,500 
2,500 



Height 

of 
dam, 
in feet 



Place of watei use 



an Joaquin Valley 
southern California 



Upper Salinas Valley 
Upper Salinas Valley 
Arroyo Grande Valle; 

Nipomo Mesa 
Santa Maria Valley 



Carrizo Plain 
Cuyama Valley 



Provide regulation of imported water to monthly schedule in area served. San Luis Reservoir would also proviii 

rate, and for ground nratei replenishment in San Joaquin Valley. 
Provide regulation for use of olf-peak power. 



regulation for conveyance : 






THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



197 



Aueduet Route would comprise the existing- Delta- 
Jindota Canal and the proposed Feather River Proj- 
e Aqueduct as its initial features, and the San Joa- 
,,n West Side Conduit which would complete the 
Jiin Aqueduct Route to its ultimate stage. 
I Combined seasonal conveyances to service areas in 
m San Joaquin Valley by the Delta-Mendota Canal 
H the Feather River Project Aqueduct would 
Bount to some 7,080,000 acre-feet. An additional 
■,000 r acre-feet per season would be transferred 
ijm the Sacramento Valley to the easterly side of the 
Irfer San Joaquin Valley by the Folsom South Canal. 
Fially, the San Joaquin West Side Conduit would 
Ikvey 10,185,000 acre-feet per season, of which 1,085,- 
m aere-feet would be delivered to the Central Coastal 
ilea by the Central Coastal and Carrizo-Cuyama 
ijueducts, and the foregoing 9,100,000 acre-feet 
Bild be transported to the Buena Vista Forebay of 

■ Southern California Division. Thus, the total sea- 
Hal transfer of waters south of the Delta, with the 
meption of deliveries to the San Francisco Bay 
A?a, would aggregate 17,905,000 aere-feet, 

■"he total diversion capacity of the Main Aqueduct 
lite from the Delta would be 30,000 second-feet, 
i'tributed as follows: Delta-Mendota Canal, 4,600 
Bmd-feet; Feather River Project Aqueduct, 11,000 
ibnd-feet; and San Joaquin West Side Conduit, 
H00 second-feet, divided equally between its two 
liiponent canals. The Delta-Mendota Canal is 103 
■es in length, and terminates at Mendota Pool. The 
■pher River Project Aqueduct and the San Joaquin 
Hst Side Conduit, consisting of three generally 
•fallel concrete-lined canals, would extend south- 
ird along the west side of the San Joaquin Valley 
■ut 70 miles to the San Luis Forebay, at which 
Hit the water would be lifted about 200 feet and the 
ffduits would continue southerly an additional 180 
■es to the Buena Vista Forebay. 
flan Luis Reservoir, a feature of the Main Aque- 
«t Route, would serve a three-fold purpose in pro- 
tiling temporary regulation of the water delivered 
■the foregoing facilities; namely (1) regulation to 
m variable monthly demand in the San Joaquin 
■ley, (2) regulation to a continuous flow to Buena 
■ta Forebay, and (3) regulation to rates within 

■ absorptive capacity of soils overlying the ground 
*.er basin in San Joaquin Valley. Final regulation 
•the variable deliveries of water developed in the 
■rramento Valley would be accomplished by the ex- 
wive ground water storage in the San Joaquin 

jf'he Central Coastal Aqueduct, diverting from the 
En Aqueduct Route near Avenal Gap, would de- 
«:r 760,000 acre-feet per season over and through 
tt Cholame Hills to the upper Salinas Basin and 
■jstal area of San Luis Obispo County and the 
ftterly portion of Santa Barbara County. The aque- 



duct would be 207 miles in length from the diversion 
point to its terminus at Caclmma Reservoir. 

The Carrizo-Cuyama Aqueduct, diverting from the 
California Aqueduct route 5 miles south of the Buena 
Vista Forebay, would deliver 325,000 acre-feet of 
water through the Temblor Range at an elevation of 
2,500 feet to the Cuyama Valley and to Carrizo Plain. 

The general features of the San Joaquin Division 
are presented in Table 25 and the capital costs of its 
component facilities are shown in Table 26. The facil- 
ities comprising the division are shown on Sheets 8, 
10, 11, 13, 14, 16, 17, and 20 of Plate 5. 



SUMMARY OF CAPITAL COSTS, SAN JOAQUIN DIVI- 
SION, CALIFORNIA AQUEDUCT SYSTEM 



Item 


Capital cost* 


Main Conduit Route 

Feather River Project Aqueduct 




San Luis Reservoir 


94,350,000 








30,930,000 


San Joaquin West Side Conduit 
















25,560,000 










Central Coastal Aqueduct (to Cachuma Reservoir) 










9,620,000 




2,770,000 






Round Corral Reservoir 


6,660,000 












8,880,000 




8,280,000 








$177,210,000 


Carrizo-Cuyama Aqueduct 










1,160,000 




5,240,000 




5,240,000 




5,240,000 




8,700,000 























* At 1955 price levels. 

Southern California Division 

The Southern California Division of the California 
Aqueduct System would extend southward from 
Buena Vista Forebay through the Tehachapi Moun- 
tains to the Mexican border, and would serve supple- 
mental water to the South Coastal Area, the southern 
portion of the Lahontan Area, and the Colorado 
Desert Area, excepting that portion having rights in 



198 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



and to the waters of the Colorado River. A supply of 
water in the amount of about 9,100,000 acre-feet per 
season would be conveyed through facilities of this 
division. Of this amount, about 2,880,000 acre-feet 
would be supplied to the South Coastal Area and the 
remainder would be delivered to the Lahontan and 
Colorado Desert Areas. 

The Department of Water Resources is currently 
(May, 1957), conducting further engineering, geo- 
logic, and economic investigations of the Feather 
River Project Aqueduct system to determine the most 
feasible aqueduct routes to serve San Luis Obispo, 
Santa Barbara, and Kern Counties, Antelope Valley, 
and the South Coastal Area, preparatory to construc- 
tion. Results of these studies are not yet sufficiently 
complete for inclusion herein, except with respect to 
the Second San Diego Aqueduct, subsequently de- 
scribed. Substantial modification of some of the aque- 
ducts described herein, which are based on prior en- 
gineering studies, may be necessary, at least insofar 
as the Feather River Project is concerned. Should 
these studies demonstrate an advantage in utilizing 
the coastal route as the principal aqueduct location 
as compared to the so-called "high-line" route, the 
facilities leading to the South Coastal Area could be 
constructed on the alternative coastal alignment, as 
shown on Sheets 16, 20, and 21 of Plate 5, or along 
some modification of that alignment. However, the 
basic concepts and the areas to be served will remain 
the same, irrespective of the final locations of the 
aqueducts, when constructed. 

The Tehachapi Mountains at the southern end of 
the San Joaquin Valley constitute a formidable bar- 
rier to transfer of water from the valley to the South 
Coastal Area. Prior studies for the Feather River 
Project demonstrated the engineering feasibility of 
an aqueduct route passing through the Tehachapi 
Mountains at an elevation of about 3,350 feet, cross- 
ing Antelope Valley, passing along the north edge of 
the San Gabriel and San Bernardino Mountains, and 
leading into the South Coastal Area at Cajon Pass 
near San Bernardino. 

The Southern California Division, as presently con- 
ceived, would include pumping facilities and tunnels 
through the Tehachapi Mountains. Off-peak power 
would he utilized to lift the water to the tunnels, and 
t lie more valuable on-peak power would be generated 
by that portion of the water supply delivered to lands 
at lower elevations in the South Coastal Area. In 
order to make it possible to pump only during periods 
of off-peak power demand, thereby minimizing de- 
mand charges for pumping power, forebay and after- 
bay storage reservoirs would be provided along the 
aqueduct route. Deliveries of supplemental water to 
Ihe service areas of the Southern California Division 
would he effected ;it various strategic Locations by sev- 
eral aqueducl routes. These routes and points of de- 



ratio. 



livery were selected mainly on the basis of integrat: 
with and utilization of existing water supply 
distribution facilities, in order to avoid unnecessar 
overlap and duplication of such works. The effect 
of the physical characteristics of the service area 
with respect to regulation and distribution of th 
supplemental supply were also considered. 

For purposes of presentation herein, the Souther; 
California Division has been divided into seven units, 
which are discussed in the following order : Buen 
Vista-Ceclar Springs Aqueduct, which, in addition t 
carrying water to aqueducts farther south, wouli 
serve the extreme southern portion of San Joaqui, 
Valley, the Antelope Valley, and the desert areas t 
the east; San Fernando-Ventura Aqueduct whic, 
would serve the San Fernando Valley, the coasts 
plains of Los Angeles and Ventura Counties, thj 
Malibu area, and upper Santa Clara River Valley, 
Devil Canyon Power Development, which would d<j 
liver water through the San Bernardino Power Plar 
to spreading grounds in upper Santa Ana Valley an, 
to the Chino-San Gabriel and Barona Aqueducts, 
Chino-San Gabriel Aqueduct, which Avould serv 
upper Santa Ana and San Gabriel Valleys; Secon 
San Diego Aqueduct, which, by coordinated open 
tion with the existing San Diego xVqueduct, the B; ( 
rona Aqueduct, and the facilities of the San Dieg, 
High-Line Aqueduct, could supply the ultimate rj 
quirements in San Diego and southwestern Riversic i 
Counties ; Barona Aqueduct, which would serve lowe; 
lying lands in upper Santa Ana Valley, San JachVj 
Valley, and in Orange, San Diego, and southwesteij 
Riverside Counties; and San Diego High-Line Aqiij 
duct, which would serve the higher portions of th 
upper Santa Ana and San Jacinto Valleys, the SeJ 
Gorgonio Pass area and desert lands to the east, hig' 
lands in Riverside and San Diego Counties, and tl 
Borrego Valley area. 

The general location of the Southern Caliform 
Division is shown on Plate 6, and its component fe 
tures are delineated on Sheets 17, 20, 21, 22, 2-4, 2l 
and 26 of Plate 5. 



Buena Vista-Cedar Springs Aqueduct. The Bue 
Vista-Cedar Springs Aqueduct would comprise 
conduits extending from Buena Vista Forebay in ; ; 
San Joaquin Valley to Cedar Springs Forebay on ; > 
desert side of the San Bernardino Mountains, anAl|; )!]v 
system of lateral aqueducts serving the Lahontan ai -. 
Colorado Desert areas. One of these conduits, den^,. 
nated the "Upper Aqueduct," would comprise fl% 
facilities under consideration for the high-line roi>|«»j„, 
of the Feather River Project Aqueduct as fi 
Quail Lake Reservoir, and would be the initial stj 
of the Buena Vista-Cedar Springs Aqueduct. A 
ond conduit would be required in the future f or ^p 
mate delivery of water to Cedar Springs Fore 
This conduit is designated the "Lower Aquedl 






THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



199 



m would generally parallel the alignment of the 
I per Aqueduct, but at a lower elevation, 
■"he Upper Aqueduct would convey water from 
■jena Vista Forebay at a minimum elevation of 327 
Ift, through a series of 4 pumping plants and some 
■miles of canal, tunnel, and pipe line, to the inlet 
Irtal of a tunnel through the Tehachapi Mountains 
Ian elevation of 3,357 feet, about 6 miles east of 
ftipevine. The aqueduct would pass about 3 miles 
■theast of Maricopa and 2 miles west of Wheeler 
Age on its course up the northerly slope of the 
Bpachapis. Two consecutive tunnels, totaling 10.5 
■es in length, would deliver the water southeasterly 
lough the Tehachapis to Quail Lake Reservoir, 
■ich would be formed by enlarging the existing 
lail Lake. About 1,000,000 acre-feet of water per 
■son would be diverted from Quail Lake Reservoir 
Id the San Fernando-Ventura Aqueduct, as herein- 
■er described. 

A.s stated, the section of the Upper Aqueduct from 
lena Vista Forebay to Quail Lake Afterbay would 
laprise the facilities of the high-line route for the 
mther River Project Aqueduct. It would have a con- 
lance capacity of 6,000 second-feet, and would de- 
l?r a seasonal supply of about 1,800,000 acre-feet to 
lail Lake Reservoir, at an elevation of about 3,300 
It. The aqueduct and pumping plants would be 
■igned to operate to the greatest extent feasible 
fting periods of off-peak power demand, in order 
■utilize less costly electric energy available during 
■h periods. In addition to the large forebay and 
lerbay capacities required for off-peak pumping, 
nil reservoirs at each pumping plant would pro- 
le for the necessary flexibility of operation, 
fcrom Quail Lake Reservoir the Upper Aqueduct 
lild extend southeasterly along the south edge of 
Itelope Valley, and would terminate in Cedar 
l*ings Forebay, about 9 miles south of Hesperia in 
I southern portion of the Mojave Desert, at an 
■ration of 3,252 feet. The Upper Aqueduct between 
lail Lake and Cedar Springs Forebay would be 
Istructed on grade, and would consist of cut- 
■l-cover conduit, tunnels, and canal sections. The 
lacity of the aqueduct in this reach would be 1,300 
fond-feet, and it would deliver about 800,000 acre- 
It per season to Cedar Springs Forebay. 
Bonstruetion of the Lower Aqueduct would eom- 
■te the Buena Vista-Cedar Springs Aqueduct to its 
■mate stage. The Lower Aqueduct would have a 
later capacity than the Upper Aqueduct, diverting 
easonal supply of 7,301,000 acre-feet. The Lower 
eduet would generally parallel the route of the 
per Aqueduct, at a higher elevation north of 
eeler Ridge and at a lower elevation south of that 
ft. As presently conceived, the Lower Aqueduct 
dd be constructed in stages and would probably 
sisl of two aqueduct units. 



The Lower Aqueduct would convey water from 
Buena Vista Forebay to Antelope Afterbay, located 
about 3 miles northeast of Quail Lake Reservoir, in 
twin parallel conduits. Between Buena Vista Fore- 
bay and the tunnels through the Tehachapi Moun- 
tains, the aqueduct would consist of about 45 miles of 
canal, pipe line, and short tunnels through the Buena 
Vista Hills and Wheeler Ridge. Three pumping plants 
would lift the water from an elevation of 327 feet 
in the Buena Vista Forebay to 3,140 feet at the inlet 
portal of the Tehachapi tunnels. These tunnels would 
be approximately 9 miles in length, and would ter- 
minate at the Antelope Afterbay, with a maximum 
water surface elevation of 3,095 feet. The reach of 
the Lower Aqueduct just described would have a de- 
sign capacity of 24,600 second-feet, equally divided 
between component twin conduits. The aqueduct and 
pumping plants would also be operated to utilize off- 
peak energy, and the necessary forebay and afterbay 
capacity would be provided. 

From Antelope Afterbay, the Lower Aqueduct 
would extend southeasterly nearly 100 miles along 
the southerly edge of the Antelope Valley, terminat- 
ing in Cedar Springs Forebay. This section of the 
aqueduct would consist of a single canal with an 
initial capacity of 9,000 second-feet at the Antelope 
Afterbay, and would be progressively reduced to 2,500 
second-feet at the point of discharge in Cedar Springs 
Forebay. Diversions totaling 5,710,000 acre-feet per 
season would be made along the route to laterals 
comprising the Antelope-Majove Aqueduct system. 
The remaining 1,535,000 acre-feet per season would 
be lifted into Cedar Springs Reservoir at an elevation 
of 3,253 feet, by a pumping plant near Hesperia. 

San Fernando-Ventura Aqueduct. The San Fer- 
nando-Ventura Aqueduct would extend southerly 
from Quail Lake Reservoir and then westerly to de- 
liver about 1,000,000 acre-feet of water per season 
from the Buena Vista-Cedar Springs Aqueduct to 
San Fernando Valley and the coastal plain of Los 
Angeles County, Ventura County, the Malibu area, 
and the upper Santa Clara River Valley. 

Beginning at Quail Lake Reservoir at an elevation 
of 3,300 feet, the San Fernando-Ventura Aqueduct 
would pass southerly about 22 miles to Castaic Creek 
Reservoir in a short canal section and a series of 
tunnels through the divide between Antelope Valley 
and the Santa Clara River drainage area. Castaic 
Creek Reservoir would be located on Castaic Creek, a 
tributary of the Santa Clara River, about 3 miles 
north of Castaic Junction. Power would be developed 
enroute along the aqueduct by a power drop of about 
700 feet into Liebre Gulch, where regulatory storage 
capacity would be provided by construction of the 
Liebre Gulch Afterbay. Power would also be de- 
veloped by construction of a power plant at Castaic 



200 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



Creek Reservoir, utilizing available head of about 
1,100 feet. 

The San Fernando-Ventvtra Aqueduct between 
Quail Lake and Castaic Creek Reservoirs would have 
a capacity of 3,100 second-feet, and would be operated 
only during periods of on-peak power demand. 
Castaic Creek Reservoir would provide regulation of 
the fluctuating discharge of the aqueduct to the 
monthly demand schedules in the aqueduct service 
area. The upper Santa Clara River Valley would be 
served 68,000 acre-feet of water per season directly 
from this reservoir. 

From Castaic Creek Reservoir the San Fernando- 
Ventura Aqueduct, with an initial elevation of 1,250 
feet, would continue southerly to a 5-mile tunnel, in 
the vicinity of Newhall, passing through the divide 
between the upper Santa Clara River and San Fer- 
nando Valleys. The tunnel outlet portal would be 
about 1 mile to the west of the existing Upper San 
Fernando Reservoir of the City of Los Angeles De- 
partment of Water and Power. Here a seasonal supply 
of water of 717,000 acre-feet would be delivered, at 
an elevation of 1,160 feet, on a monthly demand 
schedule, for use in the San Fernando Valley and 
coastal plain of Los Angeles County. 

From the tunnel portal, the San Fernando-Ventura 
Aqueduct, with a capacity of 300 second-feet, would 
continue westerly, delivering 215,000 acre-feet per 
season into Ventura County on a uniform flow basis. 
Enroute. the aqueduct would pass through the Simi 
Hills, near the town of Chatsworth, and into the Simi 
Valley. It would extend along the southerly side of 
Simi Valley to terminate in Conejo Reservoir, imme- 
diately above Santa Rosa Valley about 6 miles east 
of Camarillo. Conejo Reservoir, with a maximum wa- 
ter surface elevation of 398 feet, would provide ter- 
minal storage for aqueduct supplies delivered to the 
Ventura County service area. Deliveries to lands be- 
tween the Simi Hills tunnel and the reservoir would 
be made directly from the aqueduct. Water service 
would be provided from Conejo Reservoir to the Ox- 
nard Plain area, the Calleguas Creek drainage area, 
and the Ventura River Basin. If desired, water de- 
liveries could also be made to the vicinity of Santa 
Barbara by extending the aqueduct and increasing 
its capacity. 

Devil Canyon Power Development. Facilities of 
tlic Devi] Canyon Power Development would generate 
power by a 1,340-foot drop through the San Bernar- 
dino Power Plant at the base of the San Bernardino 
Mountains, and would deliver about 1,510,000 acre- 
I'eet per season for further conveyance by the Chino- 
S;in Gabriel and Barona Aqueducts, subsequently 
described. The power development aqueduct would 
Lead southerly from Cedar Springs Reservoir, at an 
elevation of about 3,222 feet, through the San Ber- 
nardino Mountains in a 5-mile tunnel parallel to that 



of the previously mentioned San Diego High-Lh 
Aqueduct. From the tunnel outlet near the junetio 
of Devil Canyon with its east fork, the aquedui 
would continue southward, crossing the east forj~ 
siphon and entering penstocks to the San Bernardir 
Power Plant immediately north of the City of Sa 
Bernardino. The aqueduct would extend eastwar 
from the power plant tailrace by pipe line to tt 
Arrowhead Springs Afterbay on East Twin Creel 
The Twin and Waterman spreading grounds in tl 
upper Santa Ana Valley would be sttpplied aboii 
64,000 acre-feet per season directly from the rese* 
voir. 

The San Bernardino Power Plant would be ope 
ated only during periods of peak power demand, an 
would have an installed capacity of 400,000 kilowatt 
Arrowhead Springs Afterbay would provide rerfl 
lation of the power releases to a uniform delivery f( 
further conveyance to service areas. 

Chino-San Gabriel Aqueduct. The Chino-Sa 
Gabriel Aqueduct would divert at a hydraulic grac 
line elevation of about 1,760 feet from a low point if 
the pipe line connecting the tailrace of the San Bej 
nardino Power Plant and Arrowhead Springs Afte 
bay, and would proceed, in pipe line, westerly alon 
the base of the San Bernardino Mountains a distan 
of 35 miles, to a terminus in the existing Morris Ee 
ervoir on the San Gabriel River at an elevation 
about 1,150 feet. The aqueduct would deliver a si' 
sonal supply of 429,000 acre-feet to the upper San' 
Ana and San Gabriel Valleys. 

Arrowhead Springs Afterbay would provide re<* 
lation of the tailwater from the San Bernardii 
Power Plant to a continuous flow in the Chino- 
Gabriel Aqueduct by releases thereto during perioi 
when the power plant would not be in operation, ttti 
reversing the direction of flow. Water would be r 
leased from the aqueduct to spreading grounds ove 
lying the Chino and other smaller ground water baa 
for regulation and distribution by underground 
age. Direct water service could also be provided frsl 
the aqueduct to lands in the vicinity. By terminal^ 
the aqueduct in Morris Reservoir, a physical conBS 
tion would be provided with the artificial recharj 
facilities of the Los Angeles County Flood Contv 
District in the San Gabriel Valley and MonteH 
Forebay area of the coastal plain of Los Angdi 
County and to the facilities of The Metropolis 
Water District of Southern California. 

Second San Diego Aqueduct. Pursuant to pr 
sions of the Budget Act of 1956 of the Califor 
Legislature, the Department of Water Resources 
cently completed a detailed investigation of alte 
tive routes for the next aqueduct to San Diego Cou 
and the most economical capacity thereof. The fa 
ties of the Second San Diego Aqueduct describe 





44 



N^ 



Southern California Division— The Proposed Terminal for the Chino-San Gabriel Aqueduct— Morris Reservoir Near Pasadena 



204 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



two conduits, the Upper Aqueduct and the Lower 
Aqueduct. The Upper Aqueduct would consist of the 
facilities of the high-line route of the Feather River 
Project Aqueduct as far as Quail Lake Reservoir, and 
would deliver 1,800,000 acre-feet of water per season 
to that reservoir. The Lower Aqueduct would com- 
plete the Buena Vista-Cedar Springs Aqueduct to its 
ultimate stage, conveying a seasonal supply of 7,300,- 
000 acre-feet through the Tehachapi Mountains, for 
service to the Antelope Valley and desert areas to the 
east in the amount of 5,710,000 acre-feet, and de- 
livering 1,560,000 acre-feet to Cedar Springs Res- 
ervoir. 

The San Fernando- Ventura Aqueduct would de- 
liver about 1,000,000 acre-feet of water per season 
from Quail Lake Reservoir to the San Fernando Valley 
and coastal plain of Los Angeles County, Ventura 
County, the Malibu area, and the upper Santa Clara 
River Valley. 

The Devil Canyon Power Development would gen- 
crate power by dropping 1,510,000 acre-feet per 
season of water from the Cedar Springs Forebay 
through the San Bernardino Power Plant at the base 
of the San Bernardino Mountains. The water would 
then be conveyed easterly to the Arrowhead Springs 
Afterbay on East Twin Creek. 

The Chino-San Gabriel Aqueduct would divert 
from the aqueduct of the Devil Canyon Power De- 
velopment, and would deliver a seasonal supply of 
about 429,000 acre-feet to the upper Santa Ana and 
San Gabriel Valleys, terminating in Morris Reservoir. 

The Second San Diego Aqueduct would extend 
generally southerly about 90 miles from the west 
portal of the San Jacinto Tunnel of the Colorado 



River Aqueduct to a terminus in Minnewawa Reser- 
voir on Jamul Creek near the City of San Diego. The 
aqueduct would generally parallel the route of the 
existing San Diego Aqueduct, and its coordinated 
operation with facilities of the existing San Diego 
Aqueduct, the Barona Aqueduct, and the San Diego 
High-Line Aqueduct would make available 1,300,000 
acre-feet of water per season to lands in San Diego 
and southwestern Riverside Counties. 

The Barona Aqueduct would deliver about 1,020,-' 
000 acre-feet of water per season to the lower-lying^ 
lands south of the San Bernardino Mountains. TheJ 
aqueduct would originate at the Arrowhead Springs 
Afterbay of the Devil Canyon Power Development..' 
and would extend southerly to a connection with the 
Colorado River Aqueduct at the westerly portal of: 
the San Jacinto Tunnel. From this point the aqueduct, 
would continue southerly some 50 miles, generally 
paralleling, but to the east of, the existing San Diegoi 
Aqueduct, and would terminate in Barona Reservoir 
near Ramona. The Barona Aqueduct would make 
seasonal deliveries of 200,000 acre-feet to the water 
spreading grounds in the Bunker Hill Basin of Sar. 
Bernardino County, and 820,000 acre-feet to the Sai 
Jacinto Valley and to areas to the south in San Dieg< 
County. The Barona, existing San Diego, and Seconc 
San Diego Aqueducts would be operated on an int& 
grated system. 

The San Diego High-Line Aqueduct would extent 
southerly from Cedar Springs Forebay, through th< 
San Bernardino Mountains, generally following th. 
alignment of the high-line route of the Feather Rive" 
Project Aqueduct, to a terminus at Horsethief Can 
yon in San Diego County, near the Mexican bordeii 



TABLE 27 
SUMMARY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA DIVISION, CALIFORNIA AQUEDUCT SYSTEM 

(These works show future development possibilities. They are not project proposals.) 



Conveyance facilities 



uena Vista-Cedar Springs Aqueduct 

Feather River Project Aqueduct 

Lower Aqueduct 

Antelopc-Mojave Aqueduct system 



San Fernando-Ventura Aqueduct 

Devil Tuny. .n Power Development 

i hirio-San ( labriel Aqueduct .. 

Second San Diego Aqueduct 
Barona Aqueduct 

San Diego High-Line Aqueduct (Feather Ri 

Project; 

u hitewater Aqueduct 
Ban Felipe Aqueduct 

liaroll.'i- II it'll I. in. Inl. i.. .mi. ill. ,n 



I ota! 



< '.in. lints 



Maximum 
capacity, 



0,000 
24,600 
7,420 



Length, in miles 



160.9 
,081.2 



33.2 

24.2 
53 . 4 



3.9 
44.8 



168.7 
132.7 



10.6 
35.4 
90.6 
100.6 



Pumping plant 



Total 

number 



Total 

installed 

capacity, 

in kilowatts 



837,000 
,114,000 
537,000 



Total 
seasonal 
consumpt 
in kilowatt-h 



6,874,00 
23,635,000,( 
2,064,00(1 



8, 195,000 32,593,1 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



205 



TABLE 27-Continued 

SUMMARY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA DIVISION, CALIFORNIA AQUEDUCT SYSTEM 

(These works show future development possibilities. They ore not project proposals.) 



1 

Power plant 


Location, SBB&M, and sheet 
Plate 5 on which shown 


of 


Average head, 
in feet 


Installed 
capacity, 

in 
kilowatts 


Average 
annual energy 
generation, in 
kilowatt-hours 


Bna Vista-Cedar Springs Aqueduct 


Sec. 4, T6N, R17W 
Sec. 2, T5N, R17W 

Sec. 81, T2N, R4YV 

Sec. 5, T3S, R1E 
Sec. 35, T2S, R1E 
Sec. 9. T3S, R2E 
See. 9, T3S, R3E 
Sec. 33, T12S, R5E 
Sec. 12, T12S. R6E 
Sec. 34, T12S, R8E 


b 

21 

21 

22 

24 
24 
24 
24 
25 
25 
25 


737 
1.077 

1,337 

500 

144 
691 
339 
407 
494 
572 


222,000 

168,000 
244,000 

400,000 

8,200 
2,200 
9,400 
2,100 
12,900 
17,400 
4,600 


1 ,090,000,000 


S, Fernando-Ventura Aqueduct 

iebre Gulch 

■astaic Creek 

E il Canyon Power Development 
kn Bernardino 

S Diego High-Line Aqueduct 

anning 

athaway 


651,600,000 
951,900,000 

1.570,500,000 

67,800,000 
14.500,000 
54,500,000 


j'hitewater . 

• In Felipe 

(arrows . 

,ane Springs 


14,600,000 
54.000.000 
68.300,000 
40,000,000 




1,090,800 


4,577,700,000 











iter distribution in the high desert areas when the need develops. Individual works are not shown. 



TABLE 27-Continued 

SUMMARY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA DIVISION, CALIFORNIA AQUEDUCT SYSTEM 

(These works show future development possibilities. They are not project proposals.) 



Location, SBB&M, and 

sheet of Plate 5 on which 

shown 



Type of 
dam 



Height 
of dam, 
in feet 



Normal 
pool eleva- 
tion, in 
feet 



Storage 
capacity, 
in acre- 
feet 



Place of water use 



l Vista-Cedar Springs Aqueduct Route 

Lail Lake Reservoir Sec. 13, T8N, R18W 

Vista Forebay Sec. 26. T31S. R24E. 

MDB&M 

ie Afterbay-.-. Sec. 3, T8N, R17W 

32, T3N, R4W 



ir Springs Forebay 

rnando- Ventura Aqueduct 

re Gulch Af terbay 

aic Creek Reservoir 



Canyon Power Development 

rowhead Springs Afterbay 



C 10-San Gabriel Aqueduct ("transmission 



San Diego Aqueduct 

Canyon Reservoir 

rged Lower Otay Reservoir. 



I Diego High-Line Aqueduct 

in Felipe Reservoir 

■nta Ysabel Reservoir 



Sec. 25, T2N, R20W 

Sec. 11, TIN. R4W 



Sec. 18. T10S, R2W 
Sec. 18, T18S, R1E 



Sec. 22. T12S, R5E 
Sec. 19. T12S. R3E 



3,095 

3.252 



2,500 
1,377 



42.000 
14,200 



9.400 

motion 



Upper Santa Clara Valley- 
Los Angeles County 
Ventura County 



Los Angeles ( 'ounty 



San Diego County 
San Diego County 



in Diego Countj 



Salton Sea area 
San Diego County 



S bols of Type of Dam 
-EarthfiU 

p — Concrete gravity 



Symbols of Purpose 

OP — Regulation for use of off-peak power 
P — Power generation 

S — Reregulation of waters to local demand schedule 



206 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



This aqueduct would convey about 825,000 acre-feet 
per season, of which 368,000 acre-feet would be de- 
livered to the South Coastal Area and 457,000 acre- 
feet would be conveyed to the Colorado Desert Area. 



SUMMARY OF CAPITAL COSTS, SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA 
DIVISION, CALIFORNIA AQUEDUCT SYSTEM 



Item 


Capital cost* 


Buena Vista-Cedar Springs Aqueduct 














31,560,000 














593,820,000 




































San Fernando-Ventura Aqueduct 
































Devil Canyon Power Development 


















$144,981,000 


Chino-San Gabriel Aqueduct 


Second San Diego Aqueduct 




















Barona Aqueduct 
















San Diego High-Line Aqueduct (Feather River Project) 










7,230,000 


Whitewater Aqueduct 


















elipe Aqueduct 


21,800,000 




970,000 




























$2,933,390,000 





\i 105G price levels. 



Deliveries to high lands in the upper Santa Ana am 
San Jacinto Valleys, to the San Gorgonio Pass are; 
and desert lands to the east, and to high lands it 
Riverside and San Diego Counties, would be mad 
directly from the aqueduct. Near Lake Henshaw. 
diversion by tunnel on a continuous flow basis woiriV 
be made to the Borrego Valley area. About 85,00* 
acre-feet of water per season would also be provider 
from the San Diego High-Line Aqueduct to Baron 
Reservoir by the Barona High-Line Interconnectioi 
for use on lower-lying lands. 

The general features and capital costs of the Cal: 
fornia Aqueduct System in the Southern Californi 
Division are presented in Tables 27 and 28. The locpi 
tion of these facilities are delineated on Sheets 16, llj 
20, 21, 22, 24, 25, and 26 of Plate 5. 

UTILIZATION OF GROUND WATER 
STORAGE 

Inherent in the concept of development, and vitall 
necessary to the successful implementation and ope 
ation of The California Water Plan, is the availr 
bility of adequate facilities for storage, regulation 
and transportation of the developed water supplie 
Transportation facilities would consist of the man 
local and transbasin conduits, and the Californ 
Aqueduct System. Because of the many possible alte 
native means of accomplishing the transfer of wa 
from areas of surplus to areas of deficiency, both 
a local and on a state-wide scale, the problem 
water transportation, from an engineering point 
view, is not likely to present insurmountable di 
culties in the implementation of The California W 
ter Plan. 

There are, on the other hand, no alternative mea) 
of developing the physical storage space required 
provide the necessary control and regulation of tl 
large volumes of water over long climatic cyjg 
Early in the studies concerning The California Wat 
Plan it became apparent that such control and 
lation cannot be accomplished by surface stora 
alone, within foreseen economic limits. It was thei 
fore necessary to examine in detail the feasibility 
utilizing the natural storage capacity available 
underground basins in order to supplement 
available surface storage. Based on such examin; 
there is every indication that storage capacity, 
quate by a relatively safe margin, exists in C 
nia's major underground basins to enable 
necessary regulation, and that such regulati 
physically possible under conservative assump' 

Under The California Water Plan, sufficient 
voir storage capacity would be necessary in n 
of water surplus to so regulate water supplies tl 
they may be exported at a nearly uniform rate, tl 
reducing the sizes of transport conduits. Similar 






THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



20'i 



i addition to further conservation of local water re- 

►urces, reservoir storage space would be necessary in 
[le areas of water deficiency to provide reregulation 
IE imported water, since such a rate of water delivery 

pes not correspond to the demand rates. Adequate 

irface reservoir storage capacity was found to be 
IJrailable in the North Coastal Area to accomplish the 
Inquired regulation. However, in the Sacramento and 
Ian Joaquin-Tulare Lake Basins and in the Lahontan, 
tjolorado Desert, and South Coastal Areas, the large 
Iblumes of required storage could not be provided 

itirely in surface reservoirs. 
H In the case of the Sacramento River, San Joaquin 

iver. and Tulare Lake Basins, studies of the rela- 

on which would exist between historical inflow and 
iltimated ultimate water requirements indicate that 

maximum of approximately 53,000,000 acre-feet of 
relic storage capacity would be required to regulate 

le water supply so that water demands could be 
Ret as they occur, without shortages. It is further 
jdieated that foothill storage reservoirs could be eco- 
Dmically constructed in the basins to an aggregate 

gulatory capacity of about 22,000,000 acre-feet, 
^nsequently, the additional 31,000,000 acre-feet of 
►■quired storage space necessarily would be provided 
[rough utilization of ground water basins. Estimates 
I the storage capacity existing in the alluvium of 
le Central Valley, made by the United States Geo- 
Igical Survey and the Department of Water Re- 
lurces. indicate that some 133,000,000 acre-feet of 
loss storage capacity is available within 200 feet of 
|e land surface. Taking into consideration areas of 
lestionable water quality and areas where rates of 
[charge and extraction might present problems, it 
1 indicated that the usable storage capacity might 
nount to about 98,000,000 acre-feet. 

se of Ground Wafer Storage 

I For the most part, the total storage capacity which 
9 available in the alluvial valley fills is the sum of 
le volumes of the innumerable small pore spaces, 
I voids, that exist around the particles comprising 
le alluvial fill. Not all of this volume, however, is 
lable ; in clays and fine silts, the interparticle spaces 
^e too minute to permit sufficient rates of water 

pvement. Moreover, not all of the water stored in 

e interstices of the alluvium will drain out as the 
hter table drops. Primarily, the larger pore spaces 
Bund in sand and gravel strata and deposits pro- 

'le the usable underground storage space. Even in 
larger interstices, the movement of ground 

iter is so slow that rates of placing surface water 

t| storage, flow within the ground water basin itself. 

*d rates of extracting water from storage by means 

wells are prime problems in the utilization of the 

:orapre capacity of a ground water basin. 

In addition to the physical problems, economic and 

iter quality criteria must be considered fully in 



estimating usable ground water storage capacity and 
in selecting water supply sources. For each water 
use and for each source of supply there is an eco- 
nomic limit to the price which could be paid for the 
supply. Thus, there is a limiting depth from which 
ground water could be obtained economically. This 
economic depth, of course, varies with the use of the 
water. Profitable agricultural endeavors in certain 
areas of the State are now obtaining water from 
depths in excess of 600 feet. However, under The 
California Water Plan pumping depths of such mag- 
nitude are not envisaged. 

If parts of the alluvium contain water of unsuable 
quality, or if soluble minerals exist within the sub- 
surface basin which would degrade water placed in 
storage, these volumes of the alluvium cannot be con- 
sidered as usable for water storage. In time, such zones 
or areas might be flushed of their degradants and 
become usable. However, since sufficient information 
is not now available concerning these processes, such 
areas are presently classed as unusable. In those areas 
where the upper fresh ground waters are underlain 
by connate saline water or where the possibility of 
sea-water intrusion exists, the draft on the usable 
ground water must be controlled, as to both rate and 
total annual amount, to the extent necessary to main- 
tain the quality of those waters at acceptable levels. 
Operators of a ground water basin must exercise con- 
stant care to assure that usable storage space is not 
rendered unusable by an accumulation of damaging 
concentrations of undesirable minerals. This can be 
accomplished by controlling the quality of water 
placed in storage; by adjusting the relative use of 
surface and ground water throughout the basin ; by 
controlling the rate, amount, and areal pattern of 
extractions; and by providing requisite drainage or 
outflow from the basin to maintain salt balance. The 
California Water Plan envisions the maintenance of 
the utility of ground water basins in perpetuity. 

Surface reservoirs and subsurface basins are simi- 
lar in that they each have replenishment and discharge 
characteristics. Surface reservoirs will store water 
as fast as the inlet channels permit, and may be de- 
signed to discharge at any rate. In the case of ground 
water basins, however, the recharge or replenishment 
capacities are not so completely subject to artificial 
control. At the same time, they constitute primary 
factors in determining the utility of the basin. Under 
natural conditions water enters the ground by infil- 
tration from direct precipitation and by percolation 
from streams and ponds. Under artificial development, 
additional important means of recharge, namely, canal 
seepage, deep percolation of unconsumed applied irri- 
gation water, return flow from cesspools and the like, 
become effective, as well as does artificial recharge by 
spreading and other means. In addition, an area lying 
at higher elevations that receives an abundance of 
surface water may serve as a source of replenishment 



208 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



to a lower-lying area by providing subsurface flow to 
the lower area. 

The significance of the problem of ground water 
recharge rates is apparent when a comparison is made 
between the short duration and large volume of flood 
flows, or even the usual peaks of seasonal runoff, and 
the low rates at which stream percolation occurs. Fur- 
thermore, this problem is exaggerated where surface 
reservoirs capture all but the larger flows, thus re- 
ducing the ground water recharge period to a rela- 
tively few days of peak discharge. In addition, there 
are many instances where the natural recharge oppor- 
tunity is so limited that additional capacity must be 
developed artificially. Artificial recharge may take 
the form of stream channel modification to increase 
the wetted stream bed area ; construction of spread- 
ing ponds or ditches, recharge wells, and shafts; and 
operation of the irrigation canal system during the 
nonirrigation season to effect recharge during the pe- 
riod when canals and ditches normally would not be 
full. Such operation would provide additional oppor- 
tunity for seepage from the surface distribution 
system. 

Artificial recharge operations should be so located 
with respect to the geologic structure of the ground 
water basin as to achieve the most efficient utilization 
of the storage capacity and of the transmissibility 
of the aquifers. In selecting a location, consideration 
must likewise be given to the surface soil texture and 
subsurface structure in order to obtain the best per- 
colation rates. Artificial recharge works may involve 
considerable areas of land, with consequent cost and 
possible interference with other potential land uses. 
There are other problems involved which necessitate 
careful consideration, including : construction and 
maintenance of diversion works from streams ; control 
of silting ; maintenance of percolation rates ; and pre- 
vention of nuisance and protection of the public 
health through adequate mosquito control and other 
measures. 

Storage of water underground through artificial 
recharge has been widely practiced in California since 
1895. Much information and data are available both 
from actual operating experience and from controlled 
research, but further study and evaluation are needed. 
It is emphasized that thorough knowledge of the 
physical characteristics and geologic structure of a 
ground water basin is a prerequisite to successful 
artificial recharging operations therein. 

Deep percolation of unconsumed applied irrigation 
water is an important means of ground water re- 
charge. Drainage problems frequently develop in 
areas receiving abundant supplies of surface water, 
and the possibility that such problems may arise must 
be considered in planning the utilization of ground 
water luisins. Such problems, however, can be pre- 
vented by controlled pumping of water from the 
ground water basin so as to maintain a lowered water 



table. The water thus pumped could be discharged 
from the area as drainage water, or could be utilized 
to irrigate adjacent or overlying lands, thus reducing, 
the amount of the required surface supply. For ex- 
ample, if only the water requirement necessary to 
satisfy consumptive uses were imported to an area,, 
and surface and ground water service areas were, 
properly balanced, the amount of water entering 
ground water storage would be equal to the amount, 
leaving ground water storage and water levels would 
not fluctuate appreciably from season to season, 
thereby preventing serious drainage problems. How- 
ever, with such constant recharge and constant dis- 
charge, no cyclic regulation would be provided, and' 
the underground basin would be ineffective in pro-, 
viding beneficial regulation of water supplies over 1 
long-time climatic cycles. Problems of salt accumula-j 
tion in the ground water would undoubtedly arise.ij 

On the other hand, if the entire service area were^ 
supplied with surface water to the maximum extent', 
possible during wet periods and the ground water! 
drawn upon to a much greater degree during dry' 
periods, the ground water basin operated in conjunct 
tion with surface reservoirs could serve to regulate 1 
the available water supply over long-time climatic' 
cycles. 

Under the concept of planned utilization, the 1 
ground water in storage would be deliberately drawn' 
down for beneficial use either on overlying lands or 
by export during dr,y periods, thus creating greater' 
storage space to be refilled with excess runoff during 
ensuing wet periods under a carefully planned and' 
managed program. The operation of available surface' 
and ground water storage reservoirs would be so co-'. 
ordinated as to achieve the maximum feasible degree 
of conservation. This method of operation has been' 
used in the studies for the Central Valley which 
described subsequently. 

In some regions, such as the South Coastal Area, 
where the runoff is extremely erratic both in season 
and from year to year, with dry periods of several 
years' duration, and where surface storage is verj 
limited, the ground water basins must be relied upor 
for long-time cyclic storage. Under such circum 
stances, surface reservoirs are often used primarilj 
to regulate the runoff to the extent necessary to enabk 
the storage of the water underground through arti 
ficial recharge operations. It is anticipated that this ' 
practice will become increasingly prevalent in th<; 
more arid portions of the State in order to obtaii 
the maximum practicable conservation of local watei 
resources. 

Under conditions of full development and plannec 
utilization of ground water resources, the rate, th' ; 
amount, and the areal pattern of extractions must b< 
carefully planned and controlled if most efficient W' 
is to be made of a basin. These withdrawal factor i 
must be properly related to: the geologic structure: 



::: 






THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



'209 



ilh areally and vertically, of the basin; the areas 

■ greatest potential usable storage capacity; the 
■rces and areas of recharge; the transmissibility 
tl permeability of the aquifers; the areas of water 
i| ; the possibility of water-logging in the lower por- 
fiis of the basin ; and the necessity of controlling 
Hsurface outflow and effluent seepage from the 
■in. Here again it is obvious that full knowledge 
• the characteristics of the ground water basin is 
lirerequisite. 

ftertain legal and financial problems involved in 
tl planned utilization of ground water basins are 
■cussed in Chapter V. 

Cnjunctive Operation in the Central Valley 
■the coordinated operation of surface reservoirs 
Kh underground storage basins in the manner de- 
Bbed, to produce the desired yield at minimum cost, 
is erincd "conjunctive operation." Several trial op- 
tttion studies were made for assumed conditions of 
■mate development in the Central Valley. In these 
•dies, the costs of operation with various combina- 
1s of surface reservoir release schedules and sur- 
4e water transport capacities were compared with 

■ costs of required ground water pumping, in order 
Bfletermine the most economical, or optimum, hal- 
ve between the two. The method of operation thus 
Iketed, and described in part herein, is presented 
m as the only method which would serve the pur- 
He, but rather to illustrate in a general manner that 

■ required conservation results could be attained. 
■The conjunctive operation of the entire Central 
■ley would not involve completely untried and un- 
■ved principles, but, before being put into prac- 
m, would require much additional study and in- 
wigation. particularly as to geologic conditions and 
momics. The only new aspects would be the valley- 
l|e application of the operation and, to a certain 
■pnt. the flexibility in serving irrigated areas from 
Hi surface and ground water sources. However, in 
■j operation herein described, provision was made 
m service to portions of the valley entirely from 
Ser surface sources or from ground water, where 
nographie, geologic, and ground water quality con- 
jurations dictate. Recharge to the ground water 
fcns would occur mainly from deep percolation of 
4 unconsumed surface application of water for ir- 
mtion and from seepage from unlined canals and 
Sribution systems. In localized areas where normal 
■und water recharge is limited, artificial methods 
wild be employed. 

|'or studies of conjunctive operation, the Central 
Fley was separated into four parts : the Sacramento 
Jley, the Delta-Mendota Area, the San Joaquin 
V ley-West Side Area, and the San Joaquin Valley - 
Est Side Area. The location of the four areas, and 
tl major foothill storage reservoirs that were utilized 



in the studies, are depicted schematically on Plate 7, 
entitled "Conjunctively Operated Storage in the 
Central Valley." 

The period chosen for detailed study of conjunctive 
operation of foothill and ground water reservoirs in 
the Central Valley was the 10-year period 1926-27 
through 1935-36. This period includes the 6-year 
critical drought period, 1928-29 through 1933-34. In 
addition, water supply conditions prior to the 10- 
year period were such that the ground water reservoir 
could be considered to be full at the beginning of the 
period if conjunctive operation had been practiced on 
a long-term basis. Assuming an available water supply 
equivalent to the 10-year operation period, and as- 
suming conditions of ultimate water demand, the 
operation study demonstrated that it would be pos- 
sible to provide not only the ultimate water require- 
ments for the entire Central Valley but also to provide 
a seasonal export to other areas of the State in excess 
of 1,700,000 acre-feet of water from the Sacramento 
Valley. Moreover, studies indicated that the ground 
water basins would again fill to the levels existing at 
the beginning of the 10-year period. A summary of 
results of the operation study is given in Table 29. 

Several of the values given in Table 29 merit com- 
ment. For instance, the studies indicate that under 
the method of operation discussed herein, only 32 
per cent of the usable ground water storage capacity 
within 200 feet of the ground surface would be re- 
quired to accomplish the necessary cyclic regulation. 
Furthermore, since the selected 10-year period in- 
cludes the most critical years during the 50-year mean 
period 1897-98 through 1946-47, from a water supply 
standpoint, it follows that the indicated maximum 
depths to ground water may occur about once in 50 
years. 

Under conjunctive operation, ground water pump- 
ing units would be distributed more uniformly over 
the underground basins, in comparison to the present 
over-concentration of wells in regions that derive 
their entire supply from underground sources. Fur- 
thermore, through use of an integrated surface dis- 
tribution system, wells could be operated on a more 
continuous basis, thus reducing the number of instal- 
lations required, and also reducing the unit costs of 
pumping by savings in stand-by charges. 

In summary, utilization of the ground water stor- 
age capacity of the Central Valley is essential to the 
full ultimate development of the water resources of 
the State. There is economically available about 98,- 
000,000 acre-feet of usable ground water storage 
capacitjr in the Central Valley, of -which only 31,000,- 
000 acre-feet would be required in the operation of 
The California Water Plan. In order to utilize effec- 
tively this subsurface reservoir, its conjunctive opera- 
tion with the foothill surface reservoirs of the Central 
Valley would be required. A possible means of ob- 



3*g«^ 




'Storage of water underground through artificial recharge has been widely practiced in California since 
1895." 

Hansen Spreading Grounds Near Burbank 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 

TABLE 29 



211 



I'AMARY OF RESULTS OF CONJUNCTIVE OPERATION OF SURFACE RESERVOIRS AND GROUND WATER BASIN OF 
THE CENTRAL VALLEY UNDER CONDITIONS OF ULTIMATE WATER REQUIREMENTS DURING THE 
CRITICAL OPERATION PERIOD 1926-27 THROUGH 1935-36 



Main subdivisions 



Sacramento 
Valley 



Delta- 

Mendota 

Area 



West Side East Side 
Area Area 



Total 
Central 

Valley 



liable foothill reservoir storage capacity , in millions of acre-feet 

Wired ground water storage capacity, in millions of acre-feet 

mted usable ground water storage capacity within 200 feet of land surface, in n 

,cre-feet 

on of usable ground water storage required, in per cent 

of gross local water demand satified by ground water, in per cent, in: 

)ry -cason 

Tet season 

verage season 

mum gross seasonal recharge of ground water basin, in millions of acre-feet 

seasonal depletion of ground water in storage, in millions of acre-feet 

installed ground water pumping capacity, in millions of gallons per minute 

ximate number of pumping plants required 

depth to ground water, in feet from ground surface 

mum mean depth to ground water, in feet 



27.7 
14 



7.2 
3.1 
6.2 

1.000 

25 



15.3 

42 



38 
2.8 
1.1 
2.5 
2,500 

40 



43.8 
31 



7.5 

7,500 

30 



16.3 

8.6 

18.5 

19.250 



ing much of the recharge capacity necessary to 
ate the ground water basins of the Central Val- 
would be to have sufficient distribution capacity 
nable. on occasion, the service of about 75 per 
of the area from surface supplies. Thus, the 
age from canals and deep percolation of uncon- 
ed applied irrigation water, plus certain artificial 
arge works, would recharge the underground 
ns so that they would be filled and be available 
heavy draft during drought periods, 
tudies of conjunctive operation indicate that in 
t areas where considerable present development 
ts, the average depth to ground water would be 
than at present and, in areas where little ground 
r development has occurred, the depths to ground 
r wotdd be reasonable. 

s pointed out. there are actually no new principles 
lved in the operations just described. Further- 
;, there is every indication that the required 
md water storage capacity is available and that 
required recharge rates could be obtained. A 
ewhat similar method of operation is being prac- 
l at the present time in parts of the Tulare Lake 
n, notably in the service areas of the Kaweah, 
■, and Kern Rivers. The Raymond Basin area in 
hern California has been operated since 1945 on 

a planned basis, 
ased upon present knowledge and the assumptions 
; have been made regarding available water sup- 
and ultimate water requirements, it is indicated 
it will be necessary to operate the underground 
ns in coordination with foothill reservoirs in 
ewhat the manner which has been described, 
thermore, there is every reason to believe that 



such operation could develop by local initiative and 
under local control to a considerable degree, although 
region-wide guidance in planning and control in 
operation would be necessary for most effective 
results. The legal problems involved in conjunctive op- 
eration are discussed in Chapter V. 

SUMMARY OF THE CALIFORNIA 
WATER PLAN 

There has been described in this chapter a vast 
system of integrated works, both local and inter- 
basin, which serves to demonstrate that the objectives 
of The California Water Plan are physically possible 
of accomplishment within the limits of available wa- 
ter resources. While it is acknowledged that ultimate 
development of the land and other resources of the 
Slate may be achieved by works differing in many 
respects from those described herein, certain basic 
factors will remain essentially the same, regardless 
of the actual works ultimately selected for construc- 
tion. Among these factors are : the probable ultimate 
water deficiency in the central and southern parts of 
the State; the ultimate surplus in the North Coastal 
Area and the Sacramento River Basin ; the total 
storage requirement for the necessary regulation and 
control of water; and the approximate lengths and 
sizes of major aqueducts required to equalize geo- 
graphically the water resources and the ultimate 
water requirements in California. In view of these 
factors, and of the inherent limitations of any plan 
for the indefinite future, it is considered that the 
works summarized in this section are as realistic as 
can now be foreseen. 



212 



TUP: CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



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THE CALIFORNIA WATEE PLAN 



213 



The general features of the local development 
iorks and facilities of the California Aqueduct Sys- 
|m, their requirements for pumping and accomplish- 
lents in terms of power generation, and their capital 
ists are presented in Table 30. Of a total of 376 
Iservoirs shown in Table 30, 282 would be con- 

rvation reservoirs. 30 would be operated primarily 
Jr power generation, 60 would serve as regulatory or 
Iversion reservoirs, and 4 would be operated solely 
\r flood control. 

IWater transferred through conduits of the Califor- 
la Aqueduct System would be captured, controlled, 
id regulated by 26 major reservoirs, of which 15 
ipuld be in the North Coastal Area and 11 in the 
Icramento River Basin. The reservoirs in the Sac- 
^mento River Basin would be operated in conjunc- 
ln with ground water storage capacity in the Cen- 
tal Valley for the regulation of additional variable 
lisonal surplus flows. Of the remaining reservoirs 
i the California Aqueduct System, 11 would be op- 
iated primarily for generation of power, 4 would 
rve as diversion reservoirs, and 29 would be op- 
luated for regulation of imported water to the de- 
nnd schedule prevailing in the particular area 
Ived. 

■Of the total of 49 billion kilowatt-hours of energy 
§r season required to deliver water to all potential 
rviee areas in the State, about 30 billion kilowatt- 
Burs would be required to serve the high desert areas 
ii southern California. However, the total seasonal 
Bergy production of about 34 billion kilowatt-hours, 
■tuning all facilities of The California Water Plan 
Hbe in operation, would be reduced by nearly 11 
■lion kilowatt-hours, should the facilities which 
puld develop and distribute waters to the high desert 



areas not be constructed. Thus, the ne1 seasonal 
energy requirement associated with the service of the 
high desert areas would be 19 billion kilowatt-hours. 

Based on present price levels, the total cost of all 
the features of The California Water Plan would be 
about $11,900,000,000, of which the facilities of the 
California Aqueduct System would cost an estimated 
$9,000,000,000. The cost of the Plan, as its component 
features become successively implemented over an in- 
definite number of years, would be borne by the Fed- 
eral Government, the State Government, and local 
agencies, in a coordinated and cooperative common 
effort to solve California's water problems. 

Data on the accomplishments of The California 
Water Plan in terms of development and transfer of 
water are presented in Table 31. As shown in that 
table, about 7,000,000 acre-feet of new yield would be 
developed by local works, and nearly 22,000,000 acre- 
feet per season would be developed and transferred 
from areas of surplus to areas of deficiency by facili- 
ties of the California Aqueduct System, for a total of 
some 29,000,000 acre-feet per season of water, which 
would be made available by The California Water 
Plan. The development of this quantity of water 
cannot be accomplished by surface storage alone. It is 
estimated that some 31,000,000 acre-feet of ground 
water storage capacity would ultimately be utilized 
in the Central Valley to achieve the required degree 
of control and regulation of the water resources of 
the Sacramento River and San Joaquin-Tulare Lake 
Basins. Furthermore, operation of substantial ground 
water storage capacity in other parts of the State 
would be required in conjunction with the delivery 
of imported water supplies. 



214 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



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CHAPTER V 

IMPLEMENTATION OF THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



iere have been discussed and described so far in 
bulletin the water problems of California and a 
system of physical works which could accomplish 
bjeetives of The California Water Plan. Briefly. 
'Ian has as its objectives the full satisfaction of 
tnt and future water requirements for all bene- 
purposes and uses in all parts of the State to 
aaximum practicable extent, It has been pointed 
that development and operation of facilities 
complish these objectives would bring about ad- 
nal engineering problems which must be con- 
■ed and reconciled. 

lis chapter discusses certain considerations which 
asic to implementation of The California Water 
, and without which the Plan could never be 
tuated. These considerations, which are essentially 
jnonengineering nature but which govern all engi- 
ing considerations, are described under the gen- 
heading "Prerequisites to Implementation of 
California Water Plan. ' ' In addition, this chap- 
discusses various other considerations which, 
ugh not essential to the implementation of the 
, could exert a considerable effect on its scope 
accomplishments. These are discussed herein 
r the heading "Other Considerations Affecting 
California Water Plan." 

REQUISITES TO IMPLEMENTATION OF THE 
CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 

ansformation of a system of physical works, such 
lose described in Chapter IV, from a plan to a 
ty. will require careful study and evaluation of 
and economic problems. Legal problems which 
be reconciled involve the inadequacy of present 
for accomplishment of comprehensive coor- 
ted water resource development, and the require- 
s for amendment thereof or addition thereto. Eco- 
c problems involve determinations of the need 
specific water development projects, benefits as 
)ared to costs, and appropriate means of financ- 
Finally, and this cannot be emphasized top 
lgly. the solution of engineering, legal, and eco- 
ic problems would be of little avail toward actual 
ementation of The California Water Plan with- 
a high degree of cooperation and close coordina- 
of efforts of all agencies and individuals at the 
, state, and federal levels. 



Legal Considerations 

State-wide coordinated development of California's 
water resources, as contemplated under The Califor- 
nia Water Plan, will necessarily pose many legal 
problems. Such problems relate to inadequacies and 
uncertainties of present statutes; the required proce- 
dure for acquisition of water rights in furtherance 
of the coordinated plan; the nature and extent of 
vested rights to use of surface and ground water ; 
the extent of unavoidable interference with any such 
rights and the methods by which such rights may be 
compensated or otherwise adjusted in order to permit 
full operation of the Plan ; preferential rights of areas 
in which water originates ; effectiveness of contract 
rights in assuring areas of deficiency of a dependable 
water supply; and relations between the State and 
other agencies. 

No attempt is made in this discussion to consider 
all legal problems that might arise. As might be ex- 
pected, many of the legal questions connected with 
such a vast undertaking have not been resolved by the 
courts and the Legislature, and many of the questions 
which may arise cannot now even be anticipated. It 
has been necessary, therefore, in many cases merely 
to identify the problem and to limit the discussion to 
problems having the most general application and 
interest. 

As previously stated, The California Water Plan 
is designed to include and supplement, rather than 
to supersede, existing water resource developments, 
and incorporates certain of the planned works now 
proposed or authorized for construction by public 
and private agencies and individuals. Agencies of 
the State and Federal Governments and water users' 
organizations may all construct and operate features 
of the Plan. The legal considerations vary consider- 
ably with the agency involved, but generally they fall 
within the same framework of law. 

Water Rights. Any agency constructing or oper- 
ating a unit of The California Water Plan would have 
to acquire or adjust water rights. If the operating 
agency were not the user, it would acquire and hold 
water rights for the benefit of the actual users. To the 
extent that unused water not now subject to vested 
rights would be made available by construction of 
storage and diversion facilities, the law pertaining to 
acquisition of rights to the use of unappropriated 
water would be applicable. Where necessary, vested 



(215) 



216 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



rights might be acquired either by agreement or con- 
demnation. 

1. Appropriative Bights. The Legislature has es- 
tablished procedures for the appropriation of surplus 
water. Water flowing in a natural channel not already 
subject to appropriative or riparian rights is public 
water of the State and subject to appropriation in ac- 
cordance with the provisions of the Water Code 
(Water Code § 1201). However, the statutory provi- 
sions relate only to surface water in a stream, lake, or 
other body of water, and to subterranean streams 
flowing through known and definite channels (Water 
Code § 1200). 

The foregoing requirements are applicable to state 
agencies, as well as to private corporations, organiza- 
tions, and individuals, and to the United States. There 
is no provision for withdrawing water from appropri- 
ation ; a priority may be preserved, however, by filing 
an application to appropriate unappropriated water 
and following the procedures prescribed by law. 

The Department of AVater Resources is authorized 
by the provisions of Part 2, Division 6 of the Water 
Code, to file applications to appropriate water which 
"in its judgment is or may be required in the develop- 
ment and completion of the whole or any part of a 
general or coordinated plan looking toward the de- 
velopment, utilization or conservation of the water 
resources of the State ..." (Water Code § 10500). 
Such applications are, in general, subject to the re- 
quirements and rules which govern applications by 
others, except that the Legislature has provided from 
time to time that they are not subject to the statutory 
requirements relating to diligence. 

A number of applications have been filed since 1927 
pursuant to the foregoing authorization. Provision 
has been made by the Legislature for assignment of 
or release from priority under any such applications 
when the release or assignment is for a ' ' development 
not in conflict with such general or coordinated plan ' ' 
(Water Code § 10504). The assignee of any such ap- 
plication is subject to the requirements of diligence 
provided in Part 2 of Division 2 of the Water Code. 
A number of these applications have been assigned, 
including some to the United States as operator of the 
Central Valley Project. 

'I'lic foregoing procedure, whereby the Department 
of Water Resources may file applications to appropri- 
ate unappropriated water for general or coordinated 
plans of development, is the only presently authorized 
method whereby rights to the use of unappropriated 
water may be preserved in furtherance of planning 
by the State. 

The California Water Plan involves utilization of 
much of the remaining surpluses in California 
Streams. As the Plan is carried forward, consideration 
must he given to the filing of additional applications 
to appropriate the water covered by it, or in the alter- 



native, to some other method of insuring orderly d< 
velopment and maximum beneficial use of this ri 
source. 

2. Acquisition of Existing Rights. The California 
Water Plan is designed to minimize interference wit 
vested water rights, but a few instances of conflii 
with senior rights would be inevitable in a plan o, 
such magnitude. Water rights are property within tli 
meaning of the rule that private property may m 
be taken or damaged for public use without paymer 
of just compensation. This means that to the exter, 
vested water rights might be adversely affected b ; 
operation of The California Water Plan, they mus 
be acquired either by agreement, purchase, or coii 
demnation. 

Some theoretical problems arise in connection witj 
the purchase or condemnation of riparian right;; 
but in practice if all the riparian owners adverseii 
affected are compensated or otherwise satisfied, the;] 
is no one to complain. One who acquires an appropr 
ative water right may change the point of diversic! 
and the place and purpose of use to conform with h 
project, provided other lawful users are not injure 
thereby. Permission to make such changes with respe 
to appropriations initiated under provisions of tl 
Water Code must be secured from the State Wat. 
Rights Board in accordance with the provisions ■' 
Sections 1700 through 1705 of the Water Code. 

The power of eminent domain may be exercised 
favor of a public use of water. The State ConstitutkJ 
provides that the use of all water appropriated for sail 
rental, or distribution is a public use and subject <j 
the regulation and control of the State, in the niann, 
prescribed by law (Constitution, Article 14, 
tion 1). 

The power of eminent domain may be cxercis 
the State or Federal Governments directly thr 
their immediate officers or agents, or the power 
be exercised by public agencies, private corporat 
and individuals when delegated by statute. If 
rights are damaged without compensation ha 
been made, the owner may file an action in hrv 
condemnation to recover compensation. 

3. Exchange of Water. It is probable that 
operation of The California Water Plan would re 
exchanges of water between watersheds in 
instances in order to achieve the most effecti™ 
economical distribution to areas of need. An excl 
of existing supplies for water imported from anc 
source has previously been effected by agrej 
between the United States, as operator of the Ce 
Valley Project, and certain water users in tin 
Joaquin Valley. Of course, there is no legal ot 
to such agreements, and it is contemplated that 
exchange necessary would be effected under 
tiated agreements. Whether an exchange could 
imposed in the absence of agreement and. if so, 



IMPLEMENTATION OP THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



217 



■hat conditions and under what circumstances under 
■jesent law, is open to question. Although it is 
fiited in negative terms, the Department of Water 
itsources may be authorized to effect exchanges of 
Ikter in the Central Valley Project by Section 11463 

r the Water Code. This section provides that in the 

(Instruction and operation of the project no exchange 

i the water of any watershed or areas for the water 
■ any other watershed or area may be made unless 
■e water requirements of the watershed or area in 
Ipich the exchange is made are at all times met and 
■tisfied to the same extent as though the exchange 

]td not been made, and no right to the use of water 

jail be gained or lost by reason of any such exchange. 
fib comparable provision in present law would govern 
tfiits of The California Water Plan not included in 
lie Central Valley Project. Further consideration 
lust be given to the problem as water development 
K California proceeds. 

Ik. Rights of Areas of Origin and Areas of Defi- 
Mncy. For purposes of analysis, the so-called 
Hounty of origin" problem may be divided into two 
Irts : first, the problems with respect to the areas of 
mgin ; and, second, those with respect to the areas 
I deficiency. As these terms are generally used, the 
||incipal areas of origin occur in the northern portion 
B the State above the latitude of Sacramento. In 

tese northern California areas water occurs in excess 
<q the ultimate requirements of the areas, and the 
Irplus could be exported and used in other portions 

('the State without detriment to the areas of surplus. 
■ere are, however, localized areas within the areas of 
■gin which may be correctly termed areas of defi- 
|4ncy, clue to either their geographic location or the 
the of the occurrence of water. 

IfThe areas of deficiency include, generally speaking, 
4? areas south of the latitude of Sacramento includ- 
m the San Joaquin Valley, the San Francisco Bay 
■ea, the Central Coastal Area, the desert areas, and 
eithern California. 

The county of origin problem had its beginning 
60ut 30 years ago when plans for the Central Valley 
Joject were being developed. Insofar as the areas of 
■gin are concerned, the problem is one of insuring 
U reservation of adequate water for their future de- 
Mopment. It is generally recognized that efficient 
lalization of the State's water resources requires 
wervations now for the future needs of mountain 
Bd foothill areas. Unless this is done, difficult ex- 
iknge of water or expensive pumping installations 
light become necessary when these needs develop, 
flith respect to the areas of deficiency, the problem 
5|one of having reasonable assurance of a dependable 
ter supply. The problem is basically physical in 
aiture. having been created by unequal distribution of 
«p State 's water supplies, both as to time and place of 

1 iurrence. A full solution will require not only 



changes in the existing law, but, more importantly, 
the construction of physical works to meet the water 
needs in all areas of the State as such needs arise. 
With the ever-increasing competition among areas and 
uses for available water resources, a solution must be 
reached now. The solution to the problem must be 
state-wide in scope and must stem from attack of the 
whole problem rather than of the individual problems 
created by any specific project. It must be workable 
and must permit continued development of the State 's 
water resources. 

The only legal protection now afforded the counties 
or areas of origin for water for their future develop- 
ment is contained in Section 10505 and Sections 11460 
through 11463 of the Water Code. As previously 
noted, the Department of Water Resources is au- 
thorized to file applications to appropriate water 
which is necessary for the coordinated development of 
the State's water resources. Applications have been 
filed by the State in furtherance of state plans. Some 
of these state filings have been assigned to the United 
States to be used as a basis for water rights in connec- 
tion with the Central Valley Project, and others have 
been or are in the process of being assigned for various 
other projects. However, under the so-called "county 
of origin" law, the department is expressly prohibited 
from assigning or releasing the priority under any 
such application when, in its judgment, the effect 
would be to deprive the county in which the water 
originates of any such water necessary for its develop- 
ment (Water Code § 10505). Consequently, several 
of the assignments that have been executed contain 
conditions either reserving a specific amount of water 
for future use in the counties of origin, or making a 
reservation in terms of the law. To the extent, there- 
fore, that a unit of The California Water Plan must 
depend upon a State application for necessary water 
rights, under present law, only water in excess of that 
necessary for development of the counties of origin 
would be availabe for use elsewhere. 

The "county of origin" law under Section 10505 
of the Water Code has the following marked limita- 
tions : 

1. Section 10505 is applicable only where State fil- 
ings have been made under Section 10500 of the 
Water Code, and can be effective only where an as- 
signment or release of these filings is made. The 
streams upon which there are no State filings arc not 
included under the so-called "county of origin" law 
as set forth in Section 10505. 

2. The exemption from the ordinary legal require- 
ments of diligence under State applications filed pur- 
suant to Section 10500 of the Water Code is subject 
to renewal periodically by the Legislature. Should the 
Legislature fail to renew this exemption from dili- 
gence, the protection afforded to the counties of origin 
thereunder would probably be lost. The current ex- 






218 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



tension of exemption from diligence expires on Sep- 
tember 30, 1959. 

3. There is the further problem as to how water 
reserved under State filings which have been assigned 
would be made available to users within the county 
of origin. There is some question at the present time 
as to whether any reservations for areas of origin 
would be effective as against anyone other than the 
assignee of State filings. 

Under Water Code Sections 11460 through 11463, 
commonly referred to as the "watershed protection 
law," it is provided that, in the operation of the 
Central Valley Project, water may not be transported 
from a watershed in which it originates to other areas 
if it would deprive that watershed or areas adjacent 
thereto of water necessary for their future develop- 
ment. These sections of the code are limited in their 
applicability to the Central Valley Project, and 
present very serious problems for the operator of that 
project, since it is entirely conceivable under these 
sections that the substantial quantities of water de- 
veloped under the Central Valley Project, and con- 
tracted for by numerous water users' organizations in 
the San Joaquin Valley, could be recalled for use in 
the watersheds of origin or areas immediately ad- 
jacent thereto. With such uncertainties, it is extremely 
difficult for the State or the Federal Government to 
plan intelligently or to operate the facilities of the 
Central Valley Project. 

In addition to the cited problems, the question has 
been raised as to whether the existing county of origin 
and watershed protection statutes are in accordance 
with Article 14, Section 3, of the California Consti- 
tution. 

As indicated by the foregoing discussion, there are 
now no constitutional guarantees for either the areas 
of origin or the areas of deficiency. The present stat- 
utes, insofar as the areas of origin are concerned, in 
some instances afford no protection and in other in- 
stances the protection is uncertain. The uncertainty 
created by the existing law makes any protection 
afforded to the areas of deficiency indefinite to the 
point where it is impossible to determine with cer- 
tainty the quantities of water to be made available 
from certain projects for a specific service area on a 
continuing basis. This uncertainty with respect to the 
operation of any project has been of grave concern 
not only to the State but also to the Federal Govern- 
ment, and to local agencies attempting to construct 
water projects of their own. 

In summary, the present statutes afford only 
limited and decidedly uncertain protection to the 
areas of origin with respect to reservation of adequate 
water for the future development of those areas. 
Water rights adverse to the future needs of the areas 
of origin continue to become vested. These areas now 
have no assurance that they will receive any assist- 
ance in the Euture in the '-oust ruction of needed water 



development projects. They cannot depend upon un- 
regulated stream flow for their future water supplies; 
conservation works must be constructed to regulate 
and conserve the natural stream flow. The present 
statutes create serious problems and uncertainties in 
the planning and operation of projects ; these difficul- 
ties affect not only the State, but also the Federal 
Government and local agencies. 

The areas of deficiency which may obtain water! 
supplies under contract with the State as the operator 
of an export project now have no positive assurance, 
that they will continue to receive a right to a depend- 
able water supply under those contracts. Further- 
more, some concern has been expressed that under the 1 
principles of a recent California court decision [Mallot 
v. Long Beach, 44 Cal. 2d. 199, 282 P. 2d. 481? 
(1955)], the State may, with complete immunity 
abrogate its contracts with its political subdivisions/ 

It has become increasingly clear that the only fma' 
solution lies in the adoption of a proper constitu, 
tional amendment and of implementing legislative en' 
actments. The solution must provide: (1) positive as* 
surance to the areas of origin that adequate water wil 1 
be reserved for their future development, (2) positiv 1 
assurance to the areas of deficiency that when the?: 
contract with the State for water they can depen< 
upon the right to that supply, (3) removal of tfo 
uncertainty inherent in existing statutes, and (4) an 
adequately financed, continuing program of water de 
velopment to meet the needs for water in all areas 
the State, as those needs arise and as projects 
satisfy them are found to be feasible. 

Power of Eminent Domain. The power of emi 
nent domain is necessary in constructing water pre 
jects, not only for the acquisition of water right 
but also for the acquisition of other real property 
The Federal Government and most water users' org 
izations possess this power with few restrictions. Thf 
Department of Water Resources is specifically em 
powered to condemn property in the name of the St;it 
for construction and operation of the Central Valle 
Project, including the Feather River Project. (Wate 
Code § 11575 et seq.) There are certain restrictior 
upon its power to condemn rights to water appropr 
ated to public use prior to January 13, 1934, and 1 
condemn appurtenant works which were dedicated t 
public use prior to July 1, 1933. Also, in the abs 
of agreement, the department may not take or destro 
the line or plant of a common carrier railroad, publi 
utility, or state agency, or the appurtenances thereo 
until new facilities of like character and equal usefu 
ness have been provided. The department also hi 
authority, without these restrictions, to condei 
rights of way for flood control works (Water Code 
8304). It has not been granted authority, however, 
condemn land and water rights for features of Tl 
California Water Plan not included in the Cei4$< 






IMPLEMENTATION OF THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



21!) 



alley Project, nor has it been specifically authorized 
acquire excess lands or lands required for 
iture use. 

Planned Utilization of Ground Water Basins, 
observation of the State's water resources to the 
tent that ultimately may be necessary would require 
njunctive operation of surface and underground 
orage capacity and use of the underground storage 

ptential as terminal storage, as well as full develop- 
ent of local ground water resources, under a care- 
illy planned and managed method of operation. The 
neral manner in which these objectives could be 
fcomplished and some possible methods of operation 
e described in other sections of this report. Planned 
>eration of ground water storage would result in 

llmporary lowering of ground water levels during 

Ify periods, possibly lower than the levels that other- 
ise would have occurred, until replenishment could 

ft effected during later periods of surplus water 
pply. Present statutory law (Water Code § 1242) 
cognizes the storing of water underground as a 
■nefieial use if such water is later applied to a bene- 
»ial purpose. 

Each owner of land which overlies a ground water 
[sin has a right correlative with the similar right 

each other such owner, to the reasonable beneficial 
;e of water upon his land from the common ground 
ater supply. This right is closely analogous to the 
parian right pertaining to surface streams, and is a 
sted property interest which cannot lawfully be 
ken or damaged without observing the requirements 

due process of law. 

Although some cases look in that direction, it is 

<bt definitely settled that a particular entity could 
>tain a right to place water imported from another 
urce into a ground water basin for purposes of 
>rage, and to subsequently withdraw an equivalent 

iiantity of the resultant commingled water, even if 

ere were no material impairment of vested rights 

the use of the natural supply. Legal problems 

jpuld also be encountered if an attempt were made 
create storage space in a ground water basin by 
•liberately lowering the water level, even though 
e withdrawn water were put to beneficial use. Pres- 
it law realistically recognizes that minor inconven- 
nce to existing rights caused by subsequent uses 
ay he unavoidable and is not actionable so long as 

II is not unreasonable. Any substantial diminution of 
e available water supply or unreasonable interfer- 
ice with means of diversion, however, entitles 
vncrs of prior rights to appropriate relief either by 
junction or, where a public use has attached, to 
unpensation. Substantial lowering of ground water 
vels, with consequent material increase in pumping 
Fts, would fall within one or the other of these rules, 
■pending on the degree. 



From the foregoing it is clear that major changes 
in the regimen of ground water basins must be ac- 
companied or preceded by a determination of the 
rights of the water users. Such determination by the 
courts is the only method of control over the opera- 
tion and management of a ground water basin which 
is possible under existing statutes. An efficient method 
of determining rights to the use of ground water 
should be available. 

There are two procedures provided by present stat- 
utes whereby the State Water Rights Board may as- 
sist the courts in the adjudication of water rights. 
Only one of these procedures, notably the ' ' court ref- 
erence" procedure, can be applied to percolating 
ground water. Under the court reference procedure, 
any action for the determination of water rights may 
be referred by the court to the board. Another proce- 
dure, commonly referred to as a "statutory adjudica- 
tion," is restricted to surface bodies of water and to 
subterranean streams flowing through known and defi- 
nite channels. Under this procedure, all claimants to 
water from a stream system can be brought before the 
State Water Rights Board upon petition filed with the 
board and signed by one or more claimants to the 
waters involved ; and upon the filing of the board 's 
findings with the Superior Court, a judgment that is 
conclusive on all parties can be entered. A large num- 
ber of the smaller stream systems, particularly in 
northern California, have been adjudicated under the 
statutory procedure. A number of ground water ad- 
judications have been completed and others are in 
process under the court reference procedure. Conclu- 
sions relative to ground water adjudications which 
appear to be warranted by the considerable experience 
of the State Water Rights Board and the Department 
of Water Resources in this field are : 

(a) The boundaries of ground water basins can 
be determined only after competent and thorough 
geologic and hydrologic investigations. 

(b) The safe yield of a ground water basin is 
not a fixed quantity but varies with (among other 
factors) the state of development in the basin and 
in the watersheds tributary thereto. Accordingly, 
periodic redeterminations must be made of the al- 
lowable extractions of water from the basin if ef- 
fective utilization of the ground water is to be 
achieved. 

(e) It will invariably take a considerable period 
of time and substantial expense to obtain the data 
necessary to determine the safe yield of a ground 
water basin with reasonable accuracy, but without 
these data the basin cannot be operated properly. 

(d) Because of the obscurities inherent in the 
occurrence of ground water and the multiplicity 
and variable nature of the factors affecting the safe 
yield of a ground water basin, measurement and 
collection of the basic data required for adjudica- 



220 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



tion should be initiated long prior to the actual 
adjudication and carried on continuously, so that, 
when the need therefor arises, the information will 
be available for use. 

(e) In many instances it would be difficult to 
establish that excessive extractions of water have 
resulted in irreparable damage to a basin. Some 
basins could be pumped substantially dry without 
irreparable damage resulting to such basins, for 
upon cessation of pumping, the basin would gradu- 
ally refill with water of satisfactory quality by 
natural processes. On the other hand, where com- 
paction and subsidence occurs, or in coastal ground 
water basins where sea-water intrusion occurs due 
to overdraft, or in other special cases, a, finding of 
irreparable damage might be made. 

A program should be adopted for continuing in- 
vestigation of the ground water areas of the State, 
particularly those determined to be required for effec- 
tive operation of The California Water Plan, sup- 
ported by adequate appropriations. By this means, as 
and when it becomes necessary to adjudicate rights 
to the use of these ground water basins, to the extent 
the necessary data are available, the expense and de- 
lay of adjudication thereof would be minimized. 

In 1955, Part 5 was added to Division 2 of the 
Water Code, providing a procedure for filing notices 
with the State Water Rights Board by every person 
who extracts ground water in excess of a certain 
minimum amount in the Counties of Riverside, San 
Bernardino, Los Angeles, Ventura, and Santa Bar- 
bara. Any person may request the board to investi- 
gate and determine the facts stated in a notice. The 
determination of the board is prima facie evidence 
of such facts in any action or proceeding in which 
they are material. By operation of this procedure, 
there will in time be accumulated much relevant in- 
formation concerning rights to the use of ground 
water, which will be available if and when it becomes 
necessary to adjudicate such rights, and which will 
serve to minimize expense and delay in such adjudi- 
cations. 

In proceeding with The California Water Plan, 
consideration should be given to the adequacy of ex- 
isting law and administrative procedures to accom- 
plish its purposes. Over the course of time, it is 
believed that it will become necessary to adjudicate 
the rights to ground water in most of the underground 
basins in the State. Among other things, considera- 
tion should now be given to existing procedures for 
the collection of data concerning ground water, ex- 
isting procedures to determine rights to its use, exist- 
ing procedures for handling overdraft situations, and 
to the adequacy of present law to allow full utiliza- 
tion of ground water basins. The following modifica- 
tions to the court reference and statutory adjudication 
procedures have been proposed in order to simplify, 



improve, and minimize the expense involved, 1 and 
careful consideration should be given to legislation. 
to accomplish them. 

(a) A practical lis pendens procedure should b< 
supplied. This should apply to both the court refer-; 
ence and statutory procedures. 

(b) The trial court should be authorized to refer 
any case involving the determination of water rights 
surface or underground, at any time after filing oi, 
the complaint, to the State Water Rights Board, with 
direction to follow either the statutory adjudicatior 
procedure or the court reference procedure. This 
would supply a most desirable flexibility. 

(c) The trial court should be authorized to impose 
from time to time, trial distribution schedules. Thin 
also should apply to both procedures. 

(d) The State Water Rights Board should be aui 
thorized to investigate and report upon all rights t<> 
the use of water, including ground water rights. Thi:- 
modification is necessary only in the statutory adjudi 1 
cation procedure. 

(e) Provision should be added to the statutory 
adjudication procedure to the effect that initiation 
of a proceeding tolls the statute of limitations, and 
that, on motion of the Water Rights Board, an actioi : 
to adjudicate the rights, in whole or in part, involves 
in any such proceeding, filed during the pendencjj 
thereof, shall be abated. 

(f) The trial court should be authorized to impo 
a physical solution, either as recommended by 
referee or as suggested by the parties, and to ent 
any other order as the interests of justice may rej 
quire. This should apply to both procedures. 

(g) In entering its judgment the trial court shouli' 
retain broad jurisdiction, in accordance with th! 
principles approved by the Supreme Court of Ca 
fornia. This also should apply to both procedures. 

In 1955 the Legislature enacted the Water Efj 
plenishment District Act as Division 18 of the Wate, 
Code. Although various other types of districts arj 
authorized to replenish ground water, water reple 
ishment districts organized under the provisions 
this act would have the advantage of being autli 
ized to levy assessments in proportion to wate; 
pumped from the underground. This is particular!' 
important in making equitable assessments of trios : 
holding appropriative and prescriptive rights to usj 
water on non-overlying land. These water users migh 
not be adequately assessed on an ad valorem ba 

The organization of water replenishment distrie 
is limited to the Counties of Santa Barbara, VentuSr 
Los Angeles, San Diego, Riverside, San Bernardim 
and Orange. As yet, no water replenishment distrie 
has been organized, so it cannot be said definit 



th 
Mi 
, 

Re: 

ate, 
, ar 
pie] 

is o 
thoi 
rate 



Based on statement of Henry Holsinger, then Principal Atto 
ney, Division of Water Resources (now Chairman, Sta'' 
Water Rights Board), before the Joint legislative Inter! 
Committee nn Water Problems, December 14, 1954. 



IMPLEMENTATION OF THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



221 



njether this will be an effective type of organization 
fi utilizing a ground water basin. If it should prove 
Mbe so, consideration should be given to extending 
y coverage of the Water Replenishment District 
it to other areas of the State. 

11 1953. The Orange County Water District Act 
(tats. 1933. Ch. 924) was amended to give the dis- 
ti-t similar assessment powers. The validity of these 
■hers was sustained in Orange County Water Dis- 
ttt v. Farnsivorth, 138 Cal. App. 2d. 518, 292 P. 2d. 
if (1956). 

IVhile it is not an immediate problem, it is evident 
■It effective administration of the development and 
■lization of ground water resources, either by the 
Ate or by local agencies, or by both, will become 
nndatory as the stage of full water development is 
aoroached. When it becomes necessary to operate 
I major ground water basins for import-export pur- 
ines, as envisioned under The California Water Plan, 
m requisite authority to do so must exist. Studies 
fluid be initiated now as to the adequacy of existing 
■lutes to accomplish these ends, so that the necessary 
■endments and additions thereto may be made at 
if appropriate time. The following items are sug- 
gited for consideration in this connection: 

ML A constitutional amendment to authorize and 
Ilccompanying statutes to set up procedures for 
la) the planned utilization of ground water basins 
i|or carry-over storage, and (b) adjustment of con- 
flicts with existing rights either by delivery of 
j Irater or by cash compensation. 

2. The requirement of permits and licenses for 

he appropriation of ground water. 

I 3. Control and supervision of recharge of de- 
•lleted ground water basins. 

tfo protect and maintain the quality of the State's 
f^und water resources, it is believed that minimum 
ifidards of water well construction and adequate 
llcedures for the maintenance and abandonment of 
W)ls should be enforced as necessary throughout the 
■jte. This cannot be done under existing state law; 
Bsideration should be given to the enactment of 
legislation at an early date. 

Relationships With Other Agencies. 1. Integra- 
tit Willi Projects of Other Agencies. Features of 
mi California Water Plan constructed and operated 
■J the Department of Water Resources would of 
Kessity be integrated with features already con- 
victed and to be constructed by other agencies. This 
•particularly important in connection with projects 
•grated by the Federal Government. 

fhe Sacramento River and Delta channels will be 
W as a common water conveyance system by both 
'I Central Valley Project and the Feather River 
*»ject. The San Luis Reservoir would also be uti- 
li!d by both projects under current proposals. It is 



apparent that detailed operational agreements will be 
necessary for the integrated operation of these fea- 
tures, so as to avoid conflict and to obtain the highest 
degree of beneficial use of water in an efficient man- 
ner. Both the Central Valley Project and the Feather 
River Project rely in part on water right applications 
filed by the State on the same day. In general, use of 
natural stream flow by the two projects will be inex- 
tricably interrelated. Both projects require an agree- 
ment or determination as to the water available for 
their use — as between each other, and in relation to 
water users in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Stream 
System holding senior rights. There is no reason to 
believe that all of these problems cannot be solved by 
agreement if all of the parties approach them in good 
faith. 

2. The Federal Power Act. The Federal Power 
Act authorizes the Federal Power Commission to issue 
preliminary permits and licenses for the purpose of 
investigating, constructing, operating, and maintain- 
ing project works "necessary or convenient for the 
development and improvement of navigation and for 
the development, transmission and utilization of 
power" in navigable waters of the United States or 
upon public lands and reservations of the United 
States (except national parks and monuments), or to 
utilize surplus water or water power from any govern- 
ment dam [41 Stat. 1063, 1065 (1920) as amended, 
16 U.S.C. s. 797 (e) (1952 ed.)]. Construction, opera- 
tion, or maintenance of any such project works by any 
person, state, or municipality without first securing a 
license from the Commission is unlawful. The act also 
contains provisions designed to accommodate state 
and federal law. Since the Federal Power Commis- 
sion has authority over the planning and construction 
of certain hydroelectric projects within the states, 
conflicts may occur if the projects licensed by the 
commission differ from those approved by the state 
by the granting of necessary water rights. If conflicts 
should occur between federal power projects and The 
California Water Plan, they would have to be settled 
by the courts or by the Congress. 

Water Development for Fish and Wildlife and for 
Recreational Use. In order to provide sufficient 
flowing water in a stream for fish and wildlife and for 
the enhancement of recreational aspects of a stream, it 
may be necessary to store water in headwater reser- 
voirs to permit planned releases during low-water 
periods. The combined releases and natural flows 
would be planned for a desirable all-year regimen of 
flow in the interests of protection and enhancement 
of fish, wildlife, and recreation. 

In order to accomplish the foregoing objectives, the 
planned stream flows should be protected against ap- 
propriations of water for other purposes. However. 
present law does not provide positive and reliable pro- 
tection for such natural or unregulated flows in a 



222 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



watercourse where such flows are not otherwise taken 
under control. As is elsewhere pointed out, there is 
no method for broadly reserving unappropriated wa- 
ter from appropriation under the general law pertain- 
ing to that subject. Furthermore, continuance of the 
unobstructed natural flow of a stream probably cannot 
be assured by making an appropriation of water for 
that purpose, because an essential element of an ap- 
propriation is generally considered to be the exercise 
of physical control and dominion over an identifiable 
quantity of water by either diverting it from the 
stream channel or by artificial regulation of the flow 
within the channel. 

Section 525 of the Fish and Game Code requires 
the owner of a dam to allow sufficient water to pass 
the dam to keep fish in good condition below the dam. 
Other sections of the code permit the planting of fish 
or construction of a hatchery in lieu of a fishway over 
or around a dam in certain instances. Section 526.5 
of the code prohibits issuance of a permit or license 
to appropriate water in Fish and Game District 4| 
(Inyo and Mono Counties), unless conditioned upon 
full compliance with Section 525. These sections have 
not been construed by California courts, but the At- 
torney General has concluded that Section 525 "is 
not a reservation of water for the preservation of 
fish life but is rather a rule for the operation of 
dams where there will be enough water below the 
dam to support fish life, i.e., it is a standard for the 
release of water in excess of what is needed for do- 
mestic and irrigation purposes so that what is avail- 
able for fish life shall not be wastefully withheld" 
[18 Ops. Cal. Atty. Gen. 31, 37 (1951) ]. 

Statutory Restrictions Upon Projects. 1. Klam- 
ath River. A restriction upon the construction and 
maintenance of dams and other obstructions on the 
Klamath River is contained in an initiative measure 
approved by the electorate on November 4, 1924, 
which provides in part : 

"Section 2. Every person, firm, corporation 
or company who constructs or maintains any 
dam or other artificial obstruction in any of the 
water of said Klamath river fish and game dis- 
trict [The Klamath River below its confluence 
with the Shasta] is guilty of a misdemeanor 
. . . and any artificial obstruction constructed, 
placed or maintained in said district is hereby 
declared to be a public nuisance." [Cal. Stat. 
(1925), p. XCIII, Deering's Gen. Laws, Ann., 
Act 2941.] 

Whether the prohibition of the statute applies to 
I lie Slate or its agencies is an undetermined question. 
It assumes importance since The California Water 
Plan contemplates dams on the Klamath River at 
some future date, as yet undetermined. It is well es- 
tablished that a sovereign is not bound by general 






words limiting the rights and interests of its citizen; 
unless such sovereign is included within the limitation 
expressly or by necessary implication. Assuming tb 
the State and its agencies are bound by the statut. 
its amendment or repeal would be a prerequisite t 
construction of dams within the specified reach of th 
river. Such action would require favorable 
the electorate. On the other hand, assuming th 
statute does not have that effect, legislation might b ( 
enacted authorizing an agency of the State to cor 
struct one or more dams and diversion works at desic; 
nated points on the river, and such constnictio; 
could proceed without further authorization. 

2. American River. By California Statutes ( i 
1955, Chapter 1583, Section 10001.5 was added tj 
the Water Code excluding the Coloma Dam an] 
Reservoir Project from the State Water Plan, 
providing that no permit to appropriate water 
be issued by the State for the purposes of a proje 
which will flood any portion of the Gold Discove 
Site State Park at Coloma "unless such issuance 
specifically authorized by law." Under The Calif orn: 
Water Plan a dam at this site, or a more expensh' 
alternative means of storage by a diversion from tl 
South Fork of the American River to Nashvil 
Reservoir on the Cosumnes River, is considered to \ 
necessary in the future for full conservation of ft, 
waters of the American River. It is believed that th 
situation should be reviewed again by the Legislate 
at the appropriate time when a choice between the 
two alternatives must be made. 



tut 

- 

fie 



Summary. The accomplishment of a plan whic 
would make possible the maximum utilization 4 
California's water resources presents a large mumV 
of legal problems, many of which can, at pre 
only be posed. Those of most immediate interest 
of two types: (1) questions as to the adequacy H 
present law for the accomplishment of integrate; 
water resource development, and (2) situations $ 
which the law has not yet been definitely determine 
by the Legislature or the courts. 

Some of the questions in the first class are as fo 
lows: 

Are administrative procedures for the apprc 
tion of unappropriated water, including the au 
ity of the Department of Water Resources to file 
assign applications, adequate to bring about 
orderly development and maximum beneficial use 
California's water resources? Is present law adequ 
to make possible the highest development of Cal 
nia's recreational resources under The Califd 
Water Plan, and, in particular, is it adequate to alio 
maintenance of stream flow for the purpose of prjj 
serving and enhancing fishing and recreational 
of California streams? 



IMPLEMENTATION OF THE CALIFORNIA AVATER PLAN 



223 



Still more numerous are the important questions as 

which the controlling law has not been clearly 
•mulated. Foremost among these is that pertaining 

rights of counties and areas of water origin. A solu- 
n to this problem which will provide guarantees to 

areas in which water originates that they will have 
ough water for their development, but at the same 

e will allow acquisition of firm contract rights to 
ported water, is for consideration by the Legislature 
d the electorate. Also unresolved is the question as 
whether an owner of water rights could be required 

accept a substitute water supply of comparable 
ality and quantity to that to which his rights attach. 

e California Water Plan has been developed so as 

minimize interference with existing water rights, 
d where these rights are adversely affected, adequate 
justments must be made or the rights must be ac- 
ired either by purchase or condemnation. 
Other unresolved questions concern relationships 
th other agencies. They involve settlements of water 
hts in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Stream System 
i operational agreements with other agencies, in- 
lding the Federal Government. Close coordination 
ist be maintained with the Federal Power Commis- 
n because of its jurisdiction over hydroelectric 
wer developments on many of the State's streams. 

me Economic Considerations 

If the sources of capital funds needed by any entity 
construct features of The California Water Plan 
re unlimited, the attendant problems of imple- 
»ntation would be obviously simplified. However, in 
3 allocation of scarce resources, such as capital and 
ior. among the various projects of the Plan, there 
raid be simultaneous consideration of criteria for 
lority, justification, and scale of projects. While 
isonable theoretical criteria may be used to accom- 
sh orderly development of the State's water 
ources, it must be recognized that political, opera- 
nal. and other considerations may alter the theoret- 
1 optimum. 

Basically, the over-all objective of The California 

iter Plan is to enhance the general welfare of the 

iple of the State ; that is, to satisfy their needs and 

ires. These needs and desires are being continually 

reased by nearly half a million new people each 

Jar. This results, among other things, in the neces- 

y of making available more than 500,000 acre-feet 

new water each and every year if the growth trend 

to continue. Consequently, the work that should be 

dertaken in the field of water resource development 

Rof too large a magnitude to be pre-empted by any 

•tfigle agency, be it local, federal, or state. The efforts 

Hd capabilities of all agencies must supplement 

Jjther than supplant each other. 

Some Considerations in Implementation of The 
Ulifornia Water Plan. Implementation of The 



California Water Plan poses a number of major ques- 
tions, such as: (1) why implement the Plan; (2) who 
should control the Plan and construct its component 
projects; (3) how should need and priority of con- 
struction be determined; and (4) how might projects 
of the Plan be financed. 

1. Why Implement the Plan. Regarding the first 
question, Chapter II and III of this bulletin have 
stressed California's water problems and the result- 
ing need for The California Water Plan. Hence, only 
two further comments are required. First, it is be- 
lieved that coordinated, comprehensive, and progres- 
sive development as envisioned in the Plan would 
greatly increase the efficiency of use of the required 
capital, labor, land, and water. 

Secondly, it should also be stated that as a result of 
California's water problems being so varied both in 
their nature and occurrence, and of such large mag- 
nitude, there is a strong state-wide interest in their 
solution, an interest long recognized by the Legisla- 
ture. The state-wide interest implicit in implementing 
the Plan includes: effecting a balanced use of water 
resources for all purposes ; obtaining maximum bene- 
fit from the use of storage capacity; resolving con- 
flicts between groups representing particular purposes 
and/or particular areas; protecting the interests of 
future generations of Californians ; accepting respon- 
sibility for those effects of a project which extend be- 
yond the boundaries and/or jurisdiction of the proj- 
ect-sponsoring agency; and, for those projects which 
receive state financial aid, effecting the equitable dis- 
tribution of benefits and costs, and avoiding the con- 
centration of gains at public expense, insofar as pos- 
sible. 

2. Control and Construction. In order to receive 
the greatest value from The California Water Plan, 
basic responsibility for and control thereof should be 
vested in an agency which is state-wide in scope. The 
State of California is the logical, in fact the only, 
agency in a position to assume the leadership in the 
required coordination and control. The State is in- 
terested in the solution of all the water problems in 
all parts of California. The several agencies of the 
Federal Government which by law are engaged in 
water resource development are each interested only 
in certain phases of that development, within the lim- 
itations of federal policy and appropriations. Local 
groups, of course, are primarily concerned with the 
problems which face them locally. However, it is 
acknowledged that financial and other recognized lim- 
itations preclude any single agency from being able 
to carry out the financing, construction, and operation 
of all of the yet-to-be completed features of the Plan. 
Instead, leadership and participation by the State 
Government and continued participation by local wa- 
ter-using organizations and the Federal Government 



224 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



will be needed to implement the Plan if the primary 
objectives thereof are to be substantially obtained. 

3. Determination of Need and Priority of Con- 
struction. This refers to economic evaluation of 
water resources projects. In this regard, recom- 
mended criteria to be used by both the State and 
federal agencies in their evaluation of such projects 
were submitted to the United States Senate in a report 
entitled "Views of the California State Department 
of Water Resources on United States Senate Resolu- 
tion 281, 84th Congress, 2d Session," dated Novem- 
ber, 1956. Comments which follow on this subject are 
substantially contained in the foregoing report. 

Construction of component projects of The Cali- 
fornia Water Plan should take place when a need for 
the products and services thereof is demonstrated. 
Once this is determined, then choice of the particular 
project to be constructed should be established by con- 
sidering alternative sites and methods of providing the 
equivalent products or services. That is, each project 
chosen should accomplish the purpose or purposes in- 
tended more economically than by any other means. 

A proper evaluation of any project requires bal- 
anced consideration of (1) an economic appraisal of 
those benefits and costs which are reasonably meas- 
urable in monetary terms, and (2) adequate consid- 
eration of all values and aspects not measurable in 
monetary terms. Policy determinations of what con- 
stitutes "benefits" and "costs" will have a great 
influence upon estimating both economic justification 
and financial feasibility. The question of "what proj- 
ect should be built" involves one of the most im- 
portant matters of all, that of project selection. 

In order to facilitate the ensuing discussion of some 
aspects of economic evaluation of projects, several of 
the terms used are defined as follows : 

"Project" — any integral physical unit or several 
component and closely related units or features re- 
quired for the control or development of water and/or 
related land resources within a specific area, and 
which can be considered as a separate entity on the 
basis of physical characteristics, functional accom- 
plishments, or economic evaluation. 

"Benefits" — all the net (gross gain less associated 
costs) identifiable gains or values which are meas- 
urable in monetary (tangible) or nonmonetary (in- 
tangible) terms which accrue to a project. Obviously, 
a benefit-cost ratio can include monetary values only. 

"Primary Benefits" — all identifiable net gains or 
values which are realized directly by project bene- 
ficiaries through use of products or facilities of the 
project, but which may or may not be measurable in 
monetary terms. 

"Secondarj Benefits"— all net gains or net values 
which may or may not be measurable in monetary 
terms, which are properly creditable to the project, 



and which are realized over and above those include* 
in primary benefits. 

"Intangible Benefits" — all net gains or value; 
attributable to a project which are not measurable h 
monetary terms, but which are nevertheless entitle* 
to qualitative consideration on the basis of significan 
contributions to the economic strength, social strue, 
ture, and welfare of the State or Nation. 

"Economic Costs" — all of the monetary costs asso, 
ciated with construction, operation, and maintenanc', 
of a project, as well as all other identifiable expenses* 
losses, and liabilities, whether measurable in monetan 
or nonmonetary terms, that are associated therewith 

An economic approach to the development of watej 
resources is essential, for such a study not only will 
substantially show .whether benefits exceed costs, bu 
comparison of such studies made of different project] 
will show the order of their economic desirability. 

Determination of the relative merits of projects! 
and selection from alternative projects, are usualhj 
best accomplished by comparing the benefits with tin' 
costs of each project, A benefit-cost ratio greater thai' 
1 to 1 is generally desirable in selecting a project foj 
further consideration, but it never should be the soh 
determinant. Such a ratio cannot reflect intangibl 
values which may be of substantial significance, no^ 
can it reflect completely the public interest. However 
if projects are proposed which do not show an exces; 
of benefits, expressed in monetary terms, over costs ■ 
the reasons for such should be clearly stated. Main re' 
liance for project selection should be placed on a com] 
parison of primary benefits with primary project 
costs, although secondary benefits and costs, whet 
properly evaluated, may be separately considered. 

Project costs are relatively simple to ascertain, ini 
sofar as the application of principles and concepts an 
concerned. Most of the project costs would usually b' 
incurred over a short period of time and in the near J 
term future. On the other hand, project benefits car 
be of great variety and character, as can the projee' 
detriments which also must be considered ; they cai; 
be both measurable and immeasurable ; and thei! 
usually occur in increasing quantity over time an< 
continue to occur over the useful life of the project; 
Consequently, sound analysis of benefits becomes o! 
the utmost importance, because the findings of sucl! 
an analysis provide the most substantial answer as t ■' 
whether the project should be built either now o 
later, or not built at all. 

Benefits stemming from a project of The Californii 
Water Plan could include some or all of the following 
an increase in net income to the farmer using irriga 
tion water; a reduction in flood damages and improve; 
ment in possible land use; augmentation of municipal 
water supplies so that new factories and shops an<-| 
homes may be built; increase in the availability of hy 
droelectrical energy for peak-load purposes; prever 



IMPLEMENTATION OP THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



225 



ion of encroachment of saline waters into a ground 
water basin ; maintenance of more favorable stream 
Sows than under natural conditions, for enhancement 
pf fish and wildlife values ; increases in water recrea- 
tional opportunities other than those derived from fish 
end wildlife ; creation of more economically stable ir- 
rigated agricultural areas and adjacent urban com- 
munities; enhancement of the navigability of certain 
waterways; improvement in water quality brought 
pbout by project releases of water downstream during 
>therwise low-flow periods ; and the increase in sup- 
plies of food and fiber which tends to reduce price in- 
sreases that would occur otherwise during periods of 
:ull or near-full employment. 

After appraisal has been made of the costs and 
)enefits of a project, the need for cost allocation 
then arises when a project serves two or more pur- 
poses. The object of cost allocation is to provide for 
equitable distribution of the total multipurpose cost 
imong the purposes served. The use of one structure 
to serve several purposes generally involves less total 
:-ost than if separate structures were provided for each 
purpose. An equitable distribution of multipurpose 
project costs should rest on the values created by the 
>roject. Benefits are the measure of these values, but 
they may be limited by the alternative cost of pro- 
ducing them. No one method of cost allocation is suita- 
ble for all conditions. However, on the basis of com- 
parative advantages and disadvantages, the separable 
(ist-remaining benefit method is generally recom- 
mended for use in the cost allocation of large projects ; 
>ut in certain cases other methods of cost allocation 
nay prove of value. Only after project costs have been 
dlocated can repayment policies be selected within 
ihe framework of the laws and policies of the project- 
pponsoring agency. 

'J The project should not be built until financial feasi- 
lility. that is, the sources of required capital funds 
find repayment of the reimbursable costs, is indicated. 
Such a feasibility study should indicate : the costs to 
oe repaid ; the contemplated repayment period ; the 
probability of repayment ; the rates to be charged for 
.vater and power to pay off their allocated share of the 
osts: and the extent to which each project purpose 
would have to be subsidized, if any, and, if so, the 
iource of the subsidizing funds. Reimbursable project 
hsts should be repaid by the beneficiaries of the 
iroject goods and services. 

4. How Projects of the Plan Could Be Financed. 
\a has been stated heretofore, it is contemplated that 
peal water service agencies, the Federal Government, 
md the State would participate in financing and con- 
struction of The California Water Plan. Each of these 
froups lias its own methods of raising capital funds 
md disbursing them. 



Districts and cities customarily finance their proj- 
ects by means of the issuance and sale of general obli- 
gation bonds and revenue bonds. Whereas revenue 
bonds are redeemed from project revenues only, gen- 
eral obligation bonds may be redeemed both from 
project revenues and from taxation of property in the 
district or city. 

In the recent past the Federal Government has been 
assisting in the development of the State's water re- 
sources to the extent of about $70,000,000 a year, 
through appropriation by the Congress for reclama- 
tion and flood control projects. The Federal Govern- 
ment finances, constructs, and in some cases operates, 
its own works. It also appropriates certain nonreim- 
bursable funds for its own water projects and for cer- 
tain of those sponsored by non-federal entities, such 
as for flood control. Loans and grants are also made to 
non-federal public entities through such means as 
Public Law 566, 83rd Congress, the Watershed Pro- 
tection and Flood Prevention Act, the Small Reclama- 
tion Projects Act of 1956, and Public Law 130, 84th 
Congress, which latter law provides for loans for the 
construction of distribution systems on authorized 
federal reclamation projects. 

With respect to state financing and construction of 
some of the contemplated projects of The California 
Water Plan, methods to be used in raising funds and 
repaying them will depend upon policies yet to be 
established by the Legislature. However, a course of 
action should be followed which will expedite the ob- 
jectives of the Plan. There are several possibilities by 
which the State could raise funds to be used in financ- 
ing water development projects. These include provi- 
sion of funds derived from current revenue, including 
oil royalty revenues, from the sale of general obliga- 
tion and/or revenue bonds, and from the use of state 
trust funds backed by state guarantee. 

It is proposed that the State immediately embark 
upon a long-range water resources development pro- 
gram which perforce would require a long-range 
financing program. A Water Development Fund is 
needed to finance and operate state-constructed water 
developments, to aid political subdivisions of the State 
in the construction of such developments, and to assist 
joint-use projects between the State and the Federal 
Government, or between the State and political sub- 
divisions thereof. 

Governor Goodwin J. Knight has recommended the 
creation of a water development fund, and on April 
9, 1957, he further recommended to both houses of 
the Legislature that this fund should include the 
following moneys : 

(1) Uncommitted tidelands oil revenues and income 
from this source through July 1, 1958. These will 
amount to approximately $101,000,000 after deduct- 
ing the $38,000,000 appropriation now (May. 1957) 



226 



THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



pending for continuation of the preparatory work at 
the Oroville Dam and Reservoir site. 

(2) Future revenues from tidelands oil revenues 
in excess of $10,000,000 per year. 

(3) The $75,000,000 now in the Revenue Deficiency 
Reserve Fund ("rainy day" fund), in the State 
Treasury. 

(4) Moneys from the General Fund in amounts 
to be determined by the Legislature. 

(5) Such moneys in other funds as may be deter- 
mined by the Legislature to be available for this 
purpose. 

(6) Net revenues derived from water projects op- 
erated by the State. In this regard, project revenues 
would be used first to pay for operation, maintenance, 
replacement costs and secondly for debt service 
charges before being transferred to the Water Devel- 
opment Fund. 

(7) Proceeds from any bond issues that may be 
voted and sold in the future for construction of the 
Feather River Project and of other elements of The 
California Water Plan as they are authorized, and 
for financial participation in projects of the Federal 
Government and local agencies. 

(8) Interest derived from the investment of moneys 
held in the Water Development Fund. 

It is believed the most desirable method of obtain- 
in- the moneys for the Water Development Fund 
would be from current funds and revenue and by sale 
of bonds as and when needed to make up the balance 
of the total capital required. It would result in a com- 
bination of pay-as-you-go and pay-as-you-use. The 
use of current funds and revenues provides equity 
capital and reduces the over-all project costs to the 
State through large savings in interest payments that 
would otherwise have to be paid by the State. By 
holding down the total amount of bonds that must be 
sold by the State, it also mitigates any possible ad- 
verse effect on the current state program of selling 
genera] obligation bonds for school building and vet- 
erans ' loan purposes. 

Related to the State's proposed financing and con- 
struction activity are a number of most important 
policy matters, most of which are not as yet defined 
by statute. These include the question of whether 
certain of the project capital costs should be non- 
reimbursable or reimbursable. Should the State de- 
clare as public policy that project costs allocated to 
flood control, recreation, fish and wildlife, and water 
quality protection be nonreimbursable, due partly to 
the state-wide and also the federal interest inherent 
in SUCb matters, and due partly to the difficulty in 
collecting the costs thereof from the beneficiaries:' 
In this regard, it is believed that the State should 
consider the following as nonreimbursable : costs of 
Hood control features of a project in those instances 
in which federal Hood control contributions are mm 



available ; costs of lands, easements, rights of way, i 
and utility relocations required for flood control 
projects, as have been assumed in the past pursuant 
to Part 6 of Division 6 of the Water Code ; costs of 
lands, easements, rights of way, and utility relocations 
required for major projects having a high degree of j 
state-wide interest ; costs associated with the protee- ■ 
tion and enhancement of fish and wildlife ; and at 
least a large proportion of the recreational costs asso- t 
ciated directly with water development projects, pro- 
vided there is a large state-wide interest, and further 
provided that the operation and maintenance costs: 
thereof be not assumed by the foregoing Water De- 
velopment Fund. 

It is also believed that the reimbursable costs alio-* 
cated to irrigation and municipal and industrial uses; 
of water, as well as for hydroelectric power genera- j 
tion, should be repaid by the users thereof with, 
interest. 

Another policy matter is that of pricing or rate fix-, 
ing with respect to the sale of power and marketing 
of water. It is considered that rates for sale of hydro- 1 
electric power should properly be based upon the cost 
of competitive thermal power for the same type of J 
service, including taxes, as if it were under a privately, 
owned utility. Full advantage should be taken of the 
increased values of hydroelectric energy as peaking: 
power in establishing rates. First priority for vendible- 
power, that is, power not required for project pur-i 
poses, and in accordance with Part 3 of Division 6 of 
the Water Code, should be given to public agencies atj 
established rates. Rates for irrigation and other vendi-i 
ble uses of water should be sufficient to cover all ap- 
propriate capital and annual operating, maintenance, 
and replacement costs required to make the water, 
available ; provided, that irrigation water rates should 
not be in excess of the water user's ability to pay 
after allowance for a reasonable margin of profit; 
and further provided, that net surplus revenues de-^ 
rived from the sale of power and other sources should 
be applied toward repayment of the capital costs: 
associated with water deliveries for beneficial use,: 



with preference being given to irrigation use. 



All of the foregoing, as well as other policy matters,! 
require much more thorough study than has been 
possible in the preparation of this bulletin. They are 
discussed briefly herein to outline the problems and 
to indicate the trend of current thinking bv the De- 
partment of Water Resources. 

There is within the State property estimated to have 
current market value of about $100,000,000,000 
From the income-generating portion of this value, the 
people who work with it produce an annual currenl 
disposable income of about $30,000,000,000. Undei 
conditions of the State's population increasing ulti 
mately to about 40,000,000 and the irrigated 
expected to increase to about 20,000,000 acres, 
market value of property in the State is expecta 



IMPLEMENTATION OF THE CALIFORNIA WATER FLAX 



•I'll 



.mount to at least $300,000,000,000 and the annual 
lisposable income to increase to at least $90,000,000,- 

j)00, assuming current purchasing power values. For 
his as well as for other reasons, it is believed that 

lidding a $12,000,000,000 system of major water works 
ver a period of many decades by state, federal, and 
oeal agencies would not require appreciable financial 
acrifices on the part of the people of California, 
ndeed, the incurring of such costs could be regarded 

Its income-generating or opportunity investment. 

Zooperation 

• It has been estimated that the over-all value in 
erms of present costs of all of California's water 
resource development works up to the present time 
fe in the order of $6,000,000,000. These works have 
)een achieved by individuals, private enterprise, pub- 
ic utilities, public districts, cities, and counties, with 
etive participation by the State. Much has also been 
lone by the several agencies of the Federal Govern- 
ment, including the Departments of Agriculture. 
Vrmy. and Interior, under administrative control by 
lie State through the mechanism of water rights. All 
f these enterprises required and received a high de- 
ree of cooperation among the participating groups 
o bring them into being and to keep them in opera- 
ion. This cooperation usually began at grass roots 
evel among the people affected, and in one way or 
not her extended through all the participating agen- 
ies. Development began with simple, near-by, single- 
mrpose water projects. As these opportunities pro- 
ressively became scarcer, development inevitably 
toved into the larger, more difficult, and more ex- 
pensive works, involving greater numbers of people 
nd agencies. This in turn called for the addition of 

jpore purposes and water uses. Thus, the multipurpose 
projects of great size and relative economy, compared 
p a series of single-purpose works, have evolved. The 

|[eed for cooperation between the large number of 
froups and agencies involved in the multipurpose 
ii-ojed of today is neadily apparent. 

) Cooperation between the Federal Government and 
Ibcal agencies has been manifested in the construc- 
'fion of flood control projects, and of multipurpose 
llrojects incorporating flood control features. Coop- 
ration between local, State, and Federal Govern- 
tents is exemplified in the Sacramento River Flood 
Control Project, in which all have participated in 
aancing the construction, and in operation and 
maintenance of project facilities. The State has made 
ubstantial contributions to certain local districts in 
outhern California for the repair of damaged flood 
ontrol works, and, under provisions of the State 
Vatcr Resources Act of 1945, has participated in 
he costs of lands, easements, and rights of way re- 
oired of local agencies in connection with authorized 
ederal flood control projects throughout the State. 



There has also been cooperation between the Fed- 
eral, State, an